Traditionally his career was placed before that of the High Priest of Amun, Piankh, since it was believed that the latter was his son. However, this filiation was based on an incorrect reconstruction by Karl Richard Lepsius of a scene in the Temple of Khonsu. It is now believed that the partly preserved name of the son of Herihor depicted there was not [Pi]Ankh, but rather Ankh[ef(enmut)]. 
Since then, Karl Jansen-Winkeln has argued that Piankh preceded rather than succeeded Herihor as High Priest at Thebes and that Herihor outlived Ramesses XI before being succeeded in this office by Pinedjem I, Piankh's son.  If Jansen-Winkeln is correct, Herihor would have served in office as High Priest, after succeeding Piankh, for longer than just 6 years, as is traditionally believed.
The following paragraphs contain several statements based on the traditional order (Herihor before Piankh) and therefore give only one possible reconstruction.
While his origins are unknown, it is thought that his parents were Libyans.  Jansen-Winkeln's recent publication in Zeitschrift für ägyptische Sprache suggests that Piankh – originally thought to be Herihor's successor – was actually Herihor's predecessor. 
Herihor advanced through the ranks of the military during the reign of Ramesses XI. His wife Nodjmet, may have been Ramesses XI's daughter—and perhaps even Piankh's wife if Piankh was his predecessor as Jansen-Winkeln today hypothesizes.  At the decoration of the hypostyle hall walls of the temple of Khonsu at Karnak, Herihor served several years under king Ramesses XI since he is shown obediently performing his duties as chief priest under this sovereign.  But he assumed more and more titles, from high priest to vizier, before finally openly taking the royal title at Thebes, even if he still nominally recognised the authority of Ramesses XI, the actual king of Egypt. It is disputed today whether or not this 'royal phase' of Herihor's career began during or after Ramesses XI's lifetime.
Herihor never really held power outside the environs of Thebes, and Ramesses XI may have outlived him by two years although Jansen-Winkeln argues that Ramesses XI actually died first and only then did Herihor finally assume some form of royal status at Thebes and openly adopted royal titles—but only in a "half-hearted" manner according to Arno Egberts who has adopted Jansen-Winkeln's views here.  Herihor's usurpation of royal privileges is observed "in the decoration of the court of the Khonsu temple" but his royal datelines "betray nothing of the royal status he enjoyed according to the contemporary scenes and inscriptions of the court of the Khonsu temple."  While both Herihor and his wife Nodjmet were given royal cartouches in inscriptions on their funerary equipment, their 'kingship' was limited to a few relatively restricted areas of Thebes whereas Ramesses XI's name was still recorded in official administrative documents throughout the country.  During the Wehem Mesut era, the Theban high priest—Herihor—and Ramesses XI quietly agreed to accept the new political situation where the High Priest was unofficially as powerful as Pharaoh. The report of Wenamun (also known as Wen-Amon) was made in Year 5 of Herihor and Herihor is mentioned in several Year 5 and Year 6 mummy linen graffiti.
The de facto split between Ramesses XI and his 21st Dynasty successors with the High Priests of Amun at Thebes (referred to in Ancient Egyptian as Wehem Mesut or 'Renaissance') resulted in the unofficial political division of Egypt between Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, with the kings ruling Lower Egypt from Tanis. This division did not come to a complete end until the accession of the Libyan Dynasty 22 king Shoshenq I in 943 BC. Shoshenq was able to appoint his son Iuput to be the new High Priest of Amun at Thebes, thus exercising authority over all of ancient Egypt.
It is beyond doubt that Herihor had a wife called Nodjmet. She has been attested in the Temple of Khonsu where she is depicted at the head of a procession of children of Herihor, and on Stela Leiden V 65, where she is depicted with Herihor, presented as High Priest without royal overtones, so apparently dating from quite early in his career.
Normally, she is identified with the mummy of a Nodjmet which was discovered in the Deir el-Bahari cache (TT320). With this mummy two Books of the Dead were found.  One of these, Papyrus BM 10490, now in the British museum, belonged to "the King’s Mother Nodjmet, the daughter of the King’s Mother Hrere". Whereas the name of Nodjmet was written in a cartouche, the name of Hrere was not. Since mostly this Nodjmet is seen as the wife of the High Priest Herihor, Herere’s title is often interpreted as "King’s Mother-in-law",  although her title "who bore the Strong Bull" suggests that she actually must have given birth to a king. 
However, recently, the common opinion that there was only one Queen Nodjmet has been challenged and the old view that the mummy found in the Royal Cache was that of the mother of Herihor rather than his wife has been revived.  
Although it is beyond dispute that Herihor had a queen called Nodjmet (this was already recognised by Champollion), as far back as 1878 Édouard Naville postulated that Herihor must have had a mother called Nodjmet. He did so on the basis of Papyrus BM 10541, the other Book of the Dead found with her mummy. As A. Thijs has recently pointed out, it is indeed remarkable that, although Herihor figures in P. BM 10541, Nodjmet nowhere in her two Books of the Dead is designated as "King’s Wife". All the stress is on her position as "King’s Mother". This is true for all the sources found in the Royal Cache.
The ruling family from the transitional period from the 20th to the 21st dynasty is notorious for the repetitiveness of names, so Herihor having a homonymous wife and mother would in itself not be impossible or even remarkable. If the Nodjmet from the Royal Cache was indeed the mother of Herihor, it follows that Hrere must have been the grandmother of Herihor rather than his mother(-in-law). In this position Hrere could well have been the wife of the High Priest Amenhotep. 
It has been proposed to refer to the Nodjmet found in the Royal Cache as "Nodjmet A" (=the mother of Herihor) and to the wife of Herihor as "Nodjmet B".
Traditional Ethiopian kinglists name Herihor, and his successors through Pinudjem II, among the rulers of Saba in the Semitic Agazyan Ethiopian dynasty,  and he is considered to have ruled Ethiopia for 16 years in addition to being de facto ruler in Egypt. According to Ethiopian historian Tekletsadiq Mekuria, Herihor's father was the former High Priest Amenhotep, and his mother was a daughter of Ramesses IV. 
According to the new hypothesis regarding the succession of the Amun priesthood, Pinedjem I was too young to succeed to the High Priesthood of Amun after the death of Piankh. Herihor instead intervened to assume this office. After Herihor's death, Pinedjem I finally claimed this office which had once been held by his father Piankh. This interpretation is supported by the decorations from the Temple of Khonsu at Karnak where Herihor's wall reliefs here are immediately followed by those of Pinedjem I with no intervening phase for Piankh and also by the long career of Pinedjem I who served as High Priest of Amun and later as king at Thebes.
He inherited a political and religious base of power at Thebes. Pinedjem strengthened his control over both Middle and Upper Egypt and asserted his kingdom's virtual independence from the Twenty-first Dynasty based at Tanis. He married Duathathor-Henuttawy, a daughter of Ramesses XI, to cement his relations with the other powerful families of the period. Their son, Psusennes I, went on to become Pharaoh at Tanis, thereby removing at a stroke the gap between the two families. In practice, however, the 21st dynasty kings and the Theban high priests were probably never very far apart politically since they respected each other's political autonomy.
Around Year 15 or 16 of Smendes, Pinedjem I proclaimed himself pharaoh over Upper Egypt  and his priestly role was inherited by his two sons Masaharta and Menkheperre. His daughter, Maatkare, held the position of Divine Adoratrice of Amun.
Pinedjem's mummy was found in the cache at Deir el-Bahri. [ citation needed ]
His parents Piankh and Nodjmet had several children three brothers (Heqanefer, Heqamaat, Ankhefenmut) and one sister (Faienmut) of Pinedjem I are known.  Three of his wives are known. Duathathor-Henuttawy, the daughter of Ramesses XI bore him several children: the future pharaoh Psusennes I, the God's Wife of Amun Maatkare, Princess Henuttawy and probably Queen Mutnedjmet, the wife of Psusennes. 
Another wife was Isetemkheb, Singer of Amun. She is mentioned along with Pinedjem I on bricks found at el-Hiban.  A possible third wife is Tentnabekhenu, who is mentioned on the funerary papyrus of her daughter Nauny.  Nauny was buried at Thebes and is called a King's Daughter, thus it is likely that Pinedjem was her father. 
Other than Psusennes, Pinedjem had four other sons, whose mother is unidentified, but one or more of them must have been born to Duathathor-Henuttawy:  Masaharta, Djedkhonsuefankh, Menkheperre (all of whom became High Priests of Amun)  and Nesipaneferhor, a God's Father (priest) of Amun, whose name replaced that of a son of Herihor in the Karnak temple of Khonsu. 
A History of Western Society, Volume 1 12th edition
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The past gets real and relevant as you hear the stories of ordinary people in History of Western Society, Volume 1. Successfully navigate the past by paying close attention to everyday life.
The Combined Volume includes all chapters.
Volume 1 includes Chapters 1-16.
Volume 2 includes Chapters 14-30.
Volume A includes Chapters 1-12.
Volume B includes Chapters 11-19.
Volume C includes Chapters 19-30.
Since 1300 includes Chapters 11-30.
NOTE: LaunchPad material that does not appear in the print book – including guided reading exercises, author features, LearningCurve adaptive quizzes, and summative quizzes– has been indicated on this table of contents as shown. Each chapter in LaunchPad also comes with a wealth of additional documents, videos, key terms flashcards, map quizzes, timeline activities, and much more, all of which can be easily integrated and assigned.
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
Understanding Western History
The Earliest Human Societies
From the First Hominids to the Paleolithic Era
Implications of Agriculture
Trade and Cross-Cultural Connections
Evaluating the Evidence 1.1: Paleolithic Venus Figures
Civilization in Mesopotamia
Environment and Mesopotamian Development
The Invention of Writing and the First Schools
Sumerian Politics and Society
Evaluating the Evidence 1.2: Gilgamesh’s Quest for Immortality
The Akkadians and the Babylonians
Cultural Exchange in the Fertile Crescent
Egyptian Society and Work
The Hyksos and New Kingdom Revival
Conflict and Cooperation with the Hittites
Evaluating the Evidence 1.3: Egyptian Home Life
Looking Back / Looking Ahead
Living in the Past: The Iceman
Thinking Like a Historian: Addressing the Gods
Mapping the Past: Empires and Migrations in the Eastern Mediterranean
Individuals in Society: Hatshepsut and Nefertiti
1. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 1 LaunchPad
Document 1-1: The Battle Between Marduk and Tiamat (ca. 2000–1000 B.C.E.)
Document 1-2: The Epic of Gilgamesh (ca. 2750 B.C.E.)
Document 1-3: The Code of Hammurabi (ca. 1780 B.C.E.)
Document 1-4: The Egyptian Book of the Dead (ca. 2100–1800 B.C.E.)
Document 1-5: Letters Between a Sumerian King and His Prime Minister (ca. 2000–1700 B.C.E.)
Document 1-6: Akhenaten, The Hymn to Aton (ca. 1350 B.C.E.)
Document 1-7: Lamentation Over the Destruction of Sumer and Ur (ca. 2000 - 1700 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 1
2 Small Kingdoms and Mighty Empires in the Near East
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
Iron and the Emergence of New States
The Decline of Egypt and the Emergence of Kush
Evaluating the Evidence 2.1: The Report of Wenamun
Hebrew Family and Society
Evaluating the Evidence 2.2: A Jewish Family Contract
Assyria, the Military Monarchy
Assyria’s Long Road to Power
Assyrian Rule and Culture
Evaluating the Evidence 2.3: Assyrians Besiege a City
The Empire of the Persian Kings
Consolidation of the Persian Empire
Thinking Like a Historian: The Moral Life
Mapping the Past: The Assyrian and Persian Empires, ca. 1000–500 b.c.e.
Living in the Past: Assyrian Palace Life and Power
Individuals in Society: Cyrus the Great
2. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 2 LaunchPad
Document 2-1: Book of Genesis (ca. 950–450 B.C.E.)
Document 2-2: Exodus and Deuteronomy (ca. 950–450 B.C.E.)
Document 2-3: Assyrian Kings Proclaim Their Greatness (ca. 1220–1070 B.C.E.)
Document 2-4: Cyrus and Persia, Ruling an Empire (ca. 550 B.C.E.)
Document 2-5: Book of Isaiah: Blessings for Cyrus (ca. 550 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 2
3 The Development of Greek Society and Culture
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
Homer, Hesiod, and the Epic
Evaluating the Evidence 3.1: Hesiod, Works and Days
The Development of the Polis in the Archaic Age
Organization of the Polis
War and Turmoil in the Classical Period
Growth of the Athenian Empire
The Struggle for Dominance
Philip II and Macedonian Supremacy
Classical Greek Life and Culture
Athenian Arts in the Age of Pericles
Public and Personal Religion
The Flowering of Philosophy
Evaluating the Evidence 3.2: The Acropolis of Athens
Evaluating the Evidence 3.3 Sophocles, Antigone
Living in the Past: Triremes and Their Crews
Mapping the Past: The Peloponnesian War, 431–404 b.c.e.
Thinking Like a Historian: Gender Roles in Classical Athens
Individuals in Society: Aristophanes00
3. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 3 LaunchPad
Document 3-1: Homer, The Odyssey: Odysseus and the Sirens (ca. 800 B.C.E.)
Document 3-2: Hesiod, Works and Days (ca. 800 B.C.E.)
Document 3-3: Sophocles, Antigone (441 B.C.E.)
Document 3-4: Thucydides, The History of the Peloponnesian War: Pericles’ Funeral Oration (ca. 400 B.C.E.)
Document 3-5: Plato, The Republic: The Allegory of the Cave (ca. 360 B.C.E.)
Document 3-6: Aristotle, Politics: Democracy (ca. 340 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 3
4 Life in the Hellenistic World 336–30 b.c.e.
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
Alexander’s Conquests and Their Political Legacy
Evaluating the Evidence 4.1: Arrian on Alexander the Great
Building a Hellenized Society
Greeks in Hellenistic Cities
The Economy of the Hellenistic World
Religion and Philosophy in the Hellenistic World
Philosophy and the People
Evaluating the Evidence 4.2: A Hellenistic Spell of Attraction
Hellenistic Science and Medicine
Evaluating the Evidence 4.3: The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Mapping the Past: The Hellenistic World, ca. 263 b.c.e
Living in the Past: Farming in the Hellenistic World
The Past Living Now: Container Shipping
Individuals in Society: Archimedes, Scientist and Inventor
Thinking Like a Historian: Hellenistic Medicine
4. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 4 LaunchPad
Document 4-1: Ephippus of Olynthus, On the Burial of Alexander and Hephaestion: Ephippus of Olynthus Remembers Alexander the Great (ca. 323 B.C.E.)
Document 4-2: Plutarch, Life of Cleomenes III (75 C.E.)
Document 4-3: Diogenes Laertius, The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers: Diogenes of Sinope, the Cynic (ca. 300–200 B.C.E.)
Document 4-4: Epicurus, The Principal Doctrines of Epicureanism (ca. 306 B.C.E.)
Document 4-5: Epictetus, Encheiridion, or The Manual (ca. 100 C.E.)
Document 4-6: Polybius, A Greek Historian Describes Byzantium’s Contribution to Regional Trade (ca. 170–118 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 4
5 The Rise of Rome ca. 1000–27 b.c.e.
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
The Roman Conquest of Italy
Evaluating the Evidence 5.1: The Temple of Hercules Victor
Greek Influence on Roman Culture
Opposing Views: Cato the Elder and Scipio Aemilianus
Evaluating the Evidence 5.2: A Woman’s Actions in the Turia Inscription
Reforms for Poor and Landless Citizens
Evaluating the Evidence 5.3: Cicero and the Plot to Kill Caesar
Mapping the Past: Roman Expansion During the Republic, ca. 282–44 b.c.e.
Living in the Past: Roman Table Manners
Thinking Like a Historian: Land Ownership and Social Conflict in the Late Republic
Individuals in Society: Queen Cleopatra
5. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 5 LaunchPad
Document 5-1: Livy, The Rape of Lucretia (ca. 27–25 B.C.E.)
Document 5-2: A Roman Wedding (ca. 160 c.e.)
Document 5-3: The Law of the Twelve Tables (449 b.c.e.)
Document 5-4: Seneca, The Sounds of a Roman Bath (ca. 50 C.E.)
Document 5-5: Appian of Alexandria, The Civil Wars (ca. 100 C.E.)
Document 5-6: Plutarch, On Julius Caesar, a Man of Unlimited Ambition (ca. 44 B.C.E.)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 5
6 The Roman Empire 27 b.c.e.–284 c.e.
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
The Flowering of Latin Literature
Evaluating the Evidence 6.1: Augustus, Res Gestae
Evaluating the Evidence 6.2: Ovid, The Art of Love
Evaluating the Evidence 6.3: Ara Pacis
The Julio-Claudians and the Flavians
The Age of the "Five Good Emperors"
Approaches to Urban Problems
Prosperity in the Roman Provinces
The Coming of Christianity
Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity
The Life and Teachings of Jesus
The Spread of Christianity
The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of Christianity
Civil Wars and Military Commanders
Thinking Like a Historian: Army and Empire
Individuals in Society: Pliny the Elder
Living in the Past: Roman Epitaphs: Death Remembers Life
Mapping the Past: Production and Trade in the Pax Romana, ca. 27 b.c.e.–180 c.e.
6. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 6 LaunchPad
Document 6-1: Tacitus, Germania (ca. 100 C.E.)
Document 6-2: Apuleius, The Golden Ass: The Veneration of Isis (ca. 170 C.E.)
Document 6-3: The Gospel According to Matthew: The Sermon on the Mount (28 C.E.)
Document 6-4: Paul of Tarsus, Epistle to the Galatians (ca. 50–60 C.E.)
Document 6-5: The Alexamenos Graffito (ca. 100 C.E.)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 6
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
Reconstruction Under Diocletian and Constantine
The Acceptance of Christianity
The Growth of the Christian Church
The Church and Its Leaders
The Development of Christian Monasticism
Christianity and Classical Culture
Christian Notions of Gender and Sexuality
Saint Augustine on Human Nature, Will, and Sin
Customary and Written Law
Celtic and Germanic Religion
Evaluating the Evidence 7.1: Tacitus on Germanic Society
Migration, Assimilation, and Conflict
Celtic and Germanic People in Gaul and Britain
Germanic Kingdoms and the End of the Roman Empire
Evaluating the Evidence 7.2: Battle Between Romans and Goths
Christian Missionaries and Conversion
The Process of Conversion
Evaluating the Evidence 7.3: Gregory of Tours on the Veneration of Relics
Sources of Byzantine Strength
The Law Code of Justinian
Byzantine Intellectual Life
Thinking Like a Historian: Slavery in Roman and Germanic Society
Mapping the Past: The Barbarian Migrations, ca. 340–500
Living in the Past: The Horses of Spain
Individuals in Society: Theodora of Constantinople
7. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 7 LaunchPad
Document 7-1: Saint Ambrose of Milan, Emperor Theodosius Brought to Heel (390)
Document 7-2: Saint Benedict of Nursia, The Rule of Saint Benedict (529)
Document 7-3: Saint Augustine, City of God: The Two Cities (413–426)
Document 7-4: The Law of the Salian Franks (ca. 500–600)
Document 7-5: Emperor Justinian, The Institutes of Justinian (529–533)
Document 7-6: Procopius of Caesarea, The Secret History (ca. 550)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 7
8 Europe in the Early Middle Ages 600–1000
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
The Teachings and Expansion of Islam
Cross-Cultural Influences in Science and Medicine
Evaluating the Evidence 8.1: The Muslim Conquest of Spain
Frankish Rulers and Their Territories
The Rise of the Carolingians
The Warrior-Ruler Charlemagne
Carolingian Government and Society
The Imperial Coronation of Charlemagne
Evaluating the Evidence 8.2: The Capitulary de Villis
The Carolingian Renaissance
Northumbrian Learning and Writing
Evaluating the Evidence 8.3: The Death of Beowulf
Vikings in Western Europe
Slavs and Vikings in Eastern Europe
Political and Economic Decentralization
Decentralization and the Origins of "Feudalism"
Manorialism, Serfdom, and the Slave Trade
Living in the Past: Muslim Technology: Advances in Papermaking
Individuals in Society: The Venerable Bede
Mapping the Past: Invasions and Migrations of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
Thinking Like a Historian: Vikings Tell Their Own Story
8. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 8 LaunchPad
Document 8-1: Ibn Abd-El-Hakem, The Conquest of Spain (ca. 870)
Document 8-2: Willibald, Saint Boniface Destroys the Oak of Thor (ca. 750)
Document 8-3: Charlemagne, Capitulary for Saxony (ca. 775–790)
Document 8-4: Charlemagne, General Capitulary for the Missi
Document 8-5: The Song of Roland (ca. 1100–1300)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 8
9 State and Church in the High Middle Ages 1000–1300
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
Political Revival and the Origins of the Modern State
Evaluating the Evidence 9.1: Marriage and Wardship in the Norman Exchequer
Local Laws and Royal Courts
Origins and Status of the Nobility
Training, Marriage, and Inheritance
Evaluating the Evidence 9.2: Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam
Life in Convents and Monasteries
Evaluating the Evidence 9.3: Brother Henry as Composer and Singer
The Crusades and the Expansion of Christianity
Background and Motives of the Crusades
The Course of the Crusades
Consequences of the Crusades
The Expansion of Christianity
Living in the Past: Life in an English Castle
Individuals in Society: Hildegard of Bingen
Mapping the Past: The Crusades
Thinking Like a Historian: Christian and Muslim Views of the Crusades
9. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 9 LaunchPad
Document 9-1: Duke William of Aquitaine, On the Foundation of Cluny (909)
Document 9-2: Anglo-Saxon Chronicle: William the Conqueror and the Domesday Book (1086)
Document 9-3: King John of England, From Magna Carta: The Great Charter of Liberties (1215)
Document 9-4: Pope Gregory VII and Emperor Henry IV, Mutual Recriminations: The Investiture Controversy Begins (1076)
Document 9-5: Robert the Monk of Rheims, Urban II at the Council of Clermont (ca. 1120)
Document 9-6: Guibert of Nogent/Anna Comnena, Peter the Hermit and the "People’s Crusade" (ca. 1108–1148)
Document 9-7: Anonymous of Mainz, The Slaughter of the Jews (ca. 1096)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 9
10 Life in Villages and Cities of the High Middle Ages 1000–1300
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
Slavery, Serfdom, and Upward Mobility
Childbirth and Child Abandonment
Christian Life in Medieval Villages
Rituals of Marriage and Birth
Evaluating the Evidence 10.1: The Pilgrim’s Guide to Santiago de Compostela
Towns and Economic Revival
Merchant and Craft Guilds
The Revival of Long-Distance Trade
The Commercial Revolution
Legal and Medical Training
Evaluating the Evidence 10.2: Healthy Living
Literature and Architecture
Vernacular Literature and Drama
Evaluating the Evidence 10.3: Courtly Love Poetry
Thinking Like a Historian: Social and Economic Relations in Medieval English Villages
Living in the Past: Child’s Play
Mapping the Past: European Population Density, ca. 1300
Individuals in Society: Francesco Datini
The Past Living Now: University Life
10. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 10 LaunchPad
Document 10-1: Manorial Records of Bernehorne (1307)
Document 10-2: On Laborers: A Dialogue Between Teacher and Student (ca. 1000)
Document 10-3: The Charter of the Laon Commune (ca. 1100–1120)
Document 10-4: The Ordinances of London’s Leatherworkers (1346)
Document 10-5: The Commune of Florence, A Sumptuary Law: Restrictions on Dress (1373)
Document 10-6: Saint Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologica: Proof of the Existence of God (1268)
Document 10-7: Jacques de Vitry, The Virgin Mary Saves a Monk and His Lover (ca. 1200)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 10
11 The Later Middle Ages 1300–1450
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
Climate Change and Famine
Economic, Religious, and Cultural Effects
Evaluating the Evidence 11.1: Dance of Death
Joan of Arc and France’s Victory
Evaluating the Evidence 11.2: The Trial of Joan of Arc
The Babylonian Captivity and Great Schism
Critiques, Divisions, and Councils
Social Unrest in a Changing Society
Ethnic Tensions and Restrictions
Literacy and Vernacular Literature
Evaluating the Evidence 11.3: Christine de Pizan, Advice to the Wives of Artisans
Mapping the Past: The Course of the Black Death in Fourteenth-Century Europe
Living in the Past: Treating the Plague
Individuals in Society: Meister Eckhart
Thinking Like a Historian: Popular Revolts in the Late Middle Ages
11. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 11 LaunchPad
Document 11-1: Giovanni Boccaccio, The Decameron: The Plague Hits Florence (ca. 1350)
Document 11-2: Angelo di Tura, Sienese Chronicle (1348–1351)
Document 11-3: The Anonimalle Chronicle: The English Peasants’ Revolt (1381)
Document 11-4: Petrarca-Meister, The Social Order (ca. 1515)
Document 11-5: Catherine of Siena, Letter to Gregory XI (1372)
Document 11-6: The Debate Over Joan of Arc’s Clothes (1429)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 11
12 European Society in the Age of the Renaissance 1350–1550
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
Wealth and Power in Renaissance Italy
Communes and Republics of Northern Italy
City-States and the Balance of Power
Evaluating the Evidence 12.1: A Sermon of Savonarola
Evaluating the Evidence 12.2: Thomas More, Utopia
Politics and the State in Western Europe
Evaluating the Evidence 12.3: A Gold Coin of Ferdinand and Isabella
Thinking Like a Historian: Humanist Learning
Mapping the Past: The Growth of Printing in Europe, 1448–1552
Individuals in Society: Leonardo da Vinci
Living in the Past: Male Clothing and Masculinity
12. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 12 LaunchPad
Document 12-1: Petrarch, Letter to Livy (1350)
Document 12-2: Niccolò Machiavelli, The Prince (1513)
Document 12-3: Baldassare Castiglione, The Book of the Courtier (1528)
Document 12-4: Desiderius Erasmus, The Education of a Christian Prince (1404)
Document 12-5: Christine de Pizan, The Book of the City of Ladies: Against Those Men Who Claim It Is Not Good for Women to Be Educated (1404)
Document 12-6: Artemisia Gentileschi, Susannah and the Elders (1610)
Document 12-7: Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith and Holofernes (1610)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 12
13 Reformations and Religious Wars 1500–1600
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
The Christian Church in the Early Sixteenth Century
The Appeal of Protestant Ideas
The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants’ War
Marriage, Sexuality, and the Role of Women
Evaluating the Evidence 13.1: Martin Luther, On Christian Liberty
Evaluating the Evidence 13.2: Domestic Scene
The Reformation and German Politics
The Rise of the Habsburg Dynasty
Religious Wars in Switzerland and Germany
The Spread of Protestant Ideas
Henry VIII and the Reformation in England
Upholding Protestantism in England
The Reformation in Eastern Europe
Evaluating the Evidence 13.3: Elizabethan Injunctions About Religion
Papal Reform and the Council of Trent
New and Reformed Religious Orders
The Netherlands Under Charles V
The Great European Witch-Hunt
Living in the Past: Uses of Art in the Reformation
Individuals in Society: Anna Jansz of Rotterdam
Thinking Like a Historian: Social Discipline in the Reformation
Mapping the Past: Religious Divisions in Europe, ca. 1555
13. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 13 LaunchPad
Document 13-1: Martin Luther, Ninety-five Theses on the Power of Indulgences (1517)
Document 13-2: Hans Holbein the Younger, Luther as the German Hercules (ca. 1519)
Document 13-3: Jean Bodin, On the Demon-Mania of Witches (1580)
Document 13-4: Elizabeth Fox Confesses to Witchcraft (1566)
Document 13-5: John Calvin, The Institutes of Christian Religion (1559)
Document 13-6: Ignatius of Loyola, Rules for Right Thinking (1548)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 13
14 European Exploration and Conquest 1450–1650
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
World Contacts Before Columbus
The Trade World of the Indian Ocean
The Trading States of Africa
The Ottoman and Persian Empires
Genoese and Venetian Middlemen
The European Voyages of Discovery
Causes of European Expansion
Technology and the Rise of Exploration
The Portuguese Overseas Empire
Spain’s Voyages to the Americas
Spain "Discovers" the Pacific
Early Exploration by Northern European Powers
Evaluating the Evidence 14.1: Columbus Describes His First Voyage
Spanish Conquest of the Aztec and Inca Empires
Colonial Empires of England and France
The Era of Global Contact
Indigenous Population Loss and Economic Exploitation
Sugar and SlaverySpanish Silver and Its Economic Effects
The Birth of the Global Economy
Evaluating the Evidence 14.2: Interpreting the Spread of Disease Among Natives
Changing Attitudes and Beliefs
European Debates About Indigenous Peoples
Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity
William Shakespeare and His Influence
Evaluating the Evidence 14.3: Tenochtitlan Leaders Respond to Spanish Missionaries
Mapping the Past: Overseas Exploration and Conquest in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries
Thinking Like a Historian: Who Was Doña Marina
Living in the Past: Foods of the Columbian Exchange
Individuals in Society: Juan de Pareja
14. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 14 LaunchPad
Document 14-1: Christopher Columbus, Diario (1492)
Document 14-2: Hernando Cortés, Two Letters to Charles V: On the Conquest of the Aztecs (1521)
Document 14-3: Alvise da Ca' da Mosto, Description of Capo Bianco and the Islands Nearest to It: Fifteenth-Century Slave Trade in West Africa (1455–1456)
Document 14-4: King Nzinga Mbemba Affonso of Congo, Letters on the Slave Trade (1526)
Document 14-5: Saint Francis Xavier, Missionaries in Japan (1552)
Document 14-6: Michel de Montaigne, Of Cannibals (1580)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 14
15 Absolutism and Constitutionalism ca. 1589–1725
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
Seventeenth-Century Crisis and Rebuilding
The Social Order and Peasant Life
Famine and Economic Crisis
Achievements in State-Building
Warfare and the Growth of Army Size
Absolutism in France and Spain
The Foundations of French Absolutism
The French Economic Policy of Mercantilism
The Decline of Absolutist Spain in the Seventeenth Century
Evaluating the Evidence 15.1: Letter from Versailles
Absolutism in Austria and Prussia
The Return of Serfdom in the East
Prussia in the Seventeenth Century
The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism
The Development of Russia and the Ottoman Empire
Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow
Building the Russian Empire
The Reforms of Peter the Great
Evaluating the Evidence 15.2: Peter the Great and Foreign Experts
Constitutional Rule in England and the Dutch Republic
Religious Divides and Civil War
The Restoration of the English Monarchy
The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century
Evaluating the Evidence 15.3: John Locke, Two Treatises of Government
Thinking Like a Historian: What Was Absolutism?
Mapping the Past: Europe After the Peace of Utrecht, 1715
Living in the Past: The Absolutist Palace
Individuals in Society: Hürrem
15. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 15 LaunchPad
Document 15-1: Henry IV, Edict of Nantes (1598)
Document 15-2: Jacques-Bénigne Bossuet, Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture (1679)
Document 15-3: The Bill of Rights (1689)
Document 15-4: Peter the Great, Edicts and Decrees (1699–1723)
Document 15-5: Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan (1651)
Document 15-6: John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government: Vindication for the Glorious Revolution (1690)
Quiz for Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 15
16 Toward a New Worldview 1540–1789
Guided Reading Exercise LaunchPad
The Scientific Revolution
Scientific Thought to 1500
The Copernican Hypothesis
Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo: Proving Copernicus Right
Natural History and Empire
Evaluating the Evidence 16.1: Galileo Galilei, The Sidereal Messenger
Important Changes in Scientific Thinking and Practice
The Methods of Science: Bacon and Descartes
Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry
Evaluating the Evidence 16.2: "An Account of a Particular Species of Cocoon"
The Rise and Spread of Enlightenment Thought
The Influence of the Philosophes
Enlightenment Movements Across Europe
The Social Life of the Enlightenment
Enlightenment Debates About Race
Women and the Enlightenment
Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere
Evaluating the Evidence 16.3: Denis Diderot, "Supplement to Bougainville’s Voyage"
Frederick the Great of Prussia
Catherine the Great of Russia
Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism
Thinking Like a Historian: The Enlightenment Debate on Religious Tolerance
Living in the Past: Coffeehouse Culture
Mapping the Past: The Partition of Poland, 1772–1795
Individuals in Society: Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment
16. Documents from Sources for A History of Western Society, Chapter 16 LaunchPad
Document 16-1: Nicolaus Copernicus, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1542)
Document 16-2: Francis Bacon, On Superstition and the Virtue of Science (1620)
Document 16-3: Frederick the Great, Essay on the Forms of Government (ca. 1740)
Document 16-4: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu, From The Spirit of Laws: On the Separation of Governmental Powers (1748)
Document 16-5: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract: On Popular Sovereignty and the General Will (1762)
He wishes to thank C. J. Eyre, Benjamin Foster, Edward Lipiński, Donald N. McCloskey, Douglass C. North, Piotr Steinkeller, Norman Yoffee, and especially Marvin A. Powell for their helpful suggestions and comments. This research was facilitated by a grant from a fund created by the will of the late Harry Schwager, a distinguished alumnus of the City College of New York, Class of 1911. Financial support was also received from the Faculty Senate of City College.Google Scholar
In translations the brackets enclose restorations of the text, and the parentheses enclose additions or variations in the English translation.Google Scholar
1 North , Douglass C. , “ Markets and Other Allocation Systems in History: The Challenge of Karl Polanyi ,” Journal of European Economic History , 6 ( Winter 1977 ), 703 –16.Google Scholar
2 North, “Markets and Other Allocation Systems,” p. 710.Google Scholar
3 Reliance has been placed on Polanyi's , Karl posthumously published manuscript entitled The Livelihood of Man ( New York , 1981 ). The editor of this volume, Pearson , Harry W. , has included material on Polanyi's life and contributed a useful introduction citing Polanyi's major publications and placing his thought in perspective.Google Scholar Extensive references to Polanyi and criticisms of both his theory and evidence are provided in a stimulating new book by North , Douglass C. , Structure and Change in Economic History ( New York , 1981 ).Google Scholar
4 Polanyi, Livelihood of Man, pp. xli, 146.Google Scholar
6 This possibility has been suggested by Merrilees , R. S. , “ Aegean Bronze Age Relations with Egypt ,” American Journal of Archaeology , 76 ( 07 1972 ), 286 –88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar Sources on treaties and royal commercial correspondence: Georgiou , Hara , “ Relations Between Cyprus and the Near East in the Middle and Late Bronze Age ,” Levant , 11 ( 1979 ), 93 , 96–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar Heltzer , Michael , Goods, Prices, and the Organization of Trade in Ugarit ( Wiesbaden , 1978 ), pp. 139 –42Google Scholar Larsen , Mogens Trolle , “ The Old Assyrian Colonies in Anatolia ,” Journal of the American Oriental Society , 94 ( 1974 ), 474 –75CrossRefGoogle Scholar Liverani , M. , “Irrational Elements in the Amarna Trade,” in Three Amarna Essays , intro. and trans. Jaffe , Matthew L. ( Malibu , 1979 ), pp. 21 – 33 Google Scholar Muhly , James D. , “The Bronze Age Setting,” in The Coming of the Age of Iron , ed. Wertime , Theodore A. and Muhly , James D. ( New Haven , 1980 ), p. 39 andGoogle Scholar Yoffee , Norman , Explaining Trade in Ancient Western Asia ( Malibu , 1981 ), p. 12 .Google Scholar
7 Sources on price formation in international markets: Heltzer, Goods, Prices and the Organization of Trade, chap. 2Google Scholar Leemans , W. F. , Foreign Trade in the Old Babylonian Period ( Leiden , 1960 ), pp. 8548 Google Scholar Veenhof , K. R. , Aspects of Old Assyrian Trade and Its Terminology ( Leiden , 1972 ), pp. 399 – 400 andGoogle Scholar Zaccagnini , Carlo , “The Merchant at Nuzi,” Iraq , 39 ( Autumn 1977 ), 187 .Google Scholar
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13 This position is derived from the redistributionist or temple-state hypothesis, which rests on the faulty assumption that most if not all agricultural land was owned by temples. For a recent critique, see Foster , Benjamin R. , “ A New Look at the Sumerian Temple State ,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient , 24 ( 10 1981 ), 225 –41. In a paper titled “The Gods as Inputs and Outputs of the Ancient Economy” prepared for presentation at the November 1983 meetings of the Southern Economic Association, I provide a treatment of this theme taking into account the entrepreneurial roles of temple and palace officials as well as the impact of tax exemptions granted to temples by the state.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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18 Sources on Egyptian middlemen in grain market: Blackman , Aylward M. and Peet , T. Eric , “ Papyrus Lansing: A Translation with Notes ,” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology , 11 ( 1925 ), 289 –90CrossRefGoogle Scholar Baer , Klaus , “ An Eleventh Dynasty Farmer's Letters to His Family ,” Journal of the American Oriental Society , 83 ( 1963 ), 3 , 9– 12 andCrossRefGoogle Scholar Janssen , Jac. J. , Two Ancient Egyptian Ship's Logs ( Leiden , 1961 ), p. 103 , and “Prolegomena to the Study of Egypt's Economic History,” p. 162.Google Scholar
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20 Sources on temple and palace loans: Harris , Rivkah , “ Old Babylonian Temple Loans ,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies , 14 ( 1960 ), 130 ,CrossRefGoogle Scholar “ The Organization and Administration of the Cloister in Ancient Babylonia ,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient , 6 ( 07 1963 ), 121 –22,CrossRefGoogle Scholar “ Some Aspects of the Centralization of the Realm Under Hammurabi and His Successors ,” Journal of the American Oriental Society , 88 ( 1968 ), 732 , andGoogle Scholar Ancient Sippar: A Demographic Study of an Old Babylonian City ( Istanbul , 1975 ), pp. 46 – 49 Google Scholar Leemans, “The Rate of Interest,” pp. 12–13Google Scholar Oelsner , J. , “Neue Daten Zur Sozialen und Wirtschaftlichen Situation Nippurs In Altbabylonischen Zeit,” in Wirzschaft und Gesellschaft im Alien Vorderasien , ed Harmatta , J. and Komoróczy , G. ( Budapest , 1976 ), p. 262 andGoogle Scholar Stone , Elizabeth C. , “ The Social Role of the Nadītu Women in Old Babylonian Nippur ,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient , 25 ( 02 1982 ), 57 – 58 .CrossRefGoogle Scholar On the possible role of Israelite temples in business activity, see Silver , Morris , Prophets and Markets: The Political Economy of Ancient Israel ( Boston , 1983 ). pp. 65 – 67 .CrossRefGoogle Scholar
21 Polanyi, Livelihood of Man, pp. 141–42. The Neo-Babylonian period includes both the seventh and sixth centuries B.C.Google Scholar
22 Ahmed, Southern Mesopotamia, pp. 144–45Google Scholar Bauer , Josef , “ Darlehensurkunden Aus Gursu ,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient , 18 ( 06 1975 ), 189 – 218 CrossRefGoogle Scholar Garelli , Paul , Les Assyriens en Cappadoce ( Paris , 1963 ), p. 262 Google Scholar Harris, “Old Babylonian Temple Loans,” pp. 130–31Google Scholar Leemans , , The Old Babylonian Merchant ( Leiden , 1950 ), pp. 3 , 11Google Scholar Owen , David I. , “The Loan Documents from Nuzu” (Ph.D. diss., Brandeis University , 1969 ), pp. 43 – 44 Google Scholar Parker , B. , “ The Nimrud Tablets, 1952—Business Documents ,” Iraq , 16 ( 1954 ), 31 CrossRefGoogle Scholar Saggs, The Greatness, p. 126Google Scholar Wiseman , D. J. , The Alalakh Tablets ( London , 1953 ), p. 42 andGoogle Scholar Zaccagnini, “The Merchants,” pp. 185–86.Google Scholar
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24 Polanyi, Livelihood of Man, pp. 6–7.Google Scholar
25 Sources on Mesopotamian land market: Ahmed, Southern Mesopotamia, pp. 145–47Google Scholar Bottéro , Jean , “The First Semitic Empire,” in The Near East: The Early Civilizations , ed. Bottéro , Jean et al. ( New York , 1967 ), p. 114 :Google Scholar Clay , Rachel , The Tenure of Land in Babylonia and Assyria ( London , 1938 )Google Scholar Diakonoff , I. M. , “ Slaves, Helots, and Serfs in Early Antiquity ,” Acta Antiqua , 22 ( 1974 ), 47 – 52 Google Scholar GeIb , I. J. , “ On the Alleged Temple and State Economies in Ancient Mesopotamia ,” Studi in Onore di Eduardo Volterra , 6 ( 1971 ), 137 –54, andGoogle Scholar “Household and Family in Early Mesopotamia,” in State and Temple Economy in the Ancient Near East , ed. Lipiński , Edward , vol. 2 ( Leiden , 1979 ), pp. 47 – 52 Google Scholar Harris, Ancient Sippar, pp. 213–14Google Scholar Kramer , Samuel Noah , The Sumerians ( Chicago , 1963 ), p. 75 Google Scholar Leemans , W. F. , “ The Role of Land Lease in Mesopotamia in the Early Second Millennium ,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient , 18 ( 06 1975 ), 137 –38Google Scholar Oates , Joan , “Mesopotamian Social Organization,” in The Evolution of Social Systems , ed. Friedman , J. and Rowlands , M. J. ( Pittsburgh , 1978 ), p. 477 Google Scholar Rabinowitz , Jacob J. , “ The Susa Tablets, The Bible, and the Aramaic Papyri ,” Vetus Testamentum , 11 ( 1961 ), 59 – 61 , 71–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar Struve , V. V. , “The Problem of the Genesis, Development, and Disintegration of the Slave Societies of the Ancient Orient” in Mesopotamia: Social and Economic History , ed. Diakonoff , I. M. ( Moscow , 1969 ), pp. 34 , 41 andGoogle Scholar Yaron , Reuven , “ On Defension Clauses of Some Oriental Deeds of Sale and Lease from Mesopotamia and Egypt ,” Bibliotheca Orientalis , 15 ( 01 – 03 1958 ), 15 – 22 . The oldest records of land transactions are undeciphered pictographs from the twenty-eighth century. In the Ur III period there are no clear cases of tield sales but there are two contracts that may refer to private land sales.Google Scholar There are references to privately owned land, rental contracts, and sales of privately owned orchards (Gelb, “On the Alleged Temple and State Economies,” pp. 148–52, and “Household and Family,” pp. 69–70). In addition, the še-urσ-ra texts show temples farming a “mortgaged field” and (apparently) lending out teams of plowmen and ox- drivers to independent field ownersGoogle Scholar ( Jones , Tom B. and Snyder , John W. , Sumerian Economic Texts from the Third Ur Dynasty [ Minneapolis , 1961 ], pp. 253 , 262, 269–70).Google Scholar
26 Labuschagne , C. L. , “The Našû-Nādanu Formula and its Biblical Equivalent,” in Travels in the World of the Old Testament , ed. Heerma Van Voss , M.S.H.G. et al. ( Assen , 1974 ), pp. 176 –77.Google Scholar
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28 Komoróczy , G. , “ Landed Property in Ancient Mesopotamia and the Theory of the So-called Asiatic Mode of Production ,” Oikumene , 2 ( 1978 ), 9 .Google Scholar
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30 Sources of land market outside Mesopotamia: Baer, “The Low Price of Land,” pp. 25–26 Gadd, “Assyria and Babylon,” p. 38Google Scholar Hinz , Walther , “Persia c. 1800–1550 B.C.” in The Cambridge Ancient History , 3d. ed. Vol. II , Part 1:Google Scholar History of the Middle East and the Aegean Region c. 1800–1380 B.C. , ed. Edwards , I. E. S. et al. ( London , 1973 ), p. 285 Google Scholar Muffs , Yohanan , Studies in the Aramaic Legal Papyri from Elephantine ( Leiden , 1969 ), p. 20 andGoogle Scholar Wiseman, The Alalakh Tablets, pp. 49–50.Google Scholar
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32 Sources on slavery: Harris, Ancient Sippar, pp. 342–44 Farber, “A Price and Wage Study,” pp. 12–14Google Scholar Mendelsohn , Issac , Slavery in the Ancient Near East ( New York , 1949 ), pp. 106 , 113–15Google Scholar Struve, “The Problem of the Genesis,” p. 54 andGoogle Scholar Yaron , Reuven , The Laws of Eshnunna ( Jerusalem , 1969 ), pp. 31 , 183–85.Google Scholar
33 Sources on wage labor: Cerný , Jaroslav , “The Abnormal-Hieratic Tablet Leiden I 431,” in Studies Presented to F. Ll. Griffith , intro. Mond , Robert ( London , 1932 ), pp. 46 – 56 Google Scholar Diakonoff, “Slaves, Helots, and Serfs,” p. 50 Dubberstein, “Comparative Prices,” p. 39Google Scholar Farber , Howard , “An Examination of Long Term Fluctuations in Prices and Wages for North Babylon During the Old Babylonian Period,” (M. A. thesis, Northern Illinois University , 1974 ), pp. 58 – 59 , and “A Price and Wage Study,” pp. 30–34, 50–51Google Scholar Geib , I. J. , “ The Ancient Mesopotamian Ration System ,” Journal of Near Eastern Studies , 24 ( 07 1965 ), 242 –43Google Scholar Goietze , Albrecht , “ Two Ur Dynasty Tablets Dealing with Labor ,” Journal of Cuneiform Studies , 16 , ( 1962 ), 13 – 16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar Grayson , Albert K. , Assyrian Royal Inscriptions , vol. I ( Wiesbaden , 1972 ), fn. 64, pp. 20 – 21 Google Scholar Harris, Ancient Sippar, pp. 245–46 Jones and Snyder, Sumerian Economic Texts, p. 255 Leemans, The Legal and Administrative Documents, pp. 90–92, 103, 108 Snell, Ledgers and Prices, p. 12Google Scholar Steinkeller , Piotr , “ The Renting of Fields in Early Mesopotamia and the Development of the Concept of ‘Interest’ in Sumerian ,” Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient , 24 ( 05 1981 ), 124 Google Scholar Struve, “The Problem of the Genesis,” pp. 41, 50.Google Scholar
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35 Humphreys, History, Economics, and Anthropology, p. 49.Google Scholar
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37 Sources on large-scale trade: Mogens Trolle Larsen, The Old Assyrian City-State and Its Colonies ( Copenhagen , 1976 ), p. 89 Google Scholar Lewy , Julius , “ Some Aspects of Commercial Life in Assyria and Asia Minor in the Nineteenth Pre-Christian Century ,” Journal of the American Oriental Society , 78 ( 1958 ), 91 CrossRefGoogle Scholar Oppenheim, “The Seafaring Merchants,” p. 10Google Scholar Roaf , Michael , “ Weights on the Dilmun Standard ,” Iraq , 44 ( Autumn 1982 ), 137 –41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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Mare clausum? Sailing Seasons in the Mediterranean in Early Antiquity
The modern notion of navigation in antiquity is that it came to an almost complete standstill in the winter. A survey of pre-Roman sources reveals that this notion is only partially correct. While coastal navigation was brought to a standstill in the winter, open-water routes were open for navigation in summer and winter alike.
An earlier version of this paper was written as a chapter in my MA thesis, ‘The Sea as Economic Factor: Aspects in the Maritime Connections of the Eastern Mediterranean Populace, from the Amarna Age to the Decline of the Assyrian Empire’, Tel Aviv University, 1986. I am grateful to Yulia Ustinova for translating P. Cairo Zenon 59029 from the Greek.
 Rougé, Ships and Fleets Rougé, J. 1981 . Ships and Fleets of the Ancient Mediterranean, Middletown, CT : Wesleyan University Press . [Google Scholar] , 15–16. For a similar observation see Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World Braudel, F. 1972 . The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, Vol. 1, New York : Harper and Row . [Google Scholar] , 246.
 Casson, Ships and Seamanship Casson, L. 1971 . Ships and Seamanship in the Ancient World, Princeton : Princeton University Press . [Crossref] , [Google Scholar] , 270–72. Casson's opinion is accepted by other scholars. The exception is sometimes attributed to the willingness of the Rhodian sailors to make the passage outside the normal sailing season: Skeat, The Zenon Archive, 76 n. 4.
 De Saint-Denis, ‘Mare clausum’ de Saint-Denis, E. 1947 . Mare clausum . Revue des Études Latines, 25: 195 – 214 . [Google Scholar] Rougé, ‘La navigation hivernale’ Rougé, J. 1952 . La navigation hivernale sous l'empire romain . Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 54: 316 – 25 . [Google Scholar] . Other scholars have reached more or less the same conclusion. McCaslin concluded that ‘no one in his right mind would sail in the winter when the stormy winds might blow any which way and when the heavy clouds would obscure the sky and thus hinder navigation’. McCaslin, Stone Anchors in Antiquity McCaslin, E.D. 1980 . Stone Anchors in Antiquity: Coastal Settlements and Maritime Trade-Routes in the Eastern Mediterranean ca. 1600–1050 B.C, Göteborg : Paul Aström . [Google Scholar] , 89–90.
 According to Milner, Vegetius Milner, N.P. 1996 . Vegetius: Epitome of Military Science, 2d rev. ed. , Liverpool : University of Liverpool Press . ed. and trans [Google Scholar] , 146 n. 2, the date of this event is 5 March.
 Vegetius 4.39.7 Milner, Vegetius, 146–47. Modern dates were added by the translator.
 Hesiod Works and Days 663–78. This season is not mentioned explicitly, but since winter begins in mid-November and summer ends in early September it stands to reason that autumn is treated by Hesiod as a different season.
 Hesiod Works and Days 620–30.
 Hesiod Works and Days 680–85.
 Ovid Fasti 4.131–32 Catullus 46.1–5 Pliny Natural History 2.47. According to Pliny spring begins on 8 February, when the sun occupies the twenty-fifth degree of Aquarius (see Rackham, Pliny Rackham, H. 1938 . Pliny, the Elder: Natural History, London : William Heinemann . ed. and trans [Google Scholar] , 263).
 Euripides Ion 1155–56 Manilius Astronomica 1.364–65.
 This text has three variants, listed here as A, B, and C. Another text, listed here as D, is a later (?) variant that adds to the decree merchants from the town of Kutapa. The first three texts were published by Nougayrol, Textes accadiens des Archives Sud Nougayrol, J. 1956 . Textes accadiens des Archives Sud Vol. 4, Paris : Imprimerie National . Le Palais Royal d'Ugarit [Google Scholar] (hereafter PRU 4): A, RS 17.130 (Pl. 15) B, RS 17.461 (Pl. 76) C, RS 18.03 (Pl. 78). These texts are transliterated and translated in Nougayrol, PRU 4, 103–4. For a recent bibliography on these texts see Beckman, Hittite Diplomatic Texts Beckman, G. 1996 . Hittite Diplomatic Texts, Atlanta, GA : Scholars Press . [Google Scholar] , 178. D (RS 34.179) was edited and published by Malbran-Labat, ‘Traité’ Malbran-Labat, F. 1991 . “ Traité ”. In Une bibliothèque au sud de la village:, Ras Shamra–Ougarit 7 Edited by: Bordreuil, P. Paris : Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations . Les textes de la 34e campagne [Google Scholar] , 15–16. Here I generally follow the translation of Beckman, Hittite Diplomatic Texts, 162–63.
 A large Hittite town near or on the Mediterranean coast of Cilicia (perhaps modern Silifke). See Lemaire, ‘Ougarit, Oura et la Cilicie’ Lemaire, A. 1995 . Ougarit, Oura et la Cilicie vers la fin du XIIIe s. av. J-C. . Ugarit Forschungen, 25: 227 – 36 . [Google Scholar] .
 C: ‘are a heavy burden in the midst of the land of Ugarit’.
 C: ‘with the men of the land of Ugarit’.
 D adds: ‘and the men of Ku[tapa]’.
 C: ‘and even if a merchant should lose his capital and (wish to) stay in the land of Ugarit’.
 B and D: ‘in the midst of the land of Ugarit’. D repeats this phrase a second time, which is probably a dittography.
 C adds ‘merchants’. D adds ‘and men of Kutapa’.
 C omits ‘of the land of Ugarit’.
 D adds ‘and [the men of Kutapa]’.
 KTU 2.38 (RS 18.31) was published by Virolleaud, Textes en cunéiformes alphabétiques (hereafter PRU 5), no. 59. KTU is an abbreviation for Dietrich, Loretz, and Sanmartín, Die keilalphabetischen Texte aus Ugarit Dietrich, M. , Loretz, O. and Sanmartín, J. 1976 . Die keilalphabetischen Texte aus Ugarit, einschliesslich der keilalphabetischen Texte ausserhalb Ugarits, Transkription Vol. 1, Neukirchen : Neukirchener Verlag . [Google Scholar] , which contains editions of all the Ugaritic texts that were known in 1976.
 Perhaps enclitic n. See Tropper, ‘Zur Grammatik der ugaritischen Omina’ Tropper, J. 1994 . Zur Grammatik der ugaritischen Omina . Ugarit Forschungen, 26: 457 – 72 . [Google Scholar] , 467. Virolleaud, PRU 5 Virolleaud, C. 1965 . Textes en cunéiformes alphabétiques des Archives Sud, Sud-oeust et du Petit Palais Vol. 5, Paris : Imprimerie National . Le Palais Royal d'Ugarit [Google Scholar] , 81–82, emended the text to ‘any kn’ and translated it as ‘fort navire’ Lipinski, ‘Recherches ugarit’, 283, translated it as ‘Vaisseau solide’, and Sasson, ‘Canaanite Maritime Involvement’ Sasson, J.M. 1966 . Canaanite Maritime Involvement in the 2nd Millennium B.C . Journal of the American Oriental Society, 86: 126 – 38 . [Crossref] , [Google Scholar] , 137, translated it as ‘merchant vessel’.
 This letter contains many unsolved textual problems. Many of the words in it appear only in this text. Because of this, translations of some lines are based on little more then guesswork. I have included some of the more plausible suggestions, but the discussion here is by no means exhaustive. A full treatment was given by J.–L. Cunchillos, ‘Correspondance’ Cunchillos, J.-L. 1989 . “ Correspondance ”. In Textes ougaritiques, Vol. 2, Textes religieux, rituals, correspondance, Edited by: Caquote, A. , Tarragon, J.-M. and Cunchillos, J.-L. Paris : Editions du Cerf . [Google Scholar] .
 Following the majority of scholars, among them Virolleaud, PRU 5, 82, and Sasson, ‘Canaanite Maritime Involvement’, 137. Dissenting views include Cunchillos, ‘Correspondance’, 351 and n. 9, and Tropper, ‘Zur Grammatik der ugaritischen Omina’, 457: ‘Flotte’.
 ‘mtt’ is a hapax legomenon. Most scholars (among others Sasson, ‘Canaanite Maritime Involvement’, and Linder, ‘The Maritime Texts of Ugarit’ Linder, E. The Maritime Texts of Ugarit . Ph.D. diss . Brandeis University . [Google Scholar] , 45) followed Gordon, Ugaritic Textbook Gordon, C.H. 1965 . Ugaritic Textbook, Rome : Pontifical Biblical Institute . [Google Scholar] , 19.443, who translated: ‘she (the ship) died’. Dietrich and Loretz, ‘Zur Ugaritischen Lexikographie [I]’ Dietrich, M. and Loretz, O. 1966 . Zur ugaritischen Lexikographie [I] . Bibliotheca Orientalis, 23: 127 – 33 . [Google Scholar] , 132, and Dietrich, Loretz, and Sanmartín, ‘Zur Ugaritischen Lexikographie [VII]’ Dietrich, M. , Loretz, O. and Sanmartín, J. 1973 . Zur ugaritischen Lexikographie [VII] . Ugarit Forschungen, 5: 79 – 104 . [Google Scholar] , 93, have emended the text ‘ < t>mtt’ and translated it as ‘Mannschaft’. Cunchillos, ‘Correspondance’, 351–52 and n. 8, used the Akkadian cognate muttatu (‘half’) and translated: ‘La moite de la flotte que tu avais commandée en Égypte, se trouva à Tyr par (à cause d’) une pluie torrentielle’.
 ‘rb tmtt’ is a hapax legomenon. Most scholars believe that this rb tmtt was a Tyrian bureaucrat (Virolleaud, PRU 5, 82 Sasson, ‘Canaanite Maritime Involvement’ Dietrich and Loretz, ‘Zur ugaritischen Lexikographie (I)’, 132: ‘Mannschaftsführers’ Hoftijzer, ‘Une lettre du roi de Tyr’ Hoftijzer, J. 1979 . Une lettre du roi de Tyr . Ugarit Forschungen, 11: 383 – 8 . [Google Scholar] , 386 Lipinski, ‘Recherches ugarit’ Lipinski, E. 1967 . Recherches Ugarit . Syria, 44: 253 – 87 . [Google Scholar] , 283 Cunchillos, ‘Correspondance’, 354–55 and Miller, ‘Patterns of Verbal Ellipsis’ Miller, C.L. 1999 . Patterns of Verbal Ellipsis in Ugaritic Poetry . Ugarit Forschungen, 31: 333 – 72 . [Google Scholar] , 335). Among the dissenting views is Sivan, Grammar Sivan, D. 2001 . A Grammar of the Ugaritic Language, Leiden : Brill . [Crossref] , [Google Scholar] , 73: ‘the lord of mortality’.
 Literally ‘hand’, following Virolleaud, PRU 5, 82 Hoftijzer, ‘Une lettre du roi du Tyr’, 388. For other suggestions see Sasson, ‘Canaanite Maritime Involvement’: ‘cargo’ Lipinski, ‘Recherches ugarit’, 283: ‘fret’ Cunchillos, ‘Correspondance’, 354–55 and n. 19: ‘blé’. Cunchillos is followed by Miller, ‘Patterns of Verbal Ellipsis’, 335: ‘seed’.
 Following Hoftijzer, ‘Une lettre du roi du Tyr’, 387, who emended the text and read ‘bdnhm’.
 Following Cunchillos, ‘Correspondance’, 356 n. 26, and Sivan, Grammar, 161.
 There are two possible translations for t¯t: ‘idle’, ‘still’, and the like and ‘second’ or ‘other’. See Renfroe, Arabic-Ugaritic Lexical Studies, 68–69.
 Rainey, A Social Structure of Ugarit Rainey, A.F. 1967 . A Social Structure of Ugarit, Jerusalem : Bialik Institute . [Google Scholar] , 158 n.118.
 Renfroe, Arabic-Ugaritic Lexical Studies Renfroe, F. 1992 . Arabic-Ugaritic Lexical Studies, Münster : Ugarit-Verlag . [Google Scholar] , 69.
 The oven was apparently built by new settlers after the city was conquered. Yon, ‘The End of the Kingdom of Ugarit’ Yon, M. 1992 . “ The End of the Kingdom of Ugarit ”. In The Crisis Years: The 12th Century B.C. from beyond the Danube to the Tigris, Edited by: Ward, W.A. and Joukowski, M.S. Dubuque, IA : Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company . [Google Scholar] , 119.
 A document sent from Carchemish to Ugarit (RS 34.147) lists ‘ships that belong to the [subjects of?] king of Carchemish [and] are very old and cannot go anywhere’. These ships are described in detail as to their owner and their fittings (or rather lack thereof), but nothing is said of their whereabouts (see Malbran-Labat, ‘Lists’ Malbran-Labat, F. 1991 . “ Lists ”. In Une bibliothèque au sud de la ville:, Ras Shamra–Ougarit 7 Edited by: Bordreuil, P. Paris : Editions Recherche sur les Civilisations . Les textes de la 34e campagne, edited by [Google Scholar] , no. 5.).
 Following Hoftijzer, ‘Une lettre du roi de Tyr’, 385 and n.19 and the majority of the scholars who have worked on this text.
 Once the assumption that the ship was carrying grain is called into question, Renfroe's argument can be used in an inverse way: The fact that the ship proceeded to Acco from Tyre shows that it was on its way to Egypt.
 Ashbel, Rainfall Observations Ashbel, D. 1963 . One Hundred and Seventeen Years, 1845–1962, of Rainfall Observations, Jerusalem : Hebrew University . [Google Scholar] .
 For a translation see Lichtheim, ‘The Report of Wenamun’ Lichtheim, M. 1997 . “ The Report of Wenamun ”. In The Context of Scripture, Edited by: Hallo, W.W. Vol. 1, Leiden : Brill . [Google Scholar] see also Wente ‘The Report of Wenamun’ Wente, E.F. 1973 . “ The Report of Wenamun ”. In The Literature of Ancient Egypt, 2d ed. , Edited by: Simpson, W.K. New Haven : Yale University Press . et al. [Google Scholar] . The text is probably a copy of a real report (following Grieg, ‘sDm = f and sDm.n = f Grieg, G.S. 1990 . “ sDm=f and sDm.n=f in Sinuhe ”. In Studies in Egyptology Presented to Miriam Lichtheim, Edited by: Israelit-Groll, Sarah . Jerusalem : Magnes . [Google Scholar] in Sinuhe’ Lichtheim ‘The Report of Wenamun’, 89 and Wente, ‘The Report of Wenamun’, 142). For an opposing view see Sass, ‘Wenamun and His Levant’ Sass, B. 2002 . Wenamun and His Levant — 1075 BC or 925 BC . Ägypten und Levante, 12: 247 – 55 . [Google Scholar] .
 Lichtheim, ‘The Report of Wenamun’, 89. For an opposing view see Sass, ‘Wenamun and his Levant’.
 ‘Summer’ and ‘winter’ should not be taken literally. The Egyptian year is uniformly 365 days long. Being about a quarter of a day shorter than the solar year, it wanders in relation to the latter (see Depuyedt, ‘On the Consistency of the Wandering Year’ Depuyedt, L. 1995 . On the Consistency of the Wandering Year as Backbone of Egyptian Chronology . Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, 22: 43 – 58 . [Google Scholar] ).
 On the Renaissance era, see Kitchen, The Third Intermediate Period Kitchen, K. A. 1986 . The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt (1100–650), 2nd ed , Warminster : Aris & Phillips . [Google Scholar] , Tables 1 and 2 and passim.
 The autumn migration falls between mid-September and early November. Leshem and Bahat, Flying with the Birds Leshem, Y. and Bahat, O. 1999 . Flying with the Birds, Tel Aviv : Tel Aviv University . [Google Scholar] .
 The passage in question reads: ‘I went off to the shore of the sea, to where the logs were lying. And I saw eleven ships that had come from the sea and belonged to the Tjeker (who were) saying: “Arrest him! Let no ship of his leave for the land of Egypt!”
‘… Then I sat down and wept. And the secretary of the prince came out to me and said to me: “What is it?” I said to him: “Do you not see the migrant birds going down to Egypt a second time? Look at them travelling to the cool water! Until when shall I be left here? For do you not see those who have come to arrest me?”’ (Lichtheim, ‘The Report of Wenamun’, 92).
A fundamentally different translation is suggested and defended by Egberts, ‘The Chronology of Wenamun’ Egberts, A. 1991 . The Chronology of Wenamun . Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 77: 62 – 7 . [Google Scholar] .
 Lefebvre, ‘Sur trois dates dans les mésaventures d'Ounamun’ Lefebvre, G. 1936 . Sur trois dates dans les mésaventures d'Ounamun . Chronique d'Egypte, 11: 97 – 9 . [Google Scholar] . This theory is generally accepted (see, e.g., Lichtheim, ‘The Report of Wenamun’, 90).
 According to Lichtheim, ‘The Report of Wenamun’, B reads: ‘I stayed until the fourth month of summer in Tanis’. Goedicke, ‘The Report of Wenamun’ Goedicke, H. 1975 . The Report of Wenamun, Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University . [Google Scholar] , 24, emends the text and translates: ‘I began the fourth month (of the journey) while I was still in Tanis’. According to Lichtheim, C reads: ‘I went down upon the great sea of Syria in the first month of summer, day 1’. Goedicke (24, 27) emends the text and translates: ‘and I embarked for the great Syrian sea. Within the month I reached Dor’.
 Egberts, ‘The Chronology of Wenamun’, 58.
 Porten and Yardeni, Textbook of Aramaic Documents Porten, B. and Yardeni, A. 1993 . Textbook of Aramaic Documents from Ancient Egypt, Vol. 3, Jerusalem : Hebrew University . [Google Scholar] , and Yardeni, ‘Maritime Trade and Royal Accountancy’ Yardeni, A. 1994 . Maritime Trade and Royal Accountancy in an Erased Customs Account from 475 B.C.E. on the Ahiqar Scroll from Elephantine . Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 293: 67 – 78 . [Google Scholar] . For an exhaustive analysis see Briant and Descat, ‘Un registre douanier’ Briant, P. and Descat, R. 1998 . “ Un registre douanier de la satrapie d'Egypte à l'époque achéménide (TAD C3) ”. In Le commerce en Egypte ancienne, Edited by: Grimal, N. and Menu, B. Paris : Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale . [Google Scholar] .
 The meaning of aswt k[hdot]mw[sbreve] is unknown. My suggestion that it means a large ship that arrived empty is based on the following considerations: (1) Ships distinguished as large ships or aswt k[hdot]mw[sbreve] were listed together on their way out as ‘ships’. (2) No taxes in merchandise or finished goods were levied on aswt k[hdot]mw[sbreve] they paid only gold and silver. (3) Aswt k[hdot]mw[sbreve] were not required to pay the levy called the ‘silver of the men’, a fixed amount of silver and/or wine, oil, and finished wood products paid upon arrival. The fact that this levy was added to the import tax suggests that it was not a tax, and I suggest that it was a payment for porters provided by the Persian authorities. An empty ship did not need the service of porters, and therefore did not have to pay this levy.
 In the summary large ships and aswt k[hdot]mw[sbreve] are classified as ‘Ionian ships’, while dwgy qnd/rt‘’ and dwgy qnd/rt[sbreve]yry are classified as kzd/ry (the meaning of which is unknown).
 The meaning of this term is unknown.
 The text that lists the merchandise exported by dwgy qnd/rt‘’ and dwgy qnd/rt[sbreve]yry is not preserved, but one can safely assume that they carried natron as well.
 Text is not preserved. Porten and Yardeni, Textbook of Aramaic Documents, 179, suggest ‘silver of the men’, but this is unlikely.
 Porten and Yardeni, Textbook of Aramaic Documents, and Yardeni, ‘Maritime Trade and Royal Accountancy’, have suggested the former and Briant and Descat, ‘Un registre douanier’, 60–62, the latter.
 The first datable arrival was on Atyr 30 (19 March), but the record on two earlier arrivals is damaged. Porten and Yardeni, Textbook of Aramaic Documents, 82.
 The sojourn in Egypt took between 7 and 26 days. Briant and Descat, ‘Un registre douanier’, 79–80. However, in most datable cases the sojourn took between 8 and 11 days. Porten and Yardeni, Textbook of Aramaic Documents, 288–89.
 Porten and Yardeni, Textbook of Aramaic Documents. The record is damaged.
 The months that are excluded here are from May to August.
 For a commentary see Isager and Hansen, Aspects of Athenian Society Isager, S. and Hansen, M. H. 1975 . Aspects of Athenian Society in the Fourth Century B.C, Odense : Odense University Press . [Google Scholar] , 200–213.
 Demosthenes Against Dionysodorus 29–30 Murray, Demosthenes: Private Orations Murray, A.T. 1939 . Demosthenes: Private Orations 50–58, Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press . ed. and trans [Google Scholar] , 213–15.
 Edgar, Zenon Papyri Nos. 59001 Edgar, C.C. 1925 . Zenon Papyri Nos. 59001–59139, Cairo : Imprimerie de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale . [Google Scholar] –59139, 50–51. Translated by Yulia Ustinova. On dates in Hellenistic Egypt see Samuel, Ptolemaic Chronology Samuel, A.E. 1962 . Ptolemaic Chronology, München : Beck . [Google Scholar] .
 The exact location of Arsinoë is unknown, but it was probably somewhere in the vicinity of Patara.
 Edgar, Zenon Papyri in the University of Michigan Collection Edgar, C. C. 1931 . Zenon Papyri in the University of Michigan Collection, Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press . [Google Scholar] , 71.
 Skeat, The Zenon Archive Skeat, T.C. 1974 . The Zenon Archive, London : British Library Board . [Google Scholar] , 74–76.
 The hypothesis that the routes that connected Phoenicia to Egypt were only coastal routes was already unlikely and is now, given the new evidence on eighth-century ships sunk 33 nautical miles off the coast, even more so (see Ballard et al. Ballard, R. D. , Stager, L. E. , Master, D. , Yoerger, D. , Mindell, D. , Whitcomb, L. , Singh, H. and Piechota, D. 2002 . Iron Age Shipwrecks in Deep Water off Ashqelon, Israel . American Journal of Archaeology, 106: 151 – 68 . [Crossref], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar] , ‘Iron Age Shipwrecks’).
 By ‘coastal navigation’ I mean voyaging in which the crew maintains eye contact with the shore most of the time. Sailing in the Aegean, for example, is essentially coastal navigation.
 This is demonstrated in Demosthenes Against Dionysodorus, in which the same ship was used both for open-water and coastal navigation.
 Synesius ep. 5 FitzGerald, The Letters of Synesius of Cyrene FitzGerald, A. 1926 . The Letters of Synesius of Cyrene, Oxford : Oxford University Press . ed. and trans [Google Scholar] , 80–91.
 Evidence for this interpretation from the Roman period relates to three sea routes: from Rome to Alexandria, from Alexandria to Greece, and from Rome to Syria and Palestine and back. The route from Rome to Alexandria was an open-water route and therefore open for navigation in the winter (Tacitus Histories 4.51). The way back was much more difficult. A journey from Egypt to Rome always began with a crossing of the Mediterranean Sea from south to north towards the Greek islands or Asia Minor. This was an open-water route and therefore was open for navigation in winter (Philonis In Flaccus idem, Legatio ad gaium Josephus Jewish Antiquities 14.3 idem, Jewish War 1.2–3). From there a ship headed for Rome would have turned west and proceeded under the restrictions of coastal navigation, which meant wintering in an anchorage along the way (Acts 27.5–6, 7–12). Thus the route from Alexandria to Greece and Asia Minor was actually part of the route from Alexandria to Rome and therefore the evidence concerning it is connected to the evidence concerning the latter. We lack, however, evidence on the opposite route, from Greece and Asia Minor to Alexandria. The route from Syria and Palestine to Rome and back was mainly a coastal navigation route (with the possible exception of the passage from Brindisium to Greece, which was also attempted in winter [Plutarch Crassus 17]). As such, it was not used in winter (Josephus Jewish War 2.11, 7.1 idem, Jewish Antiquities 18.8).
 Wenamun's despair at the sight of the migrating birds flying to Egypt is quite understandable. He knew that staying in Byblos in the autumn meant being stranded there until the next autumn.
The Report of Wenamun, Page 1 - History
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Steven Gregory is the founding Editor of the Birmingham Egyptology Journal.
He studied at the University of Exeter and later at the University of Birmingham where he has also taught on undergraduate courses for short periods.
He is currently engaged in independent research which focuses primarily upon the interpretation of artistic and architectural elements of the ritual landscape of New Kingdom Thebes to further evaluate the nature of pharaonic ideology, particularly the role of the king and his deputies in the elite hierarchy - officials who, in modern interpretation, have often been described as members of, or associated with, the ancient Egyptian priesthood. A further interest is the Egyptian understanding of metaphysics, and how that may have influenced Ancient Greek schools of thought - influences which remain evident in philosophical reasoning to recent times.
The terms nHH and Dt, frequently used individually or in combination in royal inscriptions and, o. more The terms nHH and Dt, frequently used individually or in combination in royal inscriptions and, on occasion, in wider literary contexts are terms generally translated as virtual synonyms meaning eternity – or are given some related temporal connotation. Nonetheless, it has long being recognized that these terms, from the ancient Egyptian perspective, represented two distinct temporal concepts, although there has been little agreement, or even clarity, within scholarly discourse as to precisely what those respective concepts may be.
This paper, a preliminary study, examines the possibility that while nHH and Dt did have temporal implications they may also have had wider ontological associations: connotations which may in fact have related to time, but to time as may rather be perceived within two discrete realities – one physical, one metaphysical. In respect of the physical nHH, it is proposed, related to time as the object of human experience whereas Dt related to a metaphysical position beyond the time of human experience: a static, enduring condition which may be thought of as ever-present, or perhaps a state of continuing perfection existing before, during, and beyond that of human awareness.
It was, moreover, the described perfection of the world of Dt time which provided the template for activity within the time of nHH: it was the basis of ancient Egyptian ideology. As such, it was this metaphysical reality which informed the texts and iconography of the ritual landscape: the stage upon which the ceremonies reifying and reinforcing the authenticity of kingship were enacted. This circumstance itself provided the king with a direct, albeit theoretical, link to the timeless world of perfection, the First Time, and the Creator on who’s behalf he ruled the Two Lands. However, the maintenance and control of that physical landscape, and rites performed therein, were very much in the control of the ruling elite.
The Report of Wenamun, Page 1 - History
"In the detention centers, families lived in substandard housing, had inadequate nutrition and health care, and had their livelihoods destroyed: many continued to suffer psychologically long after their release"
- "Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians"
"Most of the 110,000 persons removed for reasons of 'national security' were school-age children, infants and young adults not yet of voting age."
- " Years of Infamy" , Michi Weglyn
Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 9066, which permitted the military to circumvent the constitutional safeguards of American citizens in the name of national defense.
The order set into motion the exclusion from certain areas, and the evacuation and mass incarceration of 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living on the West Coast, most of whom were U.S. citizens or legal permanent resident aliens.
These Japanese Americans, half of whom were children, were incarcerated for up to 4 years, without due process of law or any factual basis, in bleak, remote camps surrounded by barbed wire and armed guards.
They were forced to evacuate their homes and leave their jobs in some cases family members were separated and put into different camps. President Roosevelt himself called the 10 facilities "concentration camps."
Some Japanese Americans died in the camps due to inadequate medical care and the emotional stresses they encountered. Several were killed by military guards posted for allegedly resisting orders.
At the time, Executive Order 9066 was justified as a "military necessity" to protect against domestic espionage and sabotage. However, it was later documented that "our government had in its possession proof that not one Japanese American, citizen or not, had engaged in espionage, not one had committed any act of sabotage." (Michi Weglyn, 1976).
Rather, the causes for this unprecedented action in American history, according to the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, "were motivated largely by racial prejudice, wartime hysteria, and a failure of political leadership."
Almost 50 years later, through the efforts of leaders and advocates of the Japanese American community, Congress passed the Civil Liberties Act of 1988. Popularly known as the Japanese American Redress Bill, this act acknowledged that "a grave injustice was done" and mandated Congress to pay each victim of internment $20,000 in reparations.
The reparations were sent with a signed apology from the President of the United States on behalf of the American people. The period for reparations ended in August of 1998.
Despite this redress, the mental and physical health impacts of the trauma of the internment experience continue to affect tens of thousands of Japanese Americans. Health studies have shown a 2 times greater incidence of heart disease and premature death among former internees, compared to noninterned Japanese Americans.
The Report of Wenamun, Page 1 - History
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The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) is the primary federal entity for collecting and analyzing data related to education.
A unique First Look report released by NCES describes the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on postsecondary students. » More info
Current expenditures per pupil on a national basis increased by 2.1 percent to $13,187 from FY 19 to FY 18, following an increase of 0.9 percent between FY 17 and FY 18, after adjusting for inflation.
Increases in current expenditures per pupil from FY 18 to FY 19 were among the five highest in Oklahoma (10.3 percent), Washington (8.2 percent), Colorado (5.9 percent), California (5.5 percent), and West Virginia (3.9 percent). » More info
A new report examines the literacy and numeracy skills of U.S. young adults as they transition to post-high school life and how these are related to their earlier proficiency in reading and mathematics in Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). » More info
This report examines parent and/or guardian involvement in various school-based engagement opportunities, as reported by public elementary and secondary school principals before the coronavirus pandemic. » More info
The Condition of Education is an annual report to Congress summarizing important developments and trends in the U.S. education system. The report presents 50 indicators on topics ranging from prekindergarten through postsecondary education, as well as labor force outcomes and international comparisons. Discover how you can use the Condition of Education to stay informed about the latest education data.
Scores are reported on a scale of 0 to 1,000. See Figure M2b of the TIMSS 2019 U.S. Highlights Results.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2019.
Condition of Education
Browse key indicators on the condition of education in the United States at all levels, from prekindergarten through postsecondary, as well as labor force outcomes and international comparisons. The indicators summarize important developments and trends using the latest statistics, which are updated throughout the year as new data become available.
View version history from within a Microsoft Office document
If you are working with a Microsoft Office document, such as a Word, Excel, or PowerPoint file, you can view version history from the app view rather than returning to the list or library to view the history.
The following example is from the Backstage view of a Microsoft PowerPoint file. It shows both a major and a minor version.
The next example is from a Microsoft Word file. Only major versions appear in this version history. This could mean that only major versions are enabled in the document library, or it could mean that you only have permission to view major versions, not minor ones.
The current version of the file
A version that has a comment from the person who checked in this version. Hover over the icon that is next to the author’s name to view the comment.
Navigate to the document library on your site that contains the file you want to open.
Hover over the file name until you see the drop-down arrow and then click Edit in <application name>. In the above example, you would select Edit in Microsoft Word.
Note: If your library requires check-out of files, or if you prefer to check out the file, you must check it out before you open it.
In the application, select the File tab to expose the Backstage view. The version history appears next to the Manage Versions button, as shown in the two examples above.
From the list, select the version you want to view. That version will open up so you can view it
You can simply view the file or, while it is open, you can choose to make it your current version by clicking Restore in the yellow banner at the top of the file, or you can compare the selected version to the current version by clicking Compare.
Close the selected version when you are finished viewing it. A message box will ask if you want to save the file or not. You can either save it to your local drive or click Don’t Save.
To continue working in the file you originally opened, select one of the other tabs at the top of your document, such as Home.
Versioning is on by default in SharePoint libraries, and off by default in SharePoint lists. Versioning needs to be turned on to see the version history option on menus or in ribbons. To turn on version history, see Enable and configure versioning for a list or library.
When you set up versioning, you set a maximum number of versions to save. When the maximum number of versions are saved, SharePoint deletes the oldest to accommodate newer versions. You can set SharePoint to save more versions, up to the system limit. For more info, see How does versioning work in a SharePoint list or library.
Yes, you can view previous versions in Office desktop apps. For more info, see Restore a previous version of a file in OneDrive.