World History 1955-1956
Germany becomes Member of NATO, Vienna Treaty Restores Austrian Independence, Geneva Summit, First McDonalds restuarant opens, Military Cooup Ousts Peron, Mirage Unveiled, U-2 is Tested, Soviet troops march into Hungary, Tunisia and Morocco Become Independent, Sudan Becomes Independent, Suez War, US Condemns Britain, Fance, and Israel, Tupelov TU- 104, First Trans- Atlantic Telephone Cable, Suez Canal, Caravelle
|1955 Germany becomes Member of NATO In October 1955, a NATO meeting voted to terminate the occupation of West Germany. The vote also called for the continued presence of NATO troops in West Germany. At the meeting, it was further decided to admit West Germany to the alliance as a member.|
|1955 Vienna Treaty Restores Austrian Independence At the end of World War II, Austria was occupied by the four powers. In 1946, the four powers officially recognized Austria within its 1937 frontiers. The Austrians were granted a large degree of autonomy. On May 15, 1955, a four-power Foreign Ministers' conference in Vienna agreed on a peace treaty with Austria. It called for withdrawal of all foreign troops from Austrian soil. The agreement was designed to insure Austrian neutrality.|
|1955 Geneva Summit The fact that a summit meeting was finally taking place after 10 years– the last one had been at Potsdam– seemed to indicate a significant relaxation of East-West tensions. However, very little of real substance occurred at the conference. The major surprise was Eisenhower's proposal for "open skies," which entailed allowing each side to send intelligence-gathering aircraft over the other's territories, virtually unhindered. The summit ended without any major agreements.|
|1955 First McDonalds restuarant opens In Des Plains, Illinois, the first McDonald's restaurant was opened. Ray Kroc owned the restaurant.|
|1955 Military Cooup Ousts Peron President Juan Peron of Argentina was ousted by the military. Since the death of his wife, Eva, Peron had lost much of his support. Economic problems, as well as Peron's excommunication by the Catholic church, further harmed his position.|
|1955 Mirage Unveiled Marcel Dassault unveiled its swept wing fighter, the "Mirage." The "Mirage" can fly at speeds in excess of Mach 2 and can climb to 57,000 feet. The "Mirage" is possibly best known for its success as an air superiority fighter during the Arab-Israeli War of 1967.|
|1955 U-2 is Tested Lockheed presented the C.I.A. with a proposal for a high altitude spy craft. The C.I.A. accepted the proposal and, in eight months, Lockheed produced the "U-2." In its first flight, the lightly-loaded U-2 refused to land. Test pilot Tony LeVier made five attempts before succeeding. A U-2 was downed over the Soviet Union in 1960, and its pilot, Francis Gary Powers, was captured. The plane was key in discovering Russian missiles in Cuba. A new version of the U-2, known as the "TR-1," is still being flown by the US Airforce.|
|1956 Soviet troops march into Hungary Rioting against the Russians erupted throughout Hungary. Imry Nagy became Premier and demanded the withdrawal of Soviet troops. The Soviets initially complied, but changed course and returned to Budapest to put down the revolt. Thirty thousand revolutionaries were killed. Two years later, Imry Nagy was executed for his part in the uprising.|
|1956 Tunisia and Morocco Become Independent Large-scale opposition to French rule forced the French to grant independence to Morocco, where M'barek Bekkai became Premier, and Tunisia, where Habib Bourguiba became Prime Minister.|
|1956 Sudan Becomes Independent Sudan had been under joint Egyptian-British rule. A referendum was held to determine whether Sudan would become part of Egypt or be totally independent. The Sudanese voted for independence and, on January 1, independence was declared.|
|1956Suez War Following the Israeli War of Independence, the British, Americans and French, by mutual agreement, did not supply either the Israelis or the Arabs with significant quantities of armaments. In October 1955, Egypt signed an arms deal with Czechoslovakia, which provided Egypt with very significant quantities of weaponry. The arms deal, combined with continued fedayeen (armed terrorist) raids in southern Israel, convinced Israeli leaders that steps would have to be taken to alleviate the situation and that this would have to be done before Egyptian forces were able to achieve strategic predominance in the area.|
On July 26, 1956, Egyptian President Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal. This gave the British and French -- who had already been selling Israel advanced weapons -- a significant motive for cooperating with an Israeli attack on Nasser.
On October 29, 1956, the Israeli Defense Forces attacked Egyptian forces in the Sinai. Israel rapidly defeated the Egyptians, with a loss of just 180 men. The Egyptians suffered over 1,000 fatalities, and more than 6,000 Egyptians were captured as prisoners of war. The Israeli forces halted 10 miles short of the canal, allowing the British and French troops to intervene to protect the canal. The British and French forces then attacked and occupied the canal zone.
|1956 US Condemns Britain, Fance, and Israel The United States condemned Great Britain, France and Israel for their collective attack on Egypt. Israel, responding to terrorist attacks, seized the Sinai, while Britain and France colluded to seize the Suez Canal, which had earlier been seized by the Egyptians. All sides were forced to withdraw due to US pressure.|
|1956 Tupelov TU- 104 Introduced When the "Tupelov-104" began flying, it was the first Soviet passenger jet. It was, in fact, a modified Soviet Badger Bomber.|
|1956 First Trans- Atlantic Telephone Cable The first transatlantic telephone cable between Newfoundland and Scotland was completed in 1956. The cable ran 2,250 miles.|
|1956 Caravelle Aerospatiale introduced the twin jet Caravelle. This plane was the first jet created for the short-haul market. The first Caravelle entered service for Air France on May 9, 1959. The Caravelle was designed to carry 60 - 99 passengers, depending on the configuration.|
Women’s History Milestones: A Timeline
Women’s history is full of trailblazers in the fight for equality in the United States. From Abigail Adams imploring her husband to “remember the ladies” when envisioning a government for the American colonies, to suffragists like Susan B. Anthonyਊnd Elizabeth Cady Stanton fighting for women&aposs right to vote, to the rise of feminism and Hillary Clinton becoming the first female nominee for president by a major political party, American women have long fought for equal footing throughout the nation’s history.
And while some glass ceilings have been shattered (see: Title IX), others remain. But progress continues to be made. As Clinton said while accepting her nomination, “When there are no ceilings, the sky&aposs the limit.”
Below is a timeline of notable events in U.S. women’s history.
Elvis Presley Timeline: 1956
Here's a handy database of dates and events in Elvis Presley's life during 1956. You can also find out what else Elvis was up to in 1956 and in all the years of his life.
January 28: Elvis makes his first national television appearance, performing on CBS' Stage Show, produced by Jackie Gleason and hosted by the swing bandleaders the Dorsey Brothers, Tommy and Jimmy. He performs "I Got A Woman" and a medley: "Shake, Rattle and Roll / Flip, Flop and Fly." He would make five more appearances on the show in the course of the year.
February 5: Elvis scores his first national Number One hit, not with an RCA release but his last Sun single, "Mystery Train" b/w "I Forgot to Remember to Forget," which reaches the top spot on Billboard's country singles chart.
February 17: Elvis is awarded his first gold album (for the LP Elvis).
February 23: After a performance in Jacksonville, FL, Elvis collapses from exhaustion and is rushed to a nearby hospital.
March 15: Elvis renegotiates his contract with Colonel Tom Parker, which now gives Parker one-quarter of the singer's earnings.
March 24: Presley visits friend and fellow Sun labelmate Carl Perkins in a Dover, DE hospital, where he is recovering from a near-fatal car crash.
April 1: Elvis goes to Paramount Studios for a screen test, lip-synching "Blue Suede Shoes" and performing a scene as Bill Starbuck in The Rainmaker, still in production. Presley will eventually be passed over for this film, and his role taken over by Burt Lancaster. Apparently impressed, Paramount and director Hal Wallis sign Elvis to a seven-year contract five days later.
April 3: Presley appears on NBC's Milton Berle Show in a remote from the deck of the USS Hancock aircraft carrier.
April 23: The singer begins a disastrous concert stint at the Frontier Hotel in Las Vegas at the insistence of Colonel Tom Parker. The audience, miles removed from Elvis teen fanbase, are completely indifferent to him, and his contract is soon torn up. However, while there, Presley witnesses a band called Freddie Bell and the Bellboys doing a wild rave-up version of Big Mama Thorton's blues hit "Hound Dog." He soon works it into the live act.
May 21: 2,500 fans storm the stage at the Municipal Auditorium in Topeka, KS during Elvis' show there.
June 5: The Berle show once again presents Elvis, this time in the NBC studios. Presley debuts his borrowed arrangement of "Hound Dog" as well as his latest single, "I Want You, I Need You, I Love You." However, the public and press are so outraged by his gyrations during "Hound Dog" that the show never has him back.
June 26: Elvis complains about the "Hound Dog" furor publicly during his concert in Charlotte, NC, saying that dancer and fellow guest Debra Paget was more obscene with her routine than he had been.
July 1: NBC's Steve Allen Show capitalizes on the outrage by presenting a new, "clean" Elvis, singing "Hound Dog" to an actual basset hound perched on a stool and wearing a bow tie. Backstage, Elvis explodes in fury at the Colonel for agreeing to the stunt.
August 10: Juvenile Court Judge Marion Gooding attends Elvis' first show at the Florida Theater in Jacksonville, FL, and afterwards, orders Presley to tone his movements down. The next night, the singer responds by moving only one pinky finger.
August 22: Elvis begins shooting his first movie, Love Me Tender, a Civil War drama that has been renamed from The Reno Brothers in order to capitalize on his new single. Elvis is billed third, but his role, originally offered to Robert Wagner and Jeffrey Hunter, is beefed up to match his new popularity.
September 9: Elvis makes the first of three contracted appearances on Ed Sullivan's CBS show. (Sullivan had previously announced he would never have such an act on, but ratings prevailed and Sullivan offered Elvis $50,000 for the three shows, more than any other act had ever been offered.) Charles Laughton hosts, filling in for an ailing Sullivan. Elvis performs "Don't Be Cruel," "Love Me Tender," "Ready Teddy," and "Hound Dog" -- but is shot from the waist up only.
September 29: Elvis returns to the Mississippi-Alabama Fair and Dairy Show, the same venue at which he won second prize for singing back when he was ten years old. The mayor declares today Elvis Presley Day. Hundreds of National Guardsmen are called in to control the crowd.
October 28: Presley makes his second appearance on the Sullivan show, this time with Ed as host. Elvis sings "Don’t Be Cruel," "Love Me Tender," "Hound Dog," and "Love Me."
November 16: Love Me Tender opens to solid reviews and massive box office.
November 25: Elvis visits his grandfather Jesse D. Presley at his job -- the Pepsi bottling plant in Louisville, KY. Elvis buys Jesse a white '57 Ford Fairlane.
December 4: Elvis drops into the Sun Studios in Memphis to visit Carl Perkins, then recording with a still-unknown Jerry Lee Lewis on piano. At some point during the afternoon, Johnny Cash, also on Sun, drops in, and the four begin an informal jam session that would later be known as the "Million Dollar Quartet" sessions (though there is some debate on how many, if any, tracks Cash himself is on). Largely covers of gospel, bluegrass, and a little R&B, the tapes finally see the light of day in the early Eighties.
December 31: This day's edition of The Wall Street Journal reports Elvis' gross 1956 income at around $22 million.
Born This Year in 1955
November 13th, Chelsea, New York, NY
February 24th, San Francisco, CA
January 6th, Consett, United Kingdom
March 19th, Idar-Oberstein, Germany
November 5th, San Diego, CA
Calendar For The Year 1955
First pocket transistor radios available
Fish Fingers are marketed by Bird's Eye
The first Atomically generated power is used in the US
Inventions Invented by Inventors and Country ( or attributed to First Use )
Atomic Clock England
Hovercraft England by Christopher Cockerell
Lego Gotfried Kirk Christiansen
Velcro Switzerland by George De Mestral
U.S. Emmett Till
Emmett Till, a black fourteen year old teenager is murdered for not showing respect to a white woman in Money, Miss.
Argentina Juan Peron
The Military seizes control in Argentina forcing Juan Peron to flee
UK Ruth Ellis
Ruth Ellis the last woman in England to be executed is hung at Holloway Prison
France 24hr Le Mans
77 Die in a disaster at 24hr Le Mans Race
The New Synthetic Material Polyurethane used in more and more everyday goods
UK winter storms
Great Britain effected by worst winter storms causing roads, rail and problems with food and medical supplies
Disneyland opens in California on July 17th
U.S. Flight 629
United Airlines Flight 629 is blown up shortly after takeoff over Longmont, Colorado
UK Princess Margaret
Princess Margaret announces she will not marry divorced Group Captain Peter Townsend.
Canada St. Lawrence Seaway
The St. Lawrence Seaway opens to Ocean Vessels from Montreal to US ports on the Great Lakes
UK Fleet Street
British Newspapers Not Printed for 1 month due to strike in Fleet Street By Maintenance Workers
UK Clement Attlee
Clement Attlee who oversaw the creation of the British Welfare System resigns as leader of the Labour Party
Middle East cooperative pact
Middle Eastern nations and the United Kingdom form a cooperative pact similar to NATO.
Iran military intervention
US military intervention in Iran
U.S. Hurricane Diane
Hurricane Diane hits the northeast United States, killing 200 and causing over $1 billion in damage
UK State of Emergency
Great Britain declares State of Emergency due to National Rail Strike
UK Commercial TV Station
The first Commercial TV Station with advertisements starts in London, England
2009 December - Leaders of North and South reach deal on terms of referendum on independence due in South by 2011.
2011 January - The people of South Sudan vote in favour of full independence from Sudan.
2011 February - Clashes between the security forces and rebels in southern Sudan's Jonglei state leave more than 100 dead.
2011 May - North occupies disputed border region of Abyei.
2011 June - Governments of north and south sign accord to demilitarize the disputed Abyei region and let in an Ethiopian peacekeeping force.
Timeline of Events: 1938-1950
With the help of Leo Szilard, Albert Einstein writes President Franklin D. Roosevelt, alerting the President to the importance of research on nuclear chain reactions and the possibility that research might lead to developing powerful bombs.
The German radiochemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann discover the process of fission in uranium.
August 2, 1939
Albert Einstein writes President Franklin D. Roosevelt, alerting the President to the importance of research on nuclear chain reactions and the possibility that research might lead to developing powerful bombs. Einstein notes that Germany has stopped the sale of uranium and German physicists are engaged in uranium research.
September 1, 1939
Germany invades Poland. World War II begins.
February 24, 1941
Glenn T. Seaborg’s research group at the University of California in Berkeley discovers plutonium.
May 28, 1941
Roosevelt establishes the Office of Petroleum Coordinator for National Defense, later the Petroleum Administration for War, to issue rules governing the production, transportation, and distribution of petroleum and petroleum products.
December 7, 1941
The Japanese attack Pearl Harbor. The United States enters the war.
January 19, 1942
President Roosevelt approves production of the atomic bomb following receipt of a National Academy of Sciences report determining that a bomb is feasible.
June 17, 1942
President Roosevelt instructs the Army to take responsibility for construction of atomic weapons complex. The Army delegates the task to the Corps of Engineers.
August 13, 1942
The Army Corps of Engineers establishes the Manhattan Engineer District to develop and build the atomic bomb. Uranium isotope separation facilities are built at Oak Ridge, Tennessee plutonium production reactors are built at Hanford, Washington and a weapons laboratory is set up at Los Alamos, New Mexico.
September 19, 1942
Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves, head of the Manhattan Engineer District, selects Oak Ridge, Tennessee, site for facilities to produce nuclear materials. Isotope separation of uranium235 takes place in the gaseous diffusion plant built in the K-25 area of the site, in the electromagnetic plant in the Y-12 area, and in the liquid thermal diffusion plant. A pilot pile (reactor) and plutonium separation facility are built and operated at the X-10 area.
November 25, 1942
Groves selects Los Alamos, New Mexico, as site for separate scientific laboratory to design an atomic bomb.
December 2, 1942
Metallurgical Laboratory scientists led by Enrico Fermi achieve the first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction in pile constructed under the west grandstand at Stagg field in Chicago.
January 16, 1943
Groves selects Hanford, Washington, as site for full-scale plutonium production and separation facilities. Three reactors--B, D, and F--are built.
The Big Inch crude-oil pipeline is completed from the Texas oil fields to Pennsylvania. The line serves as a transportation alternative to tankers that are being sunk by German submarines. The line also supplies export petroleum to the East Coast so that the reduced number of tankers can meet the demands of the European war fronts with the shorter-haul distance across the Atlantic.
The Little Big Inch pipeline for refined petroleum products is completed from Texas to New Jersey. Like the Big Inch, it is built by a private company, War Emergency Pipelines, but owned by the Federal government.
April 5, 1944
Congress passes the Synthetic Liquid Fuels Act authorizing the Bureau of Mines to build energy research laboratories.
December 22, 1944
Congress in the Flood Control Act of 1944 confirms the authorization of the Southwestern Power Administration created by President Roosevelt through a series of Executive and Departmental orders.
April 12, 1945
President Roosevelt dies. Harry S. Truman becomes President.
May 7, 1945
July 16, 1945
Los Alamos scientists successfully test a plutonium implosion bomb in the Trinity shot at Alamogordo, New Mexico.
August 6, 1945
The gun model uranium bomb, called Little Boy, is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan.
August 9, 1945
The implosion model plutonium bomb, called Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. Five days later, Japan surrenders.
June 14, 1946
Bernard Baruch presents the American plan for international control of atomic research to the United Nations. The Soviet Union opposes the plan, rendering it useless.
August 1, 1946
President Truman signs the Atomic Energy Act of 1946 transferring Manhattan Project assets and responsibilities to the civilian Atomic Energy Commission.
January 1, 1947
In accordance with the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, all atomic energy activities are transferred to the newly created Atomic Energy Commission.
August 14, 1947
Ground is broken at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Graphite Research Reactor, the first reactor constructed for the sole purpose of exploring peaceful uses of the atom.
Two new production reactors are authorized for the Hanford site. As the Cold War intensifies, the Atomic Energy Commission over the next five years greatly expands the weapons complex. New facilities include three additions to the Oak Ridge gaseous diffusion complex new gaseous diffusion plants at Paducah, Kentucky, and Portsmouth, Ohio three additional plutonium production reactors at Hanford five heavy-water reactors for producing tritium and plutonium at a site on the Savannah River in South Carolina a reactor testing station near Idaho Falls, Idaho a feed materials production center at Fernald, Ohio component and assembly plants at Rocky Flats, Colorado, and Amarillo, Texas a second weapons laboratory at Livermore, California and a continental testing site near Las Vegas, Nevada.
June 23, 1948
Soviet Union begins blockade of West Berlin.
August 29, 1949
Soviet Union detonates first atomic device.
January 31, 1950
President Truman instructs the Atomic Energy Commission to expedite development of a thermonuclear weapon.
June 25, 1950
North Korea invades South Korea. The Korean War begins.
October 9, 1950
President Truman approves a $1.4 billion expansion of Atomic Energy Commission facilities to produce uranium and plutonium for nuclear weapons.
Kansas History Timeline
Around 12000BCE the first humans inhabit the area now known as Kansas. On and about 1000BCE the native peoples of Kansas depend upon bison hunting and the cultivation of corn, squash, and beans. As the population grows, they construct villages and trade with tribes from other regions, particularly the Pueblo in the Southwest. By the time Europeans arrive, the tribes living in the area include the Pawnee, Kansa, Wichita, and Apache.
Kansas, situated on the American Great Plains, became the 34th state on January 29, 1861. Its path to statehood was long and bloody: After the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 opened the two territories to settlement and allowed the new settlers to determine whether the states would be admitted to the union as "free" or "slave," North and South competed to send the most settlers into the region.
16th Century Kansas History Timeline
1541 - The Spanish explorer, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado, marched north from Mexico in search of the Seven Golden Cities of Cibola.
1542 - Father Juan de Padilla, a priest who had accompanied Coronado, returned to Kansas. He hoped to bring Christianity to the Indians. He was killed, however, by those he tried to help. Father Padilla is said to have been the first Christian martyr in America.
17th Century Kansas History Timeline
1600's - Kansa and Osage Indians arrive in Kansas.
1650 - Taos Indians irrigate lands along Beaver creek in Scott County.
18th Century Kansas History Timeline
1724 - French trader/explorer Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont, led an expedition into what are now Atchison and Doniphan counties to establish trade relations with the Indians of the Platte River region.
1739 - Pierre and Paul Mallet lead a party of French traders through Kansas.
1744 - French build Fort Cavagnial near present site of Fort Leavenworth closed 1764
1762 - France lost the territory of Kansas to Spain.
1790's - Fur-trading Chouteau family begins trading with Kansa Indians
19th Century Kansas History Timeline
1803 - The United States concluded a "deal" when it signed an agreement to purchase the entire Lousiana Territory from France on Apr 30, 1803. This transaction ended the trading era for Kansas and brought forth the exploration of a new American settlement.
1804-1806 Lewis and Clark Expedition.
- June/July - Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, while exploring the Louisiana Purchase by order of President Thomas Jefferson, made camp at several points in the Leavenworth area on the Kansas side of the Missouri River.
- July 4 - At the present location of Atchison, the Lewis and Clark group celebrated what was probably the first Independence Day in Kansas by firing a swivel gun. Later they named Independence Creek and closed the day with another cannon blast.
- September 26/29 - When the "Stars and Stripes" (American flag) were first raised in Kansas by a Pawnee Indian Chief.
- Lt. Zebulon Pike of the US Army crossed the KS area on an exploring expedition during which he met with the Indians and signed treaties with them as the representative of the new "White Father." He continued westward on this journey to discover the mountain that is now called Pike's Peak.
1811 - George C. Sibley, government trader, works among Osage Indians
- Stephen H. Long's party explores portions of Kansas.
- The Western Engineer was the first steamer to enter the Kansas river.
1821 - William Becknell, a Missouri trader, was the first to follow the route that later became known as the Santa Fe Trail.
1822 - William Becknell used wagons instead of pack mules or horses to take trade goods over the Santa Fe Trail. Because Becknell found a good mode of transportation and a passable wagon route, he is credited as the Father of the Santa Fe Trail.
- June - The necessary treaties were negotiated between the federal government and the Kansa and Osage tribes for a cession of Kansa-Osage land onto which eastern Indians could be moved.
- Right-of-way for trail to Santa Fe granted by treaty with Osage Indians at Council Grove
1827 - May 8 - Fort Leavenworth, first known as Cantonment Leavenworth, was established by Col. Henry Leavenworth on the Missouri River's right bank of Salt Creek as an army post to protect the western frontier and travelers on the Santa Fe Trail.
- Sublette's pack-train, en route West by way of Independence, Missouri for the first time traveled out the Santa Fe Trail some distance before turning northwest toward the Kansas river. This became the established Oregon-California trail route.
- The largest and historically most important of all the Kansas missions was the Shawnee Methodist, opened as a school by the Reverend Thomas Johnson and his wife in 1829, on the site of present-day Turner (part of Greater Kansas City).
- May - The Indian Removal Bill of 1830 uprooted the Kickapoo, Shawnee, Delaware, Pottawatomie, Wyandot, Ottawa, Chippewa, Iowa, Miami and Sac and Fox tribes. An "Act to provide for an exchange of lands with the Indians residing within any of the states or territories, and for their removal west of the river Mississippi" was passed by Congress and signed by President Andrew Jackson.
- William L. Sublette took the first wagons along the route (Oregon Trail) to the Rocky Mountains.
1831 - Isaac McCoy was instrumental in founding the Shawnee Baptist Mission opened by Johnston Lykins in July. It was located a few miles south and west of the Kansas River mouth in that is now Johnson County.
1833 - Jotham Meeker came to the Shawnee Baptist Mission, bringing with him the first printing press to be set up on Kansas soil.
1834 - Bent's Fort (Fort William), a fur trade post on the upper Arkansas, was established. A Bent, St. Vrain and Company party (with wagons) eastbound from Santa Fe, NM in the late summer traveled by way of Taos and Raton Pass to Fort William then they came down the Arkansas to the Santa Fe Trail thus, opening the Bent's Fort branch of the Santa Fe Trail.
1835 - The Kansa, or Kaw were a small tribe only 1,606 of them would be counted when a census was made in 1835.
1839 - The Shawnee Methodist Mission was relocated in 1839 on a 2,240-acre grant some two miles southwest of Westport, Missouri (also now smothered by Kansas City), in what became Kansas's Johnson County. Here was established a large diversified farming enterprise, including a twelve-acre apple orchard, the first on Kansas soil.
1841 - First emigrant wagon train for the Pacific. The Bidwell-Bartleson party's journey west was from Independence, Missouri, via "Sublette's Trace" (or, the now developing Oregon-California trail).
- Fort Scott, named in honor of General Winfield Scott, was established May 30, 1842 at Marmaton crossing of the Fort Leavenworth-Fort Gibson military road.
- John C. Fremont, the "Path Finder," travels through northeastern Kansas
1843 - First settlement at present site of Kansas City, Kansas
1844 - The first free school was established by the Wyandot Indians.
- Crossing points above St. Joseph, Missouri, such as Iowa Point (Doniphan County - first settled in 1854) and Elizabethtown, used by Pacific-bound emigrants this year, and subsequently.
- Spring - The Kansa (Kaw) Indians signed a treaty with the government, ceding their reservation land along the Kansas River near Topeka of 2 million acres in exchange for a new but smaller reservation located along the upper valley of the Neosho River, in what is now Morris County.
1847 - A reservation 20 miles square was established in April of 1847 in what is now Morris County near Council Grove. The Kaw Indians were relocated from their reservation near Topeka and moved on to the land embraced within the limits of the reservation. They remained on the Kaw reservation until 1873.
1849-1850 - The Kaw Mission at Council Grove was built by the Methodist Episcopal Church South with government funding to serve as a school to educate the Kaw Indians after they were relocated from their reservation near Topeka in 1847. Thomas S. Huffaker contracted to teach the school. He acted in the capacity of the teacher until 1854 when the school was closed. The Kaw Mission later became a first school for the settlers' children.
1850 - Fort Atkinson was established by Lieutenant Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner, 1st U. S. Dragoons on 8 Aug 1850. It was located about two miles west of the present Dodge City, on the left side of the Arkansas River near the site of old Fort Mann. Intended to control the Indians and protect the Santa Fe Trail. This small army post was made entirely of sod buildings.
1852 - Flour milling got its start in Kansas by Mattitins Splitlog in Kansas City.
- Fort Riley was established in Kansas Territory by Captain Charles S. Lovell, 6th US Infantry, on a site recommended by Colonel Thomas T. Flauntleroy, 1st U. S. Dragoons on May 17, 1853 .
- In the summer of 1853, George W. Manypenny, US commissioner of Indian affairs, under a directive from Congress, came into the valleys of the Kaw and Neosho to negotiate treaties with Indians to resede to the US Government all but a fraction of the land that, a quarter-century before, had been assigned them "forever." Manypenny was reluctant to do so.
- Fort Atkinson was abandoned due to the poor condition of the sod buildings.
- Col. Cyrus K. Holliday came to "Topeka, Kansas Territory." Holliday was a founder of Topeka and promoter of the Santa Fe Railroad.
- May 30 - Kansas-Nebraska Act passes US Congress--territories of Kansas and of Nebraska established.
- The Kansas-Nebraska Act was responsible for causing the label "Bleeding Kansas." The incorporation of popular sovereignty made the territory's residents (not the Federal government) responsible for the question of slavery in their own backyard. The proximity of Kansas to slave-owning Missouri and the lack of any natural border between the two regions prompted an influx of Pro-slavery individuals into the new territory when it opened up for settlement.
- Andrew H. Reeder was appointed the first territorial governor of Kansas by President Franklin Pierce.
- November 29 - Andrew H. Reeder was the first territorial governor of Kansas who called an election to choose a delegate to congress.
- The New England Emigrant Aid Society in Boston, MA was a company interested in peopling the frontier with anti slavery (abolitionist) settlers. 1854 - This company helped to found Lawrence, Kansas (town named after Amos A. Lawrence, promoter of the Emigrant Aid Society), which then became the center of Free-State activities.
- Topeka was founded by five antislavery activists
- Swiss immigrants first arrived and settled in Pottawatomie (Onaga) and Nemaha (Bern, Neuchatel) and Allen (Geneva) Counties.
- The Valley Falls Mill was built by Isaac Cody (father of Bill Cody).
- A free-state constitution was framed in Topeka. It did not receive serious consideration in Congress.
- July - The first territorial Capitol of Kansas was built of native stone at Pawnee on the Fort Riley reservation.
- Cholera raged at Fort Riley.
- August - John Brown and 40 defenders were attacked by an army of 400/600 pro slavery Missourians. In this raid on Osawatomie, the settlement (all but four homes) was burned by the invaders and John Brown's son Frederick was killed. Four wagon loads of dead and wounded were brought into Booneville, Missouri when the invading army returned.
- A pro slavery constitution, if Kansas is admitted as a slave state, was drafted at Lecompton. The constitution was adopted in an election in which free state men refused to vote and later was rejected at a second election in which the pro slavery men took no part.
- A third constitutional convention convened at Leavenworth, and the constitution drafted there was adopted by the people in 1858, but this too failed final acceptance.
- A group of German Immigrants settled in Allen County and founded Humboldt and Iola, and settled in Wabaunsee County and founded Alma. Germans were located in all counties and had large settlements in Kansas City, Leavenworth (Leavenworth County), Seneca (Nemaha County) and Topeka (Shawnee County).
- The Hays House, said to be the oldest continuously operating restaurant west of the Mississippi River, was founded by Seth M. Hays at Council Grove.
- The Last Chance Store, built in 1857 at Council Grove, was the last chance for those headed to Santa Fe to stock up on supplies.
- May 19 - The Marais Des Cygnes River at Pleasanton in Linn County is the site of a famous confrontation between pro slavery ("Border Ruffians") and abolition (free-state) forces. The five victims of the massacre were immortalized as martyrs in the cause for freedom. This massacre was the last significant display of mob rule in Kansas.
- May - The Republican party was formally organized at Osawatomie.
- Jul - The fourth and last constitutional convention assembled at Wyandotte, now part of Kansas City. This time free state advocates were solidly in control, and the document they drafted barred slavery and fixed the present boundaries of the state. It was accepted by a vote of the people in October, and in December a provisional state government was elected.
- October 22 - "Camp on Pawnee Fork" and Camp Alert, as Fort Larned was first known, was established as a military post to protect travelers and commerce and mail on the Santa Fe Trail from Indians. It also provided a more centralized point for the distribution of annuities, as provided by treaty, to the Indians.
- During his visit to Kansas, President Abraham Lincoln spoke at the famous Planters Hotel.
- November 30 - President Abraham Lincoln said, "No other territory has ever had such a history" in his first speech in Elwood.
- December - President Lincoln visits Kansas.
1859-1860 - During the winter W. H. Russell, of the firm of Russell, Majors and Waddell, completed plans for the two thousand mile Pony Express between St. Joseph, Missouri, and Sacramento, California.
- Beginnings of the oil industry in Kansas date from 1860 although large scale development was delayed because of a lock of commercial market.
- Irish, some from big cities in the US, were located in large numbers near Chapman (Dickinson County), near Seneca (Nemaha County), and in Pottawatomie County, and at Boston (Chautauqua County).
- Pony Express operation begins St. Joseph, Missouri--through northeast Kansas--to Sacramento, California It operated less than a year and a half (1860-1862).
- Mennonite Brethren split from what is now the General Conference Mennonite Church (Bethel College variety) back in Russia. There were strong feelings over the split carried over into America. As a result, many small towns in Kansas have both varieties of churches, and two different colleges were founded, Bethel and Tabor.
- February 23 - The legislature passed a bill over the governor's veto abolishing slavery in Kansas.
- January 29 - Kansas was admitted into the Union as the 34th state. Topeka became the state Capitol.
- April - Civil War: In answer to President Lincoln's first call for troops in April, Kansas supplied 650 men. Before the war ended in 1865, Kansas contributed 20,097 men to the Union Army, a remarkable record since the population included less than 30,000 men of military age. Kansas also suffered the highest mortality rate of any of the Union states. Of the black troops in the Union army, 2,080 were credited to Kansas, though the 1860 census listed fewer than 300 blacks of military age in the state most of them came from Arkansas and Missouri.
- Kansas women were given the right to vote in school elections, far earlier than in most states.
- February 7 - The state Capitol stands on 20 acres of ground donated to the state by Cyrus K. Holliday. The Legislature accepted the block of land by a joint resolution approved.
- May 20 - The Homestead Act greatly aided in the opening of the country after the Civil War.
- August 21 - Surprise attack at Lawrence by Confederate guerillas led by William C. Quantrill. Only 150 of the 2,000 residents were killed in the raid. The city (not the whole town) was sacked and burned, and about $1.5 million worth of property was destroyed.
- Kansas State University was the second state agricultural college in the United States to be founded.
- August - The original post (Fort Harker #1) was established by troops of the 7th Iowa Cavalry under the command of 2nd Lieutenant Allen Ellsworth by order of Major General Samuel R. Curtis to protect the more remote frontier settlements. Originally called Fort Ellsworth, for Lt. Ellsworth. Originally located on the left bank of the Smoky Hill River at the point where the Santa Fe stage route crossed the River, about 3-4 miles southeast of the present town of Ellsworth.
- September 6 - Fort Zarah was established on the banks of Walnut Creek near the crossroads of the Santa Fe Trail, the army supply route from Fort Riley, and the main Indian trail. In 1867 Fort Zarah was relocated in stone buildings two miles downstream near the Arkansas River. Fort Zarah was abandoned December 4, 1869 as the Indian problem moved southwestward.
- October 25 - During retreat of General Sterling Price's Rebel Army from Westport (Kansas City, Missouri), Union troops under General Samuel Curtis win decisive victory at Battle of Mine Creek, Linn County.
- Indians begin attacks on frontier settlements.
- Jim R. Mead became the first white settler at Wichita when he opened a trading post on the site of Wichita, Kansas.
- Wichita was plotted during this year.
- Civil War ended.
- After the Civil War, Jesse Chisholm pioneered the Chisholm Trail when Jim R. Mead sent him into the southwest (south from Kansas to the Red River) with a wagon load of goods to trade with the Indians for buffalo hides.
- April 10 - Fort Dodge was established by Captain Henry Pierce, 11th Kansas Cavalry, by order of Major General Grenville M. Dodge, commanding the department. Although there is some doubt, the post was probably named for Colonel Henry Dodge, 1st U. S. Dragoons. Fort Dodge was established to protect the Santa Fe Trail from Indians.
- September - Fort Aubrey was established early in September 1865 by Captain Adolph Whitman, 48th Wisconsin Infantry, in the present Hamilton County at the head of Spring Creek. The site was originally recommended by Francis Xavier Aubry (1824-1854), trader and explorer, who was killed in Santa Fe 18 Aug 1854, and for whom the post was named.
- October 11 - Fort Fletcher was established as a frontier military post to protect military roads, defend construction gangs on the Union Pacific Railroad, and guard the US mail. The post was first designated Fort Fletcher, in honor of Governor Thomas C. Fletcher of Missouri.
- Construction of the Kansas State Capitol in Topeka began.
- The first Kansas orphanage, St. Vincent's Home, was opened by the Sisters of Charity.
- November - Fort Fletcher renamed Fort Hays.
1867-1872 - More than three million head of Texas longhorn cattle were driven up the Chisholm Trail to the Union Pacific (later the Kansas Pacific) Railroad shipping center at Abilene.
1867-1868 - A great famine in Sweden combined with the discontent bred by repressive government made the American advertisement of land and freedom particularly attractive to Swedes. The third largest foreign-born group in nineteenth-century Kansas came from Sweden. The primary colony from Sweden was at Lindsborg in McPherson County. The settlement at (New) Scandia in Republic County was promoted by the Scandinavian Agricultural Society of Chicago. Swedish influence was also in Osage County and the Blue River parts of Riley and Pottawatomie counties.
- Joseph G. McCoy arrived at Abilene, the end of the extended Chisholm Trail, and built stockyards that he advertised throughout Texas.
- Indian attacks reached their height in Kansas, when nearly 130 settlers were killed.
- June 5 - The first recorded Indian attack at Henshaw Station, when the Indians killed four men and stampeded the horses. At the time the station was guarded by only ten soldiers and two stock traders, so pursuit of the Indians was out of the question.
- One Indian raid occurred at a small settlement called Brookville. When a large body of Indians attacked the town, the settlers rushed to the roundhouse where a barricade was hastily thrown up. The Indians surrounded the building, piled Railroad ties against it, and tried to set the structure on fire. Railroad crew members jumped on an engine already under steam, crashed it through the doors of the roundhouse, around the turntable, and with whistle and bell sounding, headed for Salina to get help. When the engine reached Salina, a dead Indian was found lying on a wheel.
- The Indian Peace Treaty Monument of Medicine Lodge commemorates the signing of the peace treaty between the US and the Indian tribes.
- Jesse Chisholm died at Left Hand Spring near modern Geary, Oklahoma, in 1868, about the time the traders' routes across Indian Territory became the Chisholm Trail, used as a cattle highway by Texas ranchers moving their longhorns to railheads in Kansas.
- Col. George A. Forsyth and his command were on Arikaree Creek, a fork of the Republican River, five miles due west of Kansas's northwest corner. They were surrounded by nearly a thousand Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux on 17 Sep 1868 . They retreated to an "island" (sandbar) in the Arikaree and dug-in. They suffered heavy losses, including the company's surgeon and its second-in-command, Lt. Fred H. Beecher (he was nephew of Henry Ward Beecher, of Harriet Beecher Stowe). The US Army officially named this the Battle of Beecher Island in honor of Lieutenant Beecher.
- Nineteenth Kansas Cavalry mustered in for Indian Wars.
- Sioux and Cheyenne raid northwestern Kansas.
- Ernest Valeton de Boissiere established a communal French colony in Franklin County introducing silk to Kansas.
- Wild Bill Hickok, special marshall of Hays City, Kansas.
Brookville Hotel in Brookville, Kansas was built. It is famous for it's family style chicken dinners.
- Pittsburg - Crawford County, the coal metropolis of Kansas was founded as a mining camp during the 1870's. Name that came from the coal region of Pennsylvania to the coal region of Kansas.
- The Bender family lived on the road south from Independence in Montgomery County, halfway between the "Little House on the Prairie" and Independence, and near a land mark known as Bender Mounds. People disappeared on that road and they were never heard of again. Occasionally the Benders invited travelers to stay for dinner. These itinerants were then murdered and robbed of their valuables.
- Bethel College at Newton was founded by Swiss and German Mennonites from Russia what is now the General Conference Mennonite Church.
1870-1871 - After the Civil War, many families came from Clermont County, Ohio and settled on the high prairie in what is now known as Ohio Township in the northwest part of Morris County. On their way, they laid over at Topeka where they met others from Clermont County, Ohio.
- Many Italian and other immigrants came to the coal mining region of southeast Kansas.
Crawford County: Arma, Bruce Mulberry, Pittsburg, Litchfield.
Cherokee County: Stilson/Scammon, Wier City, West Mineral.
- About then coal mines were opened near Mulberry - Crawford County. This was also about the date of transition from the name Mulberry Grove to Mulberry.
- April 15 - James Butler Hickok replaced Tom Smith as Marshal of Abilene.
- July - The Santa Fe Railroad extended its line to Newton, Kansas, which then succeeded Abilene as the terminus of the Chisholm Trail. The cattle boom at Newton only lasted a year for the railroad was soon extended to Wichita.
- August - During this period there was considerable violence in the saloons and dance halls at Newton, with nine men being shot down in one shootout.
- "Home on the Range" song words written in Smith County by Dr. Brewster M. Higley, M.D.
- Ellsworth succeeded Abilene as the northern terminus (shipping point) of the Texas cattle trail.
- A branch of the Santa Fe Railroad arrived at Wichita, and the town "busted-wide-open." A sign was erected at the outskirts of town proclaiming: "Everything goes in Wichita."
- When the Santa Fe Railroad was completed to the Colorado border, the days of the Santa Fe Trail as a main transportation route were over.
1873 - The Kaw Indians were removed from their reservation in Morris County to Oklahoma Territory, thus opening this land for white settlement.
1873-1874 - German Mennonite immigration to Kansas and South Dakota from Russia. Southeast McPherson and adjoining Marion (Hillsboro), Harvey (Halstead-where they built a flour mill by the Little Arkansas River, North Newton), and Reno (Buhler-one of the oldest Mennonite Brethren churches in Kansas) counties became the home of German-Russian Mennonites.
- March - The Kansas legislature amended the state militia law. This allowed anyone who objected to military service on religious grounds to obtain release. All they had to do was sign a declaration of objection in the county clerk's office.
- July 31/Sep - Grasshopper plague (Rocky Mountain Locust) visited Kansas. The grasshopper invasion devastated crops (corn) in Kansas and many people lost nearly everything. Aid (clothes, provisions and money) was sent from the East to help the people get through the hard winter.
- Four Kansas Railroads shipped 122,914 head of Texas cattle in eight months.
1874-1875 - Mennonites from Russia introduced Turkey Red wheat to Kansas.
Mid 1870's - Small western towns such as Catherine, Munjor, Pfeifer, Schoenchen and Liebenthal were founded in the middle 1870's by Volga Germans, German catholics who emigrated from Russia.
- The Kansas State Historical Society was organized.
- Most buffalo in Kansas have been destroyed
1876 - State legislature abolishes color distinction from Kansas law.
- Robert Layton took advantage of the available fuel at Pittsburg, Crawford County and established a zinc smelter. Pittsburg became the center of the leading zinc-smelting area in the United States.
- Prag, a Czech Community in Rawlins County is mentioned in a report submitted by Captain William G. Wedemeyer of the 16th Infantry, regarding losses suffered by settlers during the 1878 Cheyenne raid in Northwestern Kansas.
- September 27 - Chiefs Dull Knife and Little Wolf of the Northern Cheyenne led their people in a rebellion and flight from confinement and starvation on the reservation in Oklahoma (Indian Territory) to their home lands in Yellowstone. The trek climaxed on September 27, 1878, when 284 braves, women and children made their final stand on the bluffs of Ladder Creek, now Beaver Creek, just south of Scott County State Park. This encounter with the US Cavalry was the last Indian battle in Kansas. The site - Squaws Den Battleground - drew its name from the pit in which the women and children were placed after helping to dig rifle pits for the warriors.
- The last Indian raid in Decatur County, Kansas in 1878.
1878-1879 - A colony of several hundred (Susquehanna) River Brethren from Pennsylvania arrived in the old-time corrupt cowtown of Abilene, Dickinson County, Kansas to organize homes and fields on virgin land purchased from the Kansas Pacific Railroad.
1879 - The prominent issue of the Kansas legislature was prohibition.
1880 - An amendment to the Kansas Constitution approved by Kansas voters prohibited the manufacture, sale, or gift of all forms of intoxicating liquor. Kansas became the first state in the United States to pass this controversial amendment.
- Carry A. Nation lived at Medicine Lodge before she began her crusade against liquor that took her to all parts of the United States and England.
- All 105 Kansas counties organized
1881 - Bethany College of Lindsborg was founded by Swedish immigrants.
1881 -1882 - Most of the trail herds headed for Dodge City, another shipping point on the Santa Fe Railroad line.
1882 - Dodge City was the "Cowboy Capital" of the West.
- April 30 - Several cowboys, including Henry Brown (later Caldwell City Marshall), attempted to rob a Medicine Lodge bank.
- Lane University was established in Lecompton and was attended by Ida Stover, President Eisenhower's mother.
1884-1885 - The era of the great cattle drives ended when the Kansas Legislature, alarmed by the increase of the cattle disease called "Texas Fever" brought into the state by the Texas tick, passed legislation forbidding the importation of Texas cattle between March 1 and December 1, the season for the long drives.
1885 - Last Texas cattle drive to Dodge City.
1886 - Kansas Wesleyan University was built in Salina, Kansas.
- Susanna Medora Salter of Argonia was the first woman mayor in the United States to be elected in southeastern Kansas.
- while drilling a well, Sam Blanchard struck salt at 300 feet. Hutchinson has been built on top of one of the world's greatest salt deposits.
1888 - Almost a dozen salt plants were in operation at Hutchinson.
1889 - Mentholatum was invented by Albert Alexander Hyde of Wichita.
1892 - The notorious Dalton Gang rode into Coffeyville, Montgomery County, Kansas on October 5, 1892 and attempted to rob two banks, the Condon Bank and the First National Bank. They took about $25,000 in 12 minutes. A shootout followed which claimed the lives of eight men: the outlaws, Grat and Bob Dalton, Dick Broadwell and Bill Powers and four Coffeyville residents, Charles T. Connelly, Coffeyville city marshal (killed by Grat Dalton in "Death Alley"), Lucius M. Baldwin, George B. Cubine and Charles Brown. Three other townsmen were wounded.
1894 - Many companies organized to develop oil and gas fields in Kansas.
1895 - Wichita State University in Wichita was founded as Fairmount College.
1896 - West Mineral in Cherokee County was founded in 1896 as a mining town.
1898 - Kansas enlists four regiments for service in the Spanish-American War.
20th Century Kansas History Timeline
1900 - The last ethnic group to enter Kansas in large numbers was Spanish-speaking Mexicans, brought to the state as laborers for various Railroad companies. Numbering only 71 in 1900, their totals reached 13,570 in 1920 and 19,042 in 1930. Their primary population concentrations were in Railroad centers.
Early 1900's - Lilla Day Monroe was the president of the Kansas Equal Suffrage Association.
- First helium discovery in US at Dexter, Kansas
- The Kansas State Capitol building in Topeka was completed. It was constructed over a period of 37 years from 1866 to 1903, cost a total of $3.2 million.
1906 - The Federal Penitentiary in Leavenworth was completed.
1907-1908 - The yellow brick road leads to Dorothy's House in Liberal, Kansas. It was buit in 1907-1908 and given to the Seward County Historical Society.
- July 9, the Smoky Hill River was so low that farmers fished with pitchforks.
- Heavy snow over the state tied up Railroad transportation on December 30.
1912 - Kansas woman suffrage amendment ratified
1913 - KS oil production was 24,083 barrels. Of 2,174 holes drilled, only 483 were dry.
- President Wilson sent army units, including troops from Kansas, to aid in the protection of US property and treaty rights concerning Mexico.
- Arthur Capper becomes first native Kansan elected to the office of Governor.
- Since 1915 when oil was discovered, El Dorado has boomed from a small town into a progressive city.
- Dwight D. Eisenhower graduated from the US Military Academy at West Point with the rank of second lieutenant.
1916 - Kansas National Guard sent to the Mexican border.
- The Anti-Saloon League was the name of the group established that proved integral in preventing the sale of intoxicating liquors.
- Influenza epidemic.
- World War I brought an unprecedented boom in agriculture because of the demand for food from the warring nations of Europe. Thousands of previously uncultivated acres were planted in wheat.
- State Highway Commission created.
- Kansas had produced 25,402,521,000 cubic feet of natural gas in the past year, and 112 gas wells had been drilled.
- End of World War I - 80,261 in war service from Kansas.
- Shortly after 1918 the population of Wichita nearly doubled when a great reservoir of oil was discovered nearby.
1920's - The business men of Wichita went to work attracting the aircraft industry.
1920 - The O'Henry candy bar was invented by Tom Henry of Arkansas City. The candy bar was originally called "Tom Henry" but was changed later when Mr. Henry sold the rights to his candy bar to a candy factory.
1921 - Amelia Earhart made her first solo flight.
1923 - Amelia Earhart, a native of Atchison, became the first woman to be granted a pilot's license by the National Aeronautic Association.
1924 - The handkerchief-dress craze hit Kansas. At Atchison over 250 dozen red and blue bandanas were sold to women who made dresses of them.
- Forestry, Fish and Game Commission organized.
- Walter P. Chrysler, son of Henry Chrysler, was born in Wamego and grew up in Ellis, Kansas. At Ellis Walter P. Chrysler received his public school education and learned his trade as a machinist. He was an industrialist who established the Chrysler Motors corporation in 1925.
- Walter Anderson, Wichita, one of the founders of the White Castle eating houses and known as the "Hamburger King," operated 22 White Castles. He bought the first one in Wichita with a loan of $60.
- The Cigarette Tax was the first sales tax to be imposed by the 1927 Kansas legislature.
- The state flag of Kansas was first displayed at Fort Riley by Gov. Ben Paulen in the presence of troops from Fort Riley and the Kansas National Guard. The official state flag of Kansas was adopted by Legislature in 1927 and revised in 1961 with Great Seal and Crest symbolizing Kansas history.
- Charles Curtis, U. S. Senator from Kansas, is elected Vice President of the United States under Herbert Hoover.
- One-seventh of the world's wheat crop, 12,400,000 acres, was grown in KS.
1929 - Mrs. T.T. Solander was the first woman to become a Kansas State Senator.
1930 - Clyde Tombaugh was a Burdette astronomer. He discovered the planet Pluto.
1930s - The previously uncultivated land (thousands of acres), planted to supply warring nations of Europe during World War I, was allowed to lay fallow during the recession of the 1920s, and became part of the "dust bowl" of the 1930s.
1931 - Record KS wheat crop of 240 million bushels.
- Alfred M. Landon elected Governor.
- Kathryn O'Laughlin, first congresswoman elected to respresent Kansas.
- Drought and dust storms throughout Great Plains gives rise to "Dust Bowl" epithet
- Landon is the only Republican governor reelected in the nation.
- New oil fields developed in western KS.
- Alfred M. Landon ran for president of the US losing to Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1938 - The first Rural Electric Association (REA) line in Kansas was put up in Brown county.
1939 - World War II creates demand for food and prices for Kansas farm products begin to rise.
1943 - A German prisoner of war (POW) camp was built in Concordia during World War II in July 1943.
1942-1943 - A German prisoner of War (POW) camp was built in Peabody during World War II. These German POW's built Peabody Park.
1950 - Over 30,000 producing oil wells in KS.
1951 - Disastrous flood hits all of Kansas most severe in Kansas, Neosho, and Marais des Cygnes River valleys
1950s - Virgil Cofer of Ransom, Ness County, Kansas invented the first riding lawn mower, called the Virginia Wonder Mower.
1952-1953 - Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes first Kansan to be elected as President of the United States.
- Brown vs. the Board of Education in Topeka was a historical and controversial case taken to the United States Supreme Court.
- Autopilot was invented by David D. Blanton of Wichita.
1955 - Tornado at Udall caused 83 deaths on May 25, 1955
1956 - The 236 mile Kansas Turnpike is completed from Kansas City to Wichita.
- Flood of 1957.
- November - Birger Sandzen Memorial Gallery opened at Bethany College in Lindsborg, Kansas through the efforts of his son-in-law, Charles Pelham Greenough.
- Second largest wheat crop in history brings cash receipts of over one billion dollars to KS farmers and ranchers.
- June 10 - A tornado that hit El Dorado, Kansas, Butler County caused 15 deaths along with 50 injuries.
1959 - Murder of four members of Clutter family near Holcomb shocks state
1960 - The Coleman Company was the largest user of sheet steel between the Mississippi and the Rockies.
- January 29 - KS Statehood Centennial Celebration begins a second century of even greater accomplishments.
- Wichita, Kansas is known as the "Air Capital of America."
- The ICEE machine, the first frozen carbonated drink machine, was invented by Omar Kneclik of Coffeyville.
- The world's largest and longest wheat elevator is located at Hutchinson.
1963 - Big Brutus was built at a plant near Hallowell, Cherokee County, Kansas in 1963. West Mineral, Cherokee County, Kansas home of Big Brutus. Costs and the fact that the EPA declared that the strip mine coal had too much sulphur and therefore stopped its use. Big Brutus was retired in 1974 and became a museum.
1966 - Topeka, Kansas was hit by a F5 tornado on June, 18, 1966, killing 17 and 550 people were injured
1969 - President Dwight D. Eisenhower died.
1970 - Anti-war protests disturb several college campuses student union fire at Kansas University linked to these activities
1971 - Leon, Little Walnut Township, Butler County, Kansas Following on the heels of really mild weather for this time of year, one of the worst snow storms in the history of this area hit suddenly Sunday morning at about nine o'clock on February 21, 1971.
1975 - A 38-foot cross was erected to mark the site where Spanish explorer Francisco Basques de Coronado crossed the Arkansas River in search of fabled cities of gold in 1541.
1976 - Bob Dole was a Kansas leader who ran for Vice President of the United States.
1978 - Nancy Landon Kassebaum was the first Kansas woman to be elected to the US Senate for a full term.
- Tom Docking carried on his father's political legacy by becoming elected as Lt. Governor.
- Sam Hardage was a Wichita businessperson who was unsuccessful in his attempt to become elected Governor.
1985 - Wolf Creek nuclear power plant finally begins commercial operation
- KS produced 421,540,000 bushels of wheat.
- Kansas voters approve liquor-by-the-drink, parimutuel, and state lottery
- Kansas Jayhawks won the Final Four.
- Two native Kansans seek presidency--Bob Dole (Russell) and Gary Hart (Ottawa)
- The Berlin wall came down.
- "Brown II" decision new school desegregation case, with Topeka public schools again as defendant
- A large F5 tornado went through Hesston, Harvey County and other Kansas towns. It was on the ground for more than two hours. It was at times over a half-mile wide. It caused millions of dollars of damage and two deaths outside of Hesston on March 13, 1990.
- A tornado cut a 500-yard path of destruction through western Sumner County the evening of Tuesday, March 13, 1990.
- Operation Desert Shield in Saudi Arabia.
- January 17 - The air strike on Iraq in Operation Desert Storm.
- February 28 - Cease-fire announced in Gulf War.
- April 26 - Wichita/Andover. This F5 tornado was on the ground for about 70 miles, from Clearwater in south-central Kansas to Cassoday in northern Butler County. It was on the ground for about 50 minutes. The killer tornado destroyed 1,120 houses, damaging 571 more, injured 302 and left twenty dead.
- June 15 - Hoch Auditorium burned at Kansas University.
- The end of the USS.R. (Soviet Union)
- Kansans elect their first woman Governor, Joan Finney
- May 7 - Tornado in Russell County causes one death.
- Jun/Jul - The Flood of 1993. Flood gates were opened at Milford Res. (Republican River) and Tuttle Creek Res. (Big Blue River). Flooding on Smoky Hill River. July 11, 1993 marked the beginning of the Flood in Kansas City.
1994 - Stand-off ended in Waco, TX between Branch Davidion and F.B.I in April.
1995 - Bombing of Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City on April 19.
- Fort Hays State University, Division II national basketball champs, record of 34-0.
- Bob Dole, Kansas Senator, retired from the US Senate.
- Bob Dole, from Russell, Kansas, ran for President of the United States.
- October 22 - Unexpected snowstorm hit Kansas City area. 8 inches of snow fell in Overland Park, the largest snowfall ever in the month of October. Most of the trees still had their leaves the branches could not handle the weight of the heavy wet snow. Downed trees limbs and power lines were everywhere. Over 170,000 homes in the Kansas City area were without power. Power restoration to residents took close to a week. The clean-up of tree limbs took much longer (December in Overland Park and March in Kansas City, MO). [contributor: Linda Lipp]
1999 - F4 tornado hits Haysville then Wichita in Sedgwick County causing five deaths and many injuries on May 3, 1999.
21st Century Kansas History Timeline
2000 - The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration discovers one of the country's largest LSD labs inside a converted military missile silo in Wamego, Kansas.
2002 - Maiden flight of Airborne Laser, designed to destroy missles during early stage launch, took off from McConnell Air Force Base in Wichita
2003 - Tornadoes killed seven people
2005 - BTK (bind, torture, kill - serial killer, Dennis Rader, arrested
2007 - Greensburg, Kansas is almost completely destroyed by a 1.7m wide EF-5 tornado.
- Abortion doctor, George Tiller, killed in church in Wichita
- Huge winter storm caused road closures, flight cancellations
2011 - US soldier, Bradley Manning, involved in Wikileaks scandal, moved to Fort Leavenworth military prison
General South African History Timeline: 1950s
In Fietas, Johannesburg, the Transvaal Indian Congress (TIC) initiates and implements the 'Decade of Defiance'. 1950 Florence Matomela leads an anti-pass demonstration resulting in the burning of passes in Port Elizabeth. Nelson Mandela succeeds Peter Mda as the new president of African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL). Walter Sisulu's book ' South Africa Behind Bars' is handed out among the representatives of the different countries during the session of the United Nation Organisations (UNO). Sonia Bunting joins the Guardian Newspaper after the banning of the Communist Party of South Africa. January, A crowd of Blacks in Newclare, Johannesburg attack a Black policeman attempting to arrest an African civilian allegedly in position of liquor. 6 January - 8 January, The last conference of the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) before its dissolution is held in Johannesburg. It attacks the African National Congress (ANC) Programme of Action. March, Dr A.B. Xuma resigns from the African National Congress (ANC) national Executive Committee (NEC) after his differences with the ANC Youth League. 26 March, The Defend Free Speech Convention in Johannesburg proclaims May 1st as Freedom Day and calls on all organisations to go into demonstrations May, Dr Yusuf Dadoo calls for a broad anti-nationalist front to oppose anti-apartheid laws such as the Group Areas Act.
May, Sam Kahn and Dr Yusuf Dadoo have restrictions placed on them in terms of the Riotous Assemblies Act. They are prevented from speaking in eight major centres.
1 May, A general strike against all discriminatory laws and for full franchise rights for all is held. Police opens fire in the Alexandra Township and other areas on the Reef, killing 18 and wounding 30 people. 5 May - 6 May, An emergency meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) is held to discuss the impending Unlawful Organisations Bill. 12 May, The Immorality Amendment Act No 21 of 1950 is passed. 14 May, The African National Congress (ANC) Working Committee summons an emergency conference. The Conference is attended by the representatives from the following organisations: South African Indian Congress (SAIC), A.P.O, ANC Youth League, Council of Non-European Trade Unions and the Communist Party of South Africa. After a lengthy discussion on the Unlawful Organisations Bill and the Group Areas Bill the Conference manage to adopt a resolution accepted by all represented organisations. 21 May, The African National Congress (ANC) National Executive Committee (NEC) meets at Thaba 'Nchu and decides to call a national one-day stay at home protest on 26 June. 11 June, The African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) decide to proclaim a "National Day of Mourning", on 26 June, with a countrywide stay-at-home strike. They favour a stay-at-home strike and prayer because of the shootings on 1 May. 18 June, Walter Sisulu addresses a meeting at New Brighton, Port Elizabeth and tells the Blacks about the decision that everyone should stay away from their work on 26 June 1950 as a sign of protest against the "Notorious Bill of the Malan Government" Unlawful Organisations Bill. 20 June, The Communist Party of South Africa declares that it dissolves itself a few days before the government passed the Suppression of Communism Act, No. 44 of 1950. 26 June, The Suppression of Communism Act, No. 44 of 1950, according to which, the South African Communist Party declared illegal is approved in parliament. It came into force on 17 July 1950. A Day of National Protest and Mourning is held countrywide. June 26 is observed as South African Freedom Day, until 1994, when the date of the first democratic elections, 27 April, became an official public holiday known as Freedom Day. 7 July, The Group Areas Act, Act No 41 of 1950, is passed 7 July,The Population Registration Act, Act No 30 of 1950, is passed. 17 July, The Suppression of Communism Act, No. 44 of 1950 , passed on 26 June comes into force. 20 August, Walter Sisulu officiates at a meeting held in Lady Selborne, a non-white township in Pretoria. 30 September - 2 October, Walter Sisulu speaks at the congress of the Transvaal branch of the African National Congress (ANC), held at Springs. 12 November, J.B Marks is elected Transvaal President of African National Congress (ANC). A conservative "National Minded Bloc" under the leadership of R.V Selope Thema breaks away in a protest against his election. Thema did not trust neither Dr J Moroka nor the Communists 2 December, The General Assembly of the United Nations declares, "a policy of 'racial segregation' (apartheid) is necessarily based on doctrines of racial discrimination". [Resolution 395(V)] 6 December, Walter Sisulu acts as one of the speakers at a meeting of the South African Peace Movement in the Ambagsaal, Johannesburg. The other speakers are Dr Y. M. Dadoo and Michael Harmel 1951 Sonia Bunting attends the World Youth Congress in Berlin as part of a delegation led by Ahmed Kathrada Cissie Gool appears before the Cape Town magistrate for holding a public meeting. She also becomes active in the Franchise Action Council, the forerunner of the South African Coloured Peoples Organisation. The Bantu/Native Building Workers Act, Act No 27 of 1951 is passed. The President of African People Organisation (APO), S.M Rahim resigns in disgust and join the Franchise Action Council (FRAC). He declares the APO a moribund organisation February, The Franchise Action Council is formed in Cape Town 1 March, Dr. F Malan announces the Separate Representation of Voters Bill to remove Coloureds from the common voters roll in Cape. May, The War Veterans Torch Commandos, consisting largely of white ex-servicemen opposing government march to the parliament to protest against the Separate Representation of Voters Bill. 7 May, The Franchise Action Council launch one-day work and school stay away in Cape Town to protest against the Separate Representation of Voters Bill. 30 May, Chief Luthuli succeeds A.W.G Champion as the president of the African National Congress in Natal. June, Pixley Seme, a founder member and treasure-general of the African National Congress (ANC) in 1912, dies June, The Separate Representation of Voters Bill is enacted 15 June - 17 June, The African National Congress (ANC) National Executive Committee (NEC) meets to deliberate further on what actions to take in expressing their discontent against the National Party Government. The ANC also invites the South Africa Indian Congress (SAIC) and the Franchise Action Council to discuss a joint campaign of civil disobedience and general strikes against the government. 18 June, The Suppression of Communism Act No 50 is passed 6 July, The Prevention of Illegal Squatting Act, Act No 52 of 1951 is passed. 17 July, The Bantu Authorities Act No 68 of 1951 is passed. 24 July, Oliver Tambo completes his articles, passes his exams and qualifies as an attorney. 28 July - 29 July, The African National Congress (ANC) calls a meeting in Johannesburg in which the South African Indian Congress (SAIC), the African People Organisation (APO) and the Franchise Action Committee executives are invited to chart way forward for the Defiance Campaign. However APO rejects the ANC invitation and never attends the meeting. FRAC is invited as an observer since it was not a national organisation. An ultimatum has to be addressed to the Government to repeal all discriminating Legislation before or on 29 February 1952, and if this does not take place a mass contravention of such legislation will be launched in all sections of the country 29 July, The Joint Planning Council consist of (Walter Sisulu, Dr Y Dadoo, J.B. Marks and Y Cachalia) is formed. 8 November, The Join Planning Council completes its work and makes its report available to the executive committees of the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Indian Congress (SAIC). 23 November, M.B.Yengwa and other members of the ANC Youth League in Natal nominate Albert Luthuli for the President of the African National Congress in Natal and Luthuli is subsequently elected to this position. In his address to the Annual Conference of the ANC in Natal, Luthuli calls for unity among Africans and redefines the challenges that face them in the light of new pieces of apartheid legislation being introduced by the Malan Government December, Walter Sisulu, Dr. Y. Dadoo, J.B. Marks and Y.A. Cachalia (all members of the Joint Planning Council) together with R.T. Chari, former secretary of the Indian High Commissioner in the Union, visit Basutoland. They have discussions there with black headmen about the inauguration of the Protectorate by the Union of South Africa. December, Nelson Mandela is banned under the Riotous Assemblies Act. 15 December - 17 December, The African National Congress (ANC) adopts the report of the Joint Planning Council at its Bloemfontein conference. 1952 The Appellate Division of the Supreme Court set aside the Separate Representation Voters Bill after an appeal by some Coloureds voters on the grounds that the entrench clause in South Africa requires two-third majority of both house of parliament in a joint sitting The Coloured People's Organisation (later the Coloured People's Congress) is formed under James La Guma and becomes the successor to the African People's Organisation (APO).
Walter Sisulu travels through the country to organise the Defiance Campaign and addresses numerous meetings. Among others, Sisulu visits Bloemfontein, Kimberley, Cape Town and Port Elizabeth.
Father Trevor Huddleston writes to Christian Action asking financial support in defending and assisting the families of the volunteers in the Defiance Campaign.
Walter Sisulu, Duma Nokwe and others leave South Africa without passports to visit various counties.
The Abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents Act of No 67 of 1952 includes Black women.
Florence Matomela, one of the first women volunteers during the Defiance Campaign is arrested and spends six weeks in prison.
Fatima Meer is banned under the Suppression of Communism Act.
Lillian Ngoyi participates in a protest march against the banning of the Secretary-General of the Garment Workers` Union (GWU), E.S. ("Solly") Sachs.
21 January, A letter co-signed by Dr J.S. Moroka and Walter Sisulu is sent to the Prime Minister, Dr D.F. Malan 25 January - 27 January, At its 20th annual conference in Johannesburg, the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) accepts the report of the Joint Planning Committee. Dr S.M. Molema, African National Congress, National-Treasurey delivers keynote Address. 29 January, The Prime Minister responds to the letter of the African National Congress (ANC) through his private secretary, Mr A. Camp. In the letter, he lambastes the ANC for writing to him directly instead of going through the Minister of Native Affairs 11 February, The African National Congress (ANC) reacts with arrogance to the Letter from the Prime Minister, Dr D.F. Malan, and tells the Prime Minister that the Department of Native Affairs is not the only channel of communication they can use to communicate with him. 16 March, The Franchise Action Council calls a special conference in Cape Town to discuss what role of protest Coloured people would play on 6 April 1952 during the tercentenary celebrations of Jan van Riebeeck's arrival at the Cape. 23 March, Cyprian Solomon, paramount chief of the Zulus, warns 20,000 of his people not to participate in the Defiance Campaign and said that he would himself place their grievances before the proper authorities later. 6 April, During the tercentenary celebrations of Jan van Riebeeck's arrival at the Cape, the Joint Planning Council holds mass meetings and demonstrations throughout the country in preparation for the Defiance Campaign. The African National Congress and the Transvaal Indian Congress issue a flyer entitled " April 6: People Protest Day." 6 April, Walter Sisulu is one of the speakers at a meeting which is described as a "People's Protest Day Rally" and outlines the "Plan of Action". The following people also officiate as speakers: Dr. Y.M. Dadoo, D. Ilsome, James Phillips, Moses Kotane and D. Bopape. 21 April, Walter Sisulu, Dr. Y.M. Dadoo, A.M. Dadoo and Y.A. Cachalia are detained at Idutywa in the Transkei, because they entered the area without the necessary permission. 25 May, Minister of Justice C.R. Swart terminates Sam Kahn and Fred Carneson's membership of Parliament and the Provincial Council respectively for being Communists. 31 May, The African National Congress (ANC) executive meets in Port Elizabeth and announces that the Defiance Campaign would begin on 26 June 1 June, The African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Indian Congress (SAIC) National Executive Committees holds a meeting in Port Elizabeth to discuss the details of the Defiance Campaign. 9 June, Walter Sisulu speaks at a united meeting of the African National Congress and South African Indian Congress in Johannesburg. 22 June, Volunteers make a pledge to participate in the Defiance Campaign. 26 June, The African National Congress (ANC) officially launches the Defiance Campaign with the support from South African Indian Congress (SAIC) and the Franchise Action Council, later be called the Coloured People's Association. The campaign begins in Johannesburg and Port Elizabeth. Over 8,000 people from all racial groups court imprisonment by contravening selected discriminatory laws and regulations. 27 June, The Native Laws Amendment Act of 1952 is passed. 11 July, The Natives (abolition of Passes and Co-ordination of Documents) Act, Act No 67 of 1952 is passed. 30 July, N. Mandela is served with a warrant for his arrest on a charge of violating the Suppression of Communism Act August, The Mandela & Tambo Law firm is established in Chancellor House, opposite the Magistrate Courts in downtown in Johannesburg. August, The South African Security Police conducts an unprecedented raid on the offices and homes of the liberation movements and their leaders. 12 August, Twenty non-White leaders are arrested and charged under the Suppression of Communism Act. The accused includes Dr. J. S. Moroka, President of the African National Congress (ANC), Walter Sisulu Secretary-General of the (ANC), Dr. Y. M. Dadoo, President of South African Indian Congress (SAIC), and Nelson Mandela, President of ANC Youth League. 30 August, Chief Albert Luthuli issues a statement on the launching of the Defiance Campaign in Natal. 12 September, A delegation of 13 Asian and Arab States requests the General Assembly of the United Nations to consider the question of race conflict in South Africa resulting from the apartheid policies of the Government of the Union of South Africa. 18 September, The Minister of Justice C.R. Swart announces in parliament that there are thirty-three trade union officials and eighty-nine other people served with notices in terms of the Suppression of Communism Act. 22 September, Thousands of supporters of 20 liberation movement leaders, who are on trial facing charges under the Suppression of Communism Act, demonstrate at the Johannesburg Magistrate's Court during the preliminary trial October, The Annual Assembly of the Baptist Union of South African, appeals to the Government to meet with the liberation movements leaders to discuss constructive measures for the future and make specific recommendation in regard to housing, education, labour exchanges and the wastage of man-power. 10 October - 12 October, Nelson Mandela is elected the president of the Transvaal African National Congress at its conference to replace the banned J.B Marks 18 October, The riots break out at the New Brighton (Port Elizabeth) train station when a railway constable try to arrest two Blacks suspected of stealing a tin of paint. 20 October, The African National Congress local leaders in New Brighton, Port Elizabeth issue a statement on violence occurred on 18 October 27 October, The press reports a statement by Dr J.L.Z Njongwe, the ANC President in Western Cape, that " If you hear one day that Ciskei has also gone into action, you will know that the victory will be achieved within five weeks". 3 November, The residents of Denver Native Hostel in Denver, who had resolved not to pay an increase in rental from eleven shillings to one pound per month, rush at a tenant who tendered the rental, shouting that he should be 'hit' and 'killed'. 7 November, The government banned 52 Black leaders from attending meetings for six months in Eastern Cape. 8 November, Police fires on demonstrators in Kimberley. Fourteen are killed and 39 wounded. 10 November, A one-day general strike is held in Port Elizabeth to protest police attacks in Kimberley and East London, which results in 22 dead and 108 injured. The strike also protests against the City Council's imposition of a curfew and month-long ban on public meetings. In Johannesburg, African National Congress (ANC) leaders called on all Africans to keep calm. 12 November, Chief A.J Luthuli is dismissed as traditional chief by the government after he refuses to resign as African National Congress (ANC) leader in Natal. In his response Luthuli issues a statement entitled 'The Road to Freedom is via the Cross' 2 December, The trial of twenty national leaders comes to an end when they are convicted of "statutory communism" and sentenced to nine months imprisonment with hard labour. However, the sentences are suspended for two years. 2 December, Walter Sisulu is sentenced to 9 months imprisonment, conditionally suspended for three years. 5 December, The United Nations General Assembly sets up a Commission on the Racial Situation in South Africa 8 December, A mixed group consisting of three white men, four white women, thirteen Indian men, six Indian women, ten African men and two African women enter Germiston location in the Witwatersrand area without permits. 8 December, Patrick Duncan and other Whites illegally enter African locations in support of the Defiance Campaign 17 December, Walter Sisulu is served a notification, in terms of section 9 of the Suppression of Communism Act, whereby he is prohibited, for a period of six months, from attending any meeting in the Union of South Africa. 18 December - 20 December, At the annual African National Congress (ANC) conference, Chief Albert Luthuli is elected to replace Dr J.S. Moroka as General-President of the ANC. 1953 The Government announces the Native Labour (Settlement of Disputes) Act in an attempt to control the trade unions.
The first three tribal authorities are established in the Transvaal.
Nelson Mandela drafts the M-Plan, to organise Black people on a street/block basis.
The South African Coloured People's Organisation is formed.
Former Communist Party of South Africa (CPSA) members regroup and reconstitute the party under a new name South African Communist Party (SACP) at an underground conference.
7 January, Joseph (Joe) Matthews writes a letter to his father Pro Z. K Matthews who was visiting professor at Union Theological Seminary in New York informing him about secret meeting between African National Congress (ANC) and South African Indian Congress (SAIC) leadership. 4 March, The Public Safety Act of 1953 is passed. The Criminal Law Amendment Act No 8 of 1953 is passed. April, The Bantu Education Act is passed 24 April, Chief Albert Luthuli calls off the Defiance Campaign after the introduction of the Criminal Amendment Law Act and the Public Safety Act. 16 May, The African Ministers Federation calls for the observance of an African National Day of Prayer on Sunday 31st May 1953 to give support for the Defiance Campaign. June, Nelson Mandela writes an article entitled 'Searching on the Liberal Party'. The article is published in a new monthly periodical, Liberation, which was edited by Michael Harmel. Nelson Mandela presides over a meeting in the Odin Cinema in Sophiatown alongside the Indian leader Yusuf Cachalia. Cachalia is later arrested on the platform by the police. 26 June, The first anniversary of the launch of the Defiance Campaign is observed as a day of commemoration and rededication 15 July, Walter Sisulu and Duma Nokwe, a former teacher and member of the African National Congress (ANC), go overseas under false names and without passports. 21 July, Walter Sisulu and Duma Nokwe arrive in London, England. From there they go to Bucharest, Romania, where they attend the communist "World Festival of Youth and Students for Peace and Friendship". After this, Sisulu and Nokwe embark on an extensive tour through the countries behind the iron curtain as guests of the Communists. Sisulu and Nokwe travel through Czechoslovakia, Poland, Russia and Communist China. August, The FRAC calls a People's Convention in Cape Town 15 August, The President of the Cape African National Congress (ANC), Prof Z.K Matthews proposes the hold of the Congress of the People in his presidential address to the annual provincial conference of the organisation in Cradock September, The Coloured People's Organisation, later the Coloured People's Congress, under the presidency of James la Guma, is formed in Cape Town as successor to the African People's Organisation (APO). 12 September, The South African Coloured People's Organisation (SACPO) is founded in Cape Town by Liberals and trade unionists including, Edgar Deane, Dr Richard van der Roos, S. Rahim, Regional September and John Gomas October, O.Tambo addresses a meeting of White Congress supporters convened by the African National Congress (ANC), which went on to establish the Congress of Democrats (CoD) 9 October, The Reservation of Separate Amenities Act, Act No 49 of 1953 is passed. December, After an absence of five months, Walter Sisulu and Duma Nokwe return to the Union of South Africa.
The African National Congress (ANC) paid up membership is reported to be 28,900
13 December, Nelson Mandela speaks for an hour and a half at a big meeting in Soweto. His speech is recorded inaccurately by a policeman, Detective-Sergeant Helberg, and later used as evidence of treason against him. 18 December - 20 December, The Annual Conference of African National Congress (ANC) adopts a proposal to call a Congress of the People of South Africa. 30 December, The General Assembly of the United Nations rejects a South African draft resolution to decide, having regard to Article 2, paragraph 7 of the United Nations Charter that it had no competence to adopt the draft resolution recommended by the Ad Hoc Political Committee. The vote is 42 to 8, with 10 abstentions.Those voting in favour of the South African motion are Australia, Belgium, Colombia, France, Greece, Luxembourg, Union of South Africa and United Kingdom. Those abstaining were: Argentina, Canada, Dominican Republic, Netherlands, New Zealand, Panama, Peru, Turkey, USA and Venezuela.Resolution 721 (VIII) was adopted by 38 votes to 15, with 7 abstentions 1954 The South African Coloured People Organisation (SACPO) organises bus boycott in Cape Town to protest against the introduction of segregation on buses. Fietas, Johannesburg: H.F. Verwoed states in his speech in the Senate that the human reality needs to be racially defined and racially organised under the 'supremacy of the white race.'
The formation of the Federation of South African women (FEDSAW) takes place, bringing together women from the African National Congress (ANC), the South African Indian Congress (SAIC), the Trade unions and self-help groups.
Florence Matomela becomes the Cape Provincial Organiser of the ANC Women's League.
Dorothy Nyembe becomes Chairperson of the Two-Stick branch Committee in Cato Manor
Potlako Leballo becomes Chairman of the Orlando East African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL).
Phylis Naidoo joins the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) and raises funds for detainees arrested for Treason.
Sarah Carneson is banned and can no longer hold office in any union.
Josie Palmer becomes President of the Transvaal branch of FEDSAW
The African National Congress (ANC) National Executive Committee (NEC) instructs its women and youth sections to work with other organisations to oppose the Bantu Education Act.
The National Action Council issues a regular newsletter, titled Speaking Together.
A number of regional and local conferences are held to collect demands to be included in the Freedom Charter
Black teachers and students protest against Bantu Education. The African Education Movement is formed to give alternative education to Blacks. For a few years, cultural clubs operate as informal schools, but by 1960 they close down.
Oliver Tambo is banned and forbidden to address or attend gatherings. However his banning order does not require him to resign from the African National Congress (ANC).
6 February, Walter Sisulu addresses an African National Congress (ANC) meeting in Durban and gives a comprehensive account of his travels through Eastern Europe, Russia and the People's Republic of China. 9 February, Walter Sisulu acts as a speaker at a meeting of the "South African Society for Peace and Friendship with the Soviet Union", which is held in the Ambagsaal, Johannesburg. Sisulu talks of the way in which Communism has been implemented in Russia and China. 14 February, Walter Sisulu acts as a speaker at an African National Congress (ANC) meeting, which is held in the Western Black Township of Johannesburg and again relates his visit to Eastern Europe, Russia and China March, The Torch Printing and Publishing company (Pty) Ltd is charged with promoting hostility between Blacks and Whites.
The Joint Planning Committee, later renamed National Action Council is established to organise the holding of the proposed Congress of the People.
A Timeline of Major Events in the American Civil Rights Movement
The Civil Rights Movement is one of the most beautiful and most painful events in the history of the United States. On the one hand, the ugliness of human nature in terms of violence and hatred was exposed, but you also have the opposite as well. Thousands of people came together under leaders like Martin Luther King Jr, Rosa Parks, and even the president John F. Kennedy to fight for the rights of people they had never even met. Ordinary people like James Meredith and James E. Chaney put their lives on the line to fight for rights for everyone. Here are some of the most important events in the Civil Rights movement.
Looking at the progression of civil rights in the US, it’s very clear that small steps can make a huge difference. Equality wasn’t established by one big event. It took hundreds of small events. The United States cannot truly become great until every person is truly treated equally.
("Legal information found on this page does not constitute legal advice.")
Timeline of events
A Taos Timeline – A Long Winding Road
Throughout our long history, Taos has been a destination for travelers wanting the powerful experience of seeing new places and meeting new people. When you get to Taos, you can get a sense of these ancestors of present-day Taoseños by taking a stroll through the historic district. Print the self guided walking tour.
1000 AD: Estimated time the ancestors of the Taos Pueblo people constructed inhabitable structures (pit houses) created pottery (micaceous pottery) and ceremonial structures (kivas) are created.
(Taos Pueblo does not and has not allowed archaeological extraction to tribal lands or the buildings. All dates produced are based on the Pot Creek Pueblo located approximately 15 miles away from Taos Pueblo).
1100: Estimated time of multi-storied adobe construction begins in the Taos Valley. (Taos Pueblo was inhabited in the same time frame as Mesa Verde communities in the Southern Colorado Region. The Anasazi also known as Ancestral Puebloan peoples migrated out of their communities in the late 1200’s. It is known some of the people were absorbed into the other communities and started new communities along the Rio Grande.)
1350: The Pot Creek Pueblo is abandoned. Previous information states this would have been the time of Taos Pueblo’s construction, but recent accounts have stated different information. The Pot Creek community did disperse at this time and many of the people absorbed into the Picuris and Taos Pueblo communities. There were small villages located all over the Taos Valley area which were broken down for safety and preservation of life during the arrival and establishment of the Spanish community in the Taos Valley.
1540: Conquistador Hernando de Alvarado follows the Rio Grande north to Taos Valley. When he sees the sun shining on the straw in the adobes at Taos Pueblo, he believes he has found the famed Cities of Gold.
1610 – 1617: Fray Francisco de Zamora was based at the Taos Pueblo to spread the Catholic faith in the Taos Valley. The first mission church was founded around 1619 and became known as Mission de San Geronimo.
1680: The Pueblo people unite to drive out the Spanish.
1696: Don Diego de Vargas of Spain resettles the area around Taos Pueblo, Taos Plaza and Ranchos de Taos.
1723: The Spanish government forbids trade with the French, and limits trade with the Plains Indians only to Taos and Pecos, thereby giving rise to the annual summer trade fairs at those locations where Comanches, Kiowas and others come in great numbers to trade captives for horses, grain and trade goods from Chihuahua.
1776: At the time of the American Declaration of Independence according to the census taken by Father Dominguez, the Taos Valley area contained 67 families with 306 Spaniards. The Ranchos de Taos area was the most populated at that time.
Early 1800s: Taos becomes the headquarters for mountain men, such as Kit Carson, who marries Taoseña Josefa Jaramillo.
1826: Padre Antonio Jose Martinez begins serving the Taos parish. He starts the first newspaper west of the Mississippi, an offshoot of which is still in existence today.
1834 – 1835: The first printing press west of the Mississippi River was brought to Taos by Padre Martinez who then published the first newspaper “El Crepusculo” which is the predecessor to The Taos News. The first book published in New Mexico was published for the school.
1843: Kit and Josefa marry. Kit Carson purchases a house from the Jaramillo family as a wedding present to his new bride. The house built in 1825, served as the Carsons’ home until 1868, and today as the Kit Carson Home and museum.
1847: During the war with Mexico, some of the people of Taos rebel and kill U.S. Territorial Governor Charles Bent in his Taos home, as he attempts to escape through a hole he has dug in his adobe wall.
1848: The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed ending the Mexican/American War ceding Taos and the Southwest to the U.S. and making all non-Indian inhabitants who did not leave within one year citizens of the U.S.
1898: Artists Bert Phillips and Ernest Blumenschein stop to have a broken wagon wheel repaired, become enchanted with Taos and decide to stay. This event starts an immigration of artists that continues today.
1912: New Mexico became the 47th state of the United States of America.
1915: Taos Society of Artists was formed by Bert Philips, Ernest Blumenschein, Oscar Berninghaus, Joseph Sharp, E. Irving Couse and Herbert Dunton.
1917: Socialite Mabel Dodge Luhan arrives and eventually brings to Taos creative luminaries such as Ansel Adams, Willa Cather, Aldous Huxley, Carl Jung, D.H. Lawrence, Georgia O’Keeffe, Thornton Wilder and Thomas Wolfe.
1934: Town of Taos was incorporated.
1955 – 1956: Ernie and Rhoda Blake open Taos Ski Valley. The first lift goes up Al’s Run for 300 vertical feet and is 1,000 feet long.
1965: The second highest suspension bridge in the U.S. highway system is built spanning the Rio Grande Gorge. It is called the “bridge to nowhere” while it is being built, because the funding does not exist to continue the road on the other side.
1960s & 1970s: Taos is quite the hippie hang out. Many of the hippies stay and become part of the lively modern cultural scene of Taos.