Long before the 1908 Republican convention met, Theodore Roosevelt had announced his intention not to seek a third term. He preferred to be succeeded by his secretary of war, William Howard Taft. TR perceived a certain docility in Taft that might induce him to pursue the former's progressive reforms.Taft easily won his party's nomination, but felt slighted when a convention demonstration for Roosevelt was much longer and louder than a later one for himself.The Democrats in 1908 had not forgotten the thumping they received four years previously when they ran a conservative candidate. They resorted to an earlier recipe for failure and nominated William Jennings Bryan for the third time.The 1908 campaign revolved around Roosevelt's record. The reform Republicans boasted of TR's reform achievements, while the more conservative party members simply kept quiet; for them, anyone was better than Bryan. Such a move was regarded as socialism even by those with strong progressive leanings and made Bryan look like a wild-eyed radical.Taft won a convincing victory in the 1908 election. Bryan's support was confined to the Solid South, plus Nebraska, Colorado and Nevada. The Socialists improved their popular vote tally slightly over 1904, while the Prohibition Party remained at almost the same level. The Populists, in their final appearance on the national stage, polled fewer than 30,000 votes; most of their supporters had deserted the cause in favor of Bryan.
Election of 1908
William Howard Taft (OH)
William JenningsBryan (NE)
Eugene V. Debs (IN)
Eugene W. Chaflin(IL)
Thomas L. Hisgen (MA)
Thomas E. Watson (GA)
The Cradle of
Reverend Daniel Jenkins and his orphanage band
It was a bone-cracking cold morning in Washington, D.C., on March 4, 1909. The night before, a blizzard had struck the nation’s capital, leaving a hazardous slick of ice and slush down Pennsylvania Avenue. The procession of the President-elect, William Howard Taft of Ohio, crept down the narrow lane cleared for the inaugural parade behind a marching band from Charleston whom Taft had personally asked to perform. This band was different from the usual school groups and Rotary-sponsored clubs from towns across the country. It was made up of boisterous black children wearing cast-off uniforms from the Citadel’s cadet corps, rattling drums and waving batons before a line of trombone and trumpet players who were belting out the music in an unusual, syncopated beat. As the band reached the grandstand, they peeled off to the side and stood in line, waiting for Taft to pass. The portly politician, who was not known for his love of either children or music, smiled as he went by, where two of the littlest musicians could be seen holding up an out-sized banner that read “Jenkins Orphanage Band.”
In legend at least, the Jenkins Orphanage, and later on, its world-famous band, was born in 1891 in an empty railroad car. But then, there was much about this institution, as well as its charismatic founder, that could be called legendary. Daniel Jenkins, an African American laborer who earned a meager living hauling timber for the lumber mills, had gone to the railroad yard that morning to retrieve a consignment of wood. While there, he discovered four little black boys huddled against the cold in an empty car. When he asked them why their parents had let them go out in such frigid weather, he learned that they had been abandoned.
Although Jenkins had children of his own already – and precious little money with which to take care of them – he nonetheless took the four orphans home to his wife, Lena, and gave them food and beds. This simple act of charity would turn out to be the advent of an enterprise with far-reaching achievements: It would export Southern jazz to the rest of the world, incubate the talents of some famous African American musicians, and even create a new dance step that would come to define the “Roaring Twenties”.
Man of Many Means
Daniel Jenkins made an impression on everyone who met him. He was tall, with strong features and a level gaze. When he spoke, he projected an aura of self-confidence and determination that belied his origins in the farmland of Barnwell County. Jenkins had been born into slavery in 1862 but emancipated just before the end of the Civil War. He lived a hardscrabble existence as a sharecropper with his wife Lena James, a light-skinned girl from the family of one of South Carolina’s colored elite. He “married light,” as the saying went, and thus married up, but he and Lena had no great financial resources when they took in the little boys he’d found in the railroad car. However, Jenkins believed that the meeting was not a random event – he felt that he had been chosen for a higher purpose to be a missionary to the thousands of unwanted black children who had been left out of Charleston’s system of public care.
That Sunday, Jenkins who had just become pastor of Charleston’s Fourth Baptist Church, made an appeal for the boys from his pulpit. He also suggested that an association be founded to help all black orphans within a year he had secured a charter from the state to operate an orphan aid society. The orphanage started out in what was little more than a shed, at 660 King Street, but Jenkins – an articulate speaker as well as a savvy businessman – soon persuaded the South Carolina Medical College to give him the old Marine Hospital at 20 Franklin Street in the city’s “penal district.” It was not the choicest of neighborhoods – the city jail was right next door – but Jenkins didn’t mind. In fact, the nightly moans and wails of prisoners’ baleful voices seeping through the stone walls of the ominous-looking, castellated building may even have helped reinforce Jenkins’ dire warning to his urchin charges of the Dickensian horrors to come if they didn’t stick to the straight and narrow.
The orphanage thrived. Within two years Jenkins had 360 boys and girls in his care and two years later more than 500 “black lambs,” he called them. Newspapers, in turn, called him “the Orphanage Man” and virtually canonized him for his selfless service. He became known as Reverend Jenkins, or simply “the Parson.” Many thought him to be a saint, yet there was something faintly military about him, too. He dressed in a sort of uniform with epaulets, stripes down the trouser legs, and a cut-away jacket with tails - a severe, formal-looking ensemble that may have been calculated to impress people with the fact that he had reached a higher station in life than perhaps (it was then thought) he was entitled to. Reverend Jenkins was a man of many facets, but only one public faced – the savior of unwanted black children.
The Sounds of Success
The instrument of this orphanage’s success was music. Probably taking his cue from the Fiske Jubilee Singers in Nashville, a coral group that performed black religious music, Jenkins organized 11 to 12 of the boys into a band in 1892. He hired two local musicians to teach them to read music and, because of the group instruction, each band member became proficient at playing all the instruments they had obo, clarinet, bell, drums, coronet, and even triangle.
When the group was deemed good enough to perform, Jenkins took them out onto the streets of Charleston, where they gave bright, natural, highly energetic performances, like electrical currents crisscrossing the air. The concerts always concluded with Jenkins stepping out into the crowd to solicit donations. At the end of each foray, he usually collected enough to feed the orphans for a week.
Of course, the idea of a municipal band was nothing new. Just about every two-street village in the country had a marching band that played at county fairs and ribbon-cuttings, kitted out in resplendent uniforms and carrying shiny brass instruments, like the 76 trombones in Meredith Wilson’s The Music Man. The Jenkins band, however, was hardly sartorial, and the instruments they played were scratched-up hand-me-downs donated by local churches. And yet these uneducated children danced and played with an urgent intensity born of their need to live free and prosper.
It was not what they played, but the way that they played it that secured the band’s place in musical history. In a typical performance, they would start out with a Sousa March - a standard part of the regimental band repertoire - then segue into a “cakewalk,” a high-kicking, strutting parody of the formal ballroom dances of the white elite. The crowds, initially bewildered, gradually succumbed to the band’s charming musical camaraderie and nimble talent. They laughed at one of Reverend Jenkins more effective gimmicks - having the band “led” by the smallest boy of all, a diminutive “conductor” in a cap three sizes too big who cut the air with a baton the length of his own arm. Like manna from heaven, coins and bills fell into the outstretched hands.
The most distinctive feature of the band’s music was the way they abandon the neat, harmonic structures of the standard tunes and played them in a new style, characterized by highly staccato rhythms, a lot of minor chords, and virtuosic solo performances.
The new kind of music – “ragtime” - got its name from the black piano players in saloons and roadhouses who would “rag” or “jazz up” a standard tune by corrupting the traditional “four-four” beat. The distinctive sound of rag could be heard when the pianist played the bass or octave on beats one and three and the midrange cords on two and four. This gave the music a kind of staggered, or “ragged” time. As one band member put it,” When we played, it was very tough on his own bottom."
Ragtime also had foundations in an earlier, distinctive African-American musical tradition deeply rooted in Charleston - the call and response rhythms of the spirituals and work songs sung by slaves and later co-opted by white musicians like George Gershwin (“ I Got Rhythm”) and the Charleston – based folk opera, Porgy and Bess. Headlining performers like Al Jolson (“ The Jazz Singer”) also made their fortunes by adopting this form of playing and singing, and one of the most prolific songwriters in America, Irving Berlin (“ Alexander’s Ragtime Band”), paid homage to the black influence on his own compositions by referring crudely - but probably with admiration - to the way the new music relied on cords that primarily use the black, instead of the white, piano keys.
The Show Hits the Road
Eventually Reverend Jenkins took his band on the road. They traveled up and down the eastern seaboard in the dingy nonwhite seating section of the Clyde Line, the steamship company that served Charleston and a dozen other port cities along the Atlantic. Although they rearly stayed in any city for very long, finding sleeping arrangements in Jim Crow-era America was sometimes a problem. But when hotels turned them away, local churches usually put the children up.
White businesses may not have wanted the band’s patronage, but when it came to hearing them perform, whites flocked to the concerts in droves. The band became so popular - and so profitable - that soon there were two bands training and performing simultaneously, and later still, a third, fourth, and fifth. Typically, when the group arrived in a town, there was no need to drive anywhere. They would simply walk two blocks in one direction, set up, perform, then pack up and do the same thing two blocks the other way. As one band member recalled, “on the street corners, it was every kid doing his own thing. All you needed to know was the melody, and then you’d take off from there.”
As they became more renowned, the Jenkins bands hit Harlem nightclubs like Connie’s Inn and the Cotton Club, where it was the 1920s fashion for upwardly mobile whites to go and listen to new talents like Cab Callaway, Bessie Smith, and Ethel Waters while “slumming” in a part of town where they would never be seen during daylight. At these gigs, the Jenkins band would start doing Gullah or Geechie dance steps and the audience would shout, “Hey, Charleston, do your Geechie dance!” From this Southern African American tradition came a host of new piano tunes to accompany these dance steps. James P. Johnson, the famous jazz pianist, wrote eight such Geechie tunes, or “Charlestons,” as he called them. One of those eight tunes became wildly popular and caught on with white audiences across the country. It was known simply as “The Charleston.”
Newspapers dubbed Jenkins’ musicians “the Pickaninny Band,” a condescending way of referring to black children. Jenkins understood the insult, but he allowed it anyway because he knew that sort of name was probably good for donations from white audiences.
The band developed several rituals that endeared them to their white neighbors back in Charleston. One was to stop their bus two or three blocks away from the orphanage when returning from a road trip and to march in the rest of the way, triumphant, while lines of white children followed them, puppy – like and adoring. Another was to go to white neighborhoods on Christmas Eve and serenade the residence from beneath their windows. Local children used to anticipate the advent of the orphanage band on Christmas Eve as much as they did the appearance of Santa Claus. For their parents, a visit from the band constituted a kind of ironic social horror. Sons and daughters were known to have begged their parents to put them in the orphanage so that they could be traveling musicians, too.
For some 20 years, the Jenkins Orphanage Band reigned supreme, playing all over the country and even embarking on three tours abroad. They opened expositions and ceremonies, played concerts for Presidents, and were often heard on the radio. They were even seen on the New York stage in 1927 when Porgy author DuBose Heyward call them to Broadway to perform in the non-musical stage version of his best-selling novel. Many critics claim that just seeing the band was worth the price of the ticket.
And the Band Played On
Orphanages in America – especially during the Depression – had no great ambitions for their charges. Most of the “graduates” went into trades like house painting, shoemaking, or car repair. Many drove taxis or became maids and waiters. But in the Jenkins Orphanage, an impressive number overcame the odds and made careers in music.
Many of these musicians became legendary figures in jazz. One such star was William “Cat” Anderson, a trumpeter who played with Lionel Hampton. Sylvester Briscoe, another of Jenkins’ orphans, became one of the lead trumpeters in Bennie Moten’s orchestra. Freddie Green, who wasn’t even an orphan, was nonetheless taken in by Reverend Jenkins and later became the lead guitarist for Count Basie. He played with Basie at Pres. Kennedy’s inaugural ball in 1961, and in 1981 was honored by President Reagan for achievement in the performing arts. Tom Delaney,” Geechie” Fields, “Peanuts” Holland, and “Speedy” Jones played the piano, trombone, drums, and trumpet with the likes of “Jelly Roll Morton,” Coleman Hawkins, Fletcher Henderson, Duke Ellington, Dizzy Gillespie, and “Red” Allen.
One of the music teachers that Jenkins hired, Francis Mikell, earned a coveted spot in the 15 th New York Regiment Band under Lieutenant James Reese Europe, a famous black conductor. This outfit, “the Hellfighters Band” (whose members included Edmund Jenkins, the Reverend’s son), stayed in Paris following World War I and was instrumental in bringing ragtime to Europe and making the French capital the Mecca for nightclub jazz in the era of the Lost Generation.
One reason these players were able to achieve the level of fame was that southern jazz created the rise of the individual performer – in 1914 in New Orleans, for instance, a young trumpeter named Louis Armstrong was a star attraction in the Colored Waifs Home Brass Band. At about the same time, Reverend Jenkins began a young black boy from Savannah, “Jabbo” Smith, who would vie with Armstrong for the title of jazz virtuoso in trumpet playing. Smith played at Smalls Paradise in Harlem in the 1920s then went on to work with Duke Ellington’s orchestra.
The long reach of the Jenkins orphanage band shows how Southern musical institutions were a driving force in the formation of jazz. Even as, in the World War II years, the “big bands” led by white conductors like Tommy Dorsey and Glenn Miller edged out the smaller, black ensembles like those of Louis Armstrong and Jelly Roll Morton in the concert halls, black bands still dominated the nightclubs and smaller circuits, “jazzing” their spellbound listeners with an earring rhythmic tact.
End of an Era
The orphanage itself had a less auspicious life, even after so many of his foundlings went on to musical greatness. Reverend Jenkins died in 1937, considerably weakened in strength and spirit after a fire nearly destroyed the second floor of the orphanage in March 1933. The blaze became an excuse for the city Council to force the orphanage out of the neighborhood, into which many whites had recently moved Jenkins had lost his earlier influence with the mayor and city councilman, and he was formally charged with negligence. There were also accusations - to some degree true - that he may have profited disproportionately from the income generated by the orphanage’s bands and the city canceled a major appropriation of funds in the wake of eight Time magazine story that aired the charges. Under pressure after her husband’s death Ella Jenkins (the Reverend’s second wife) struck the deal whereby she surrendered the Franklin Street property space in return, the city built a new facility for the orphanage away from downtown. Today the former Marine Hospital is occupied by the city Housing Authority and the school of the Building Arts, and the renamed Jenkins Institute remains in operation in North Charleston.
A 40-year tradition may have ended, but Charleston’s jazz orphanage nurtured and nourished talent that still influences the music world today. It’s been said that the passion of the human soul finds this food in music. Daniel Jenkins must have believed in this deeply, for the husky melodies and rhythmic richness of his jazz band make sure that none of his “little black lambs” - or their enchanted audiences- ever went hungry.
This article was written by James Hutchisson , an English professor at the Citadel, and it is reprinted here with his permission. The article originally appeared in “ Charleston” magazine in the April 2005 issue.
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Born in 1954,  John Godfrey Taft  was raised in New Haven, Connecticut. Taft and his two brothers are grandsons of Senator Robert A. Taft  and great-grandsons of former United States President William Howard Taft.      Their father Horace Dwight Taft worked as dean of Yale College.  After graduating from the Taft School in Watertown, Connecticut in 1968,  Taft graduated in 1972 from Yale University summa cum laude. 
By 1977, after working as a copy boy with the New York Times,  Taft furthered his career as a newspaper reporter in Lowell, Massachusetts,  where he spent several years "covering the rebuilding of Lowell." Developing an interest in urban redevelopment  and the financing of community projects, he then attended graduate school at Yale University in New Haven to learn about finance. 
Early positions Edit
In 1981 he entered the investment industry,   moving to Minnesota and taking a public finance position with the regional brokerage firm Piper Jaffray. With Piper Jaffray, he spent ten years helping a variety of clients, including governments and finance projects for public use. The city of St. Paul, Minnesota was among his clients, and Taft spent two years working for the Mayor of St. Paul  as an assistant.  After serving as managing director at Piper Jaffray, he went on to become president, CEO, and chairman of Voyageur Asset Management,  the asset-management business of Dougherty Financial Group.  During that time, Taft also served as a director of Segall, Bryant and Hamill and The Clifton Group.  Voyageur was sold to and became a unit of the brokerage firm Dain Rauscher,  a regional brokerage firm. 
RBC Wealth Management Edit
The Toronto-based Royal Bank of Canada (RBC) acquired Dain Rauscher  in 2001.  Taft was appointed to a management role at RBC,  becoming head of asset management and products for RBC’s United States and international division.  Returning to Minneapolis,   Taft became CEO of RBC's US retail brokerage arm,   RBC Wealth Management US,  in September 2005.  Under Taft, RBC Wealth Management avoided major financial difficulties in the 2008 financial crisis, and its assets under management increased 60% between 2008 and 2011, to $220 billion. In an effort to allow the unit's financial advisors to dedicate more time to clients, between 2008 and 2011 Taft "boosted RBC's annual technology spending by 50%," and encouraged advisors to work in teams. 
Acquisitions and DelaneyTaft Edit
After advocating for the addition of banking and lending to RBC's capabilities in the United States,  in November 2015 he helped facilitate RBC's acquisition of City National Bank for $5.4 billion.  The merger added "banking and lending capabilities to the firm’s advisor force."  After a number of other acquisitions as well,  by early 2016 Taft's unit of 1,900 financial advisors  was overseeing $273 billion of assets  in 41 states.  Beyond his role as CEO of RBC Wealth Management US, Taft served on the board of RBC’s intermediate US holding company and was a member of RBC’s Global Wealth Management Operating Committee. He was also executive sponsor for RBC’s PRIDE employee resource group.  After deciding it was "the right time to pass on the CEO baton,"  Taft retired as CEO of RBC Wealth Management on May 31, 2016.   He went on to serve as chairman  and CEO  of Delaney|Taft LLC,  director of the Columbia Threadneedle Funds and a senior advisor to Deloitte and Touche. 
After retiring from RBC, Taft took on a number of consulting roles across the financial services industry. In 2018, he exited retirement to join Baird, a Milwaukee, Wisconsin-based financial services firm. He is currently a Vice Chairman and member of the firm's executive committee. Taft helps lead "strategic opportunities across Baird's platform, including the continued expansion of Baird's private wealth management business."   He also is a member of the board of Hilliard Lyons Trust, a director of RiverFront Investment Group and a senior advisor to LFE Capital, a private equity firm that invests in women-owned and women-managed companies. 
On August 3, 2012, Taft published his first book, Stewardship: Lessons Learned From the Lost Culture of Wall Street.  Endorsed by former US Representative Barney Frank, the book focused in part on the financial crash of 2008, with Taft also advocating for stewardship in the financial industry.  Amazon.com selected Stewardship as one of their “top picks" for March 2012, while Bloomberg Radio named it the “best book of spring." 
Through St. Martin's Press, on March 17, 2015 he published A Force for Good: How Enlightened Finance Can Restore Faith in Capitalism.  Taft wrote the introduction and edited the book, which includes 20 essays by individuals in business or finance such as John Bogle, Sheila Bair, Mary Schapiro,  and Robert Shiller.  The essays cover topics such as "creating a stable retirement system, rebuilding investor trust, and using investment strategies that help protect the environment."  As summarized by Wealth Management, the book "pulls together commentary from industry leaders… to discuss how the financial services industry can harness its power for the public good." 
Op-eds and speaking Edit
Taft's op-eds have been published in magazines and newspapers such as Harvard Business Review, Business Insider, Barron's,  Forbes,  and The New York Times.   Interviewed on CNBC's Squawk Box, CNN, FOX, Bloomberg TV and Radio, The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, Barron's, Fortune, and the Financial Times, he has also been a speaker at institutes and events such as the Center for Ethical Business Cultures and the Securities Industry Institute. 
In his op-ed and talks, he often covers topics such as corporate responsibility,  trends in the banking industry,  and the state of modern American politics.  Supportive of the rights of transgender  and gay employees,  when Minnesota considered a ballot to ban same-sex marriage in late 2012, Taft made appearances in media sources such as The Economist to speak against the ballot.  In 2013 he criticized the Republican Party's use of United States' sovereign debt as political leverage for being "the heights of irresponsibility." 
In 2015 he gave the keynote speech at the Forum for Sustainable and Responsible Investment, where he advocated for sustainable business practices and investments.  In 2009, Taft testified before the United States House of Representatives Financial Services Committee in favor of a fiduciary standard of care for professionals, when providing financial advice to individuals.  However, in early 2016, Wealth Management reported that Taft had been fighting against attempts to "apply the. fiduciary standard to brokers"  by the US Department of Labor (DOL),  with Taft arguing that the DOL's version of the standard would not work for the brokerage industry.  Taft advocated that such a standard should instead by written by the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) due to their experience with financial markets. 
According to MinnPost in 2013, Taft "has a solid reputation for civic, even progressive, involvement in the Twin Cities."  He is currently on the boards of the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts and The Minneapolis Foundation  and is active on the Itasca Project.  His past directorships include the Greater Twin Cities  United Way,  Walker Art Center, Macalester College, Breck School, St. Paul Chamber Orchestra, Northwest Area Foundation, Illusion Theatre, the Minnesota Business Partnership, the Taft School,  Minnesota Public Radio (MPR), and Twin Cities PBS (TPT). 
Taft has also been on task forces and committees in the public sector, including the Mayor's Council on Economic Development Finance and the CFA Institute's Future of Finance Advisory Council.  In 2011 he served as chairman of the Securities Industry and Financial Markets Association (SIFMA).    He previously served as chair of SIFMA's Advisory Council, and has represented SIFMA before Congress.  In 2020, Taft was re-elected to SIFMA's board of directors.
The National Gay & Lesbian Chamber of Commerce (NGLCC) named him an "Outstanding Corporate Diversity Leader" in 2010.  In 2013 Investment Advisor magazine named him to its list of the 25 most influential people in the financial industry,  and the following year he was named a “Leading Individual" by the Family Wealth Report.  In 2014 and 2015  the ethics group Trust Across America named him to its list of the "Top 100 Thought Leaders in Trustworthy Business." 
Taft became engaged to Martha Ann McPhee in late 1977.  The couple lived in Minnesota  until her death in 2007  and had three children together.   As of 2015 lives in Minneapolis  with his wife Laura Delaney,  with whom he has two stepchildren. 
- During a rebranding for Noggin in 2003, an indent was aired several times where the channel's mascot, Feetface, introduced her successors, Moose and Zee. Its rumored there was a version aired exactly at the time of the rebranding, but that would be lost media.
- The Legend of Spyro fanfic Passing the Torch has this as its basic plot. An elderly Spyro meets with the next Purple Dragon, Asuka, when she turns twelve years old. He then informs her of what she really is and what is expected of her, helping her accept the responsibility that comes with it. It turns out waiting to do this was the only thing keeping him alive, and he finally lets his body give out and die now that he's passed his role on.
- The Superjail! fanfic Extended Stay ends with this. Now that the Warden and the Mistress have successfully conquered the world, they leave their twins Matilda and Ethan, who have come of age at twenty years old, with the responsibility of running Ultraprison and Superjail respectively. Meanwhile, the long-time married duo move into the White House with their other son Edward.
- The Pieces Lie Where They Fell: The new generation of Element-Bearers each meet their predecessor's spirit and learn their true identities when they earn their respective Element.
- Discussed in the Steven Interlude sidestory of Pokémon Reset Bloodlines. The title character strongly believes that it's the duty of his generation to guide the new one and set them on the right path to lead the world towards a better future- He shares this point with Sawyer, who at the time is a student in the Rustboro Trainer School.
- Becoming Lífþrasir: In the farewell letters to Stoick and Astrid, Hiccup mentions that he nominates Astrid to replace him as heir of the Hooligan Tribe, feeling that she would make a far better replacement that Snotlout ever would.
- Infinity Crisis:
- After talking with Rocket over his grief at Groots death, Mick Rory indirectly offers to be Rockets new partner by giving him Snarts cold-gun, which Rocket immediately approves of as a weapon.
- Despite his history with the hammer, when Mjolnir accepts Jane as its wielder after its restoration, Thor assures her that she can keep it.
- In Epic the life of the forest has to do this every hundred years. The film opens on the very day Queen Tara is to choose her heir.
- At the end of Frozen II, Anna is crowned the new queen of Arendelle when Elsa decides to leave for the forest .
- The end of Disney's Tarzan.
- Toy Story 4 ends with Woody giving his sheriff badge to Jessie when he chooses to leave the gang and roam free with Bo.
- It is in Swedish, but check out aging champion singer Mats Paulson duetting his number one song with new megastar Hakan Hellstrom. Check out the audience reaction when Hakan enters the scene. Check out when Mats graciously gives Hakan a rose and helps him to pin it to his costume. Check when he lets Hakan take over the solo and enters the background.
- The 2012 MTV Video Music Awards was considered the passing of the torch from Justin Bieber to One Direction.
- Acquisitions Incorporated: After being the game'sDungeon Master for 11 years, Chris Perkins handed the reigns over to Jeremy Crawford, a fellow WotC producer and Perkins' own DM. The change happened on-camera in the special episode "The Old Switcheroo" (coinciding with the party falling through a portal to Ravnica ) just before the PAX Unplugged 2018 live show. Perkins' decision to step down was, according to Crawford, motivated by his heavy workload at WotC, the necessary travel schedule, and the "intense anxiety" of running the live games at PAX.
- Lou Thesz wanted to pass the National Wrestling Alliance World Heavyweight Championship belt to Rikidozan, but as the champion, who he defends it against and where were decided by the collective votes of the NWA members and Rikidozan was based in Japan, which only has one, this obviously did not happen. So Thesz decided to pass the World Heavyweight Title to his student, Dick Hutton, and created the NWA International Heavyweight Title for the purpose of losing it to Rikidozan, who was forever grateful. Rikidozan went on to become quite possibly the biggest star pro wrestling has ever seen, but Hutton was deemed a weak draw with no charisma by the NWA and replaced with Pat O'Connor, who ran into legal troubles and was succeeded by Buddy Rogers, who pissed off so many promoters they asked Thesz to come back, which Thesz did.
- Pretty much every wrestler with a Tiger Maskgimmick or some derivative of it was approved of by Satoru Sayama, except the Black Tigers, of course.
- Yoshiaki Fujiwara to Masakatsu Funaki and Minoru Suzuki, whom he deemed his top students in professional wrestling and mixed martial arts. Suzuki also has strong allusions to Karl Gotch. Masakatsu Funaki would go on to pass it to Yuki Kondo, which sadly ended up not going too far in retrospect.
- Randy Savage set up his own wrestling promotion for the purpose of losing to Antonio Banks. While said company folded before this could actually take place, Banks would take note and later pass the torch to Kofi Kingston in WWE (not that it did much good in the long run).
- Eddie Guerrero had such a moment with Low Ki, insisting that Low Ki beat him clean at Impact Championship Wrestling. Low Ki wouldn't quite go to Eddie's level of super stardom, he's never been a Black Tiger or anything, but he has become well established in some of the same venues as Eddie, such as New Japan Pro-Wrestling.
- Discussed in TNA when Raven declared Kevin Sullivan too late to pass his torch, boasting he had become more evil than him already.
- Kazushi Sakuraba ended his career in PRIDE without a candidate to hold his torch, but Olympic judoka Hidehiko Yoshida was chosen by the management to become the next native star.
- In 2011, retired Haitian wrestler Tyree Pride gave his endorsement to Tokyo Monster Kahagas regarding the NWA World Junior Heavyweight title. On one hand Kahagas exceeded expectations by bulking up an becoming World Heavyweight Champion, on the other hand Ring Warriors pulled Pride out of retirement for a Bahamas show as the NWA attempted to reestablish itself in the Caribbean.
- At the 3/29/2012 Ring Warriors show, Ivan Koloff showed up to pass the torch to Brett Adams and The Red Devil Fight Team.
- Bull Nakano passed the torch to Yuzuki Aikawa and Hikaru Shida by putting the comparative newcomers in the main event of her own retirement show.
- Jerry Lynn wanted to pass the torch to Mike Bennett in Ring of Honor, but after Maria Kanellis interfered in their match he decided to just praise the promotion's young talent in general.
- At the Masters Of The Ring Entertainment Lasting Legacy: A Tribute to Women In Wrestling expo dedicated to WWF, WCW and GLOW veterans, Just Cause Pro Wrestling held a tournament between more active title contenders and Ivory, representing the former generation, presented a trophy to eventual winner, NWA World Women's Champion Santana Garrett.
- In the March 14, 2016 episode of Monday Night RAW, Mick Foley comes to Dean Ambrose and not only tells him to take him a tour of all the pain he's been through over the years, but gives him a little something extra. That extra is the barb wire bat!
- In the Sesame Street episode, So Long, Mr. Hooper, As Big Bird whines and complains about the death of Mr. Hooper that who would take over Hooper's Store. And David replies "Big Bird, I am going to take care of the store. Mr. Hooper left it to me. I will make you your birdseed milkshakes, and we will tell you stories and see you are okay."
- Same thing happened in 1989 when David left to live with his grandmother in a farm in Florida in 1989 after Northern Calloway's health issues (He died in 1990), And David gave the store to the retired firefighter, Mr. Handford.
- In 1998, Mr. Handford quietly passed the torch to Alan and became the new owner of Hooper's Store.
- Happened symbolically during the opening ceremony for the 2012 Olympic Games. Seven British Olympians nominated seven young up-and-coming athletes to light the Olympic Flame in their stead, literally passing the torch to them in the process.
- In the 2016 Rio Games, Michael Phelps retires and leaves 19-year old prodigy Katie Ledecky to step up to the plate. Perhaps best exemplified by this photoset
- In BIONICLE, Turaga are created when Toa do this. This serves a number of simultaneous purposes: a new generation of Toa can appear, the wisdom and guidance of the prior generation of Toa is preserved and passed down, and it also allows the Toa to use a Game-Breaker like giving up their powers so as to save all of the known Matoran from Makuta's sleep spell .
- In Kira-Kira Curtain Call, Shikanosuke's sister, Yuko, becomes the bassist of d2b after Shikanosuke graduates, even donning a similar stage costume .
- Subverted in the ending of King's Quest III (and the beginning of King's Quest IV). Graham, swept up in the joy of being reunited with both his children, takes off his trusty adventurer's cap and tosses it at them, with the idea that the one who catches it will take up adventuring. He ends up having a heart attack as it's in mid-air. The cap falls to the floor, and neither child picks it up. It does, however, lead into Rosella setting off to save her dad, and putting the hat back on him on her triumphant return, saying her dad's still got a few more adventures in him. She turns out to be right.
- The 2015 reboot of King's Quest ends like this too, except Graham's death from old age is final this time - no magic fruit, no last-minute save, and it's his grand-daughter Gwen who is taking up his cap.
- Eugene Greenhilt in The Order of the Stick, passes on the quest to kill Xykon to his son Roy when he gets too old to carry it out. He has an ulterior motive though Eugene swore a Blood Oath to kill Xykon, so he can't move onto the afterlife until the lich is dead.
- It's subverted in that the prequel On The Origin of PCs shows Eugene doesn't think Roy can do it. He just told Roy about the oath so Roy can tell his little sister (who took up wizardry) and have her do it. Bonus content in print collections show that even now he just hopes the best Roy can do is find some useful intel on Xykon.
- In Noob: Le Conseil des Trois Factions, Amaras gives up his guild's command to someone else near the end. While he admits to have wanted to retire from his leadership position for while, events more or less force him to transfer command to someone who wasn't excatly his first choice.
- In the Red Panda Adventures, after coming back from fighting behind enemy lines in Europe, the Red Panda starts operating with an eye towards retirement once the World War II is over and things have settled down. Kit notes he's looking at the Danger Federation, a collection of rookie superheroes, and Mr. Amazing, one of its more powerful members, as retirement plans. However the DF is spread out across Canada and Mr. Amazing doesn't survive the war . A successor is eventually found in the form of the Black Eagle, whose secret identity is someone who has been in the Red Panda's circle since he was a little boy.
- Game Grumps did this when introducing new editor Kevin Abernathy to the fans. A montage of the original Game Grumps editor Barry Kramer training Kevin for his new editing duties features a part where a torch moves across the computer screen from one side (Barry) to the other (Kevin), visually showing the torch being passed.
- Due to the unfortunate passing of Grandpa Kitchen founder Narayana Reddy on October 27, 2019, he appears posthumously in a cooking tutorial of crispy french fries, handing his channel over to his grandchildren as they are about to cook.
- In Batman Beyond, Terry McGinnis takes up the mantle of Batman some years after aging had forced Bruce Wayne to retire. It's downplayed in that Bruce isn't completely gone from the scene, acting the role of Mission Control. When Barbara Gordon (former Batgirl, now commissioner) returns to the Batcave to warn Batman, she isn't sure which of them she should be speaking to.
- Both subverted and parodied in Kim Possible, when Timothy North reveals that he was once "The Fearless Ferret" and convinces Ron Stoppable to take up the Ferret mantle (fun fact Will Friedle played both Ron and Terry McGinnis). Turns out that North was just an actor in a series who became deluded when his show was canceled.
- In the finale of The Animals of Farthing Wood, Fox passes on the role of leader of the animals to his grandson, Plucky.
- In the future episode of The Batman, Nightwing assists an older, Dark Knight Returns-esque Batman in battle against Mr. Freeze. When it becomes clear that Batman isn't as efficient as he used to be Nightwing suggests maybe it's time to pass the torch. Batman however, being the stubborn bastard he is, replies that he would pass the torch when "the mission" (i.e. to ensure Gotham's protection) is over, to which Nightwing dryly notes will never happen.
- In The Venture Bros. episode "Every Which Way But Zeus", Desmond, Captain Sunshine's butler is revealed to have been the original Captain Sunshine, and the modern one was his Wonderboy. Dragoon states that he arched him back in the 1960's in his heyday. Of course he has retained all his powers but is still a weak old man.
- Nebula of Winx Club has become the new Queen of Tir Nan Og after Morgana stepped down from the throne.
- One episode of Batman: The Brave and the Bold has a vision of a future where an older Batman get married and starts a family. He then passed the mantle of Batman to Nightwing, and it gets passed down the line.
- An elderly Katara does this in The Legend of Korra:
- In Season 2, Wally intended for Bart Allen to take the mantle of Kid Flash while he and Artemis return to retirement. Wally's death at the end of the season turned this into Take Up My Sword instead .
- Between Season 2 and 3, King Orin handed the mantle of Aquaman to his protege Kaldur'Ahm, allowing him more time to both his kingdom and his family.
- The whole reason for a new creative team taking over Star Wars as of Episode VII. George Lucas was batting around the idea of a sequel trilogy for years but couldn't decide if he should go through with it or move on to other projects. When Disney approached him about making a sequel series he decided to pass on his creation to the next generation of filmmakers, thus keeping the universe he created alive while allowing him to retire from the franchise (of course the alternate theory is that Lucas was Kicked Upstairs after Disney bought Lucasfilm, and they proceeded with or without his approval).
- Pythagoras originally had to pay his first student to teach him. Eventually, when he saw that his student was genuinely interested, he told him he was too poor to continue paying him, so the student offered to pay him instead to continue the lessons. Eventually, his circle grew as he took on more and more students.
- Often happens when a current head of state retires and is succeeded by a new head. Among U.S. presidents, William Howard Taft gets special mention for becoming the Chief Justice after his presidency and personally swearing successors Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover into office.
For 43 hours, Long fought for his life, and it had appeared, at least initially, to be a battle he’d easily win. After being struck by a single bullet during the pandemonium that erupted between his bodyguards and an irritating young physician in the new state Capitol, his new state Capitol, Huey had been able to walk right out, saunter down the steps, and hail himself a cab to take him to the hospital. He’d been lucid right up until the end, sharing his thoughts about a recent spat between a group of legislators and the governor he’d gotten to hold his seat, O.K. Allen, and about the new book he’d written, My First Days in the White House.
But after the fifth blood transfusion, he weakly asked someone to please bring his children to him and then muttered what would be his final words, a plea to the Almighty. “God, don’t let me die,” he begged. “I have so much to do.”
On this, the 85th anniversary of his death, we are pleased to publish a relic from that tragic and pivotal moment of Louisiana history, thanks to J.S. Makkos, who also tells the story of how he discovered this treasured old scrapbook. – Lamar
Several years ago, while researching the vestiges of the New Orleans print industry, I decided to look beyond the French Quarter and venture into the oldest part of downtown New Orleans.
I knew that every thriving business district had its local print shops, and I was determined to find out when and where the nexus was.
Already head-over-heels into a particular history of technology vis-à-vis printmaking, I discovered I had bibliophilic leanings, as my interests in saving Victorian-era printing presses and vintage lead-type, some would say, bordered on obsession. I didn’t necessarily have an expensive hobby I just had a heavy one.
I found myself intent on saving these artifacts of printing history, not because I felt they had a lot of monetary value, more so with the understanding that, along with the wave of gentrification, came the writing on the wall: Real estate was worth more, and the contents of old buildings were just as endangered as the buildings were. I knew this may have been the last chance I had to find these types of old print shops anywhere in the city.
What I didn’t expect, at least at first, was that I’d become equally keen and interested in learning about the people who ran these shops and the customers who kept them in business. What were their print histories? Never mind the writers for a moment, I wanted to know: Who actually made the news? And who was the news made for?
During my research process, I coined a term for the area of downtown New Orleans flanked by what used to be the old Newspaper Row on Camp Street and a number of print shops that had run along Gravier: The “print blocks.”
Part of my work, both as a documentarian and also as a doctoral candidate at Louisiana State University, is to seek ways to archive material culture and then recreate it through Digital Humanities practice.
This work often falls somewhere between history, journalism, and technology, and it flirts heavily with media archeology.
One day that summer, I decided to hit the pavement and do a little street orienteering with some old listings for print businesses I found geography, after all, was one of the best ways to learn about the historic built environment and business infrastructure. I’d been conducting a street survey of downtown New Orleans when I spotted a three-story building at 720 Union Street with a red “Barnard Printing Co.” logo on the front window.
“Do you have a pricing list?” I asked the woman sitting at the front desk.
“We do not,” she said politely. In hindsight, I should have realized that. This was a real printshop, not a Kinko’s. In some ways, it was like stepping back in time a few decades.
“What about any old, unused printing equipment? Do you have any of that for sale?” I asked.
“Wait right there. Just a sec,” she said. She walked into an adjacent office, and I could hear her telling another woman that someone up front would like to talk with her.
Her name was Jane Barnard Bland, and as I quickly understood, she was the owner of Barnard Printing Company. I explained that I was researching chromolithography and historic offset printing, and I showed her some historic newspaper archives, which I happened to be carrying with me that day.
She graciously took me on a tour of the shop, even bringing me upstairs so I could see the second floor filled with paper and the third floor with thermographic and small offset presses on it.
Barnard Printing had been in business since 1930, and they’re perhaps best known for designing and printing some of the special carnival invitations for the city’s most elite Mardi Gras krewes. Jane’s father had once been the Mimeograph representative for the region, she said. Before she took over the family business in the late 1980s, her mother had been in charge. “A woman-owned shop for over 50 years,” she told me.
At one point, to my awe, she opened a tiny closet door at the bottom of the staircase and teased me with an original mimeograph machine, unopened, still in its original packaging.
My jaw dropped. “Maybe someday I sell it,” she teased.
She appreciated my interest in history and print and seemed delighted to meet a stranger so enamored by all of the dusty machines and curiosities in her family’s old shop.
“I think I have something you might like,” Jane said as she walked back into her office.
She turned her chair backwards and then stepped up on it so that she could reach for something sitting on the very top shelf. When she climbed back down, she set the object on her desk for a second, held it up, looked at it for a bit, and then blew the dust off.
“This was my father’s,” Jane told me. “He was always so interested in Huey Long and his brother Earl. I think he’d want someone like you to have it.”Jane’s father, Francis Roland Barnard. Courtesy: Barnard family collection.
She handed me a beat-up, faded red scrapbook with these words on the cover: “CAREER OF US SENATOR LONG.”
I was honored that she entrusted to me an heirloom of some sort. I’ve kept her father’s book safe ever since, together with other archives and materials related to Huey P. Long and his legacy.
What I present here, in part, is a glimpse into the very scrapbook assembled by Mr. Francis Roland Barnard, some 85 years ago. Sure, it is brittle and deteriorating, but I’ve documented it digitally to preserve it.
For this is not just a material artifact, but also a concentrated collection of newsworthy content—a truly unique and one-of-a-kind document, now made free here for you, on the 85th anniversary of Huey P. Long’s passing.
A quick look through history shows that memoirs by presidential spouses were not very common until the publication of Betty Ford's The Times of My Life in 1978.
Since then, every first lady has written and published at least one memoir about their life, with those written by Betty Ford, Rosalynn Carter and Barbara Bush also outselling the memoirs of their husbands.
But in addition to making the most out of the sudden free time, publishing can also be a lucrative way to earn an income once out of the White House, as shown by Barack and Michelle Obama. The couple reportedly earned $60 million for a package deal to the rights to their memoirs.
So while Melania certainly isn't the first and likely won't be the last, here’s a look at the other former US first ladies who have written memoirs since departing the White House:
The Personal Memoirs of Julia Dent Grant (1975) – Julia Grant
Recollections of Full Years (1914) – Helen Taft
My Memoir (1939) – Edith Wilson
This is My Story (1937), This I Remember (1949), On My Own (1958), The Autobiography of Eleanor Roosevelt (1961) – Eleanor Roosevelt
A White House Diary (1970) – Lady Bird Johnson
The Times of My Life (1978), Betty: A Glad Awakening (1987) – Betty Ford
First Lady from Plains (1984), Everything to Gain: Making the Most of the Rest of Your Life (1987) – Rosalynn Carter
Nancy: The Autobiography of America's First Lady (1980), My Turn: The Memoirs of Nancy Reagan (1989) – Nancy Reagan
Barbara Bush: A Memoir (1994), Reflections: Life After the White House (2004) – Barbara Bush
Living History (2003), Hard Choices (2014), What Happened (2017) – Hillary Clinton
WW1 Centennial Trade Show report
15 Sunday Jun 2014
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Yesterday I attended the WW1 Centennial Commission Trade Show. I met a lot of people who are doing some interesting things for the commemoration of the Great War. Here are a few pics from the show.
The trade show brought together museum officials, authors, and others to discuss their projects for the Centennial. Jones Day, theWashington white shoe law firm, hosted the event.
The acting chairman of the Commission spoke first and discussed the group’s strategic plan. They have obviously put a great deal of thought and energy into the enterprise. He and the other commissioners are all volunteers.
Before the trade show presentations there was a fifteen minute musical interlude by Benjamin Sears and Bradford Conner. They set a nice tone for the afternoon.
Sergeant York’s son (black shirt and glasses on right) was there with his own son and granddaughter (seated to his left).
Here are a few of the exhibits. As with the Civil War Sesquicentennial, the Great War Centennial will incorporate the changes that have taken place in historiographically in recent decades.
This is a sampling of some of the literature I gathered. I do not want to give away too much right now but I spoke to various folks about working on some projects over the next 4-5 years. I think the next few years will be fun and productive in a number of ways.
American Racial History Timeline, 1900-1960
South Carolina – Railroads [Statute] Amended the act of 1898, repealing section six. The new law stated that railroads were not required to have second-class coaches. Penalty: Employees violating the law faced misdemeanor charges punishable by a fine between $25 and $100. Passengers who refused to sit in their assigned car were guilty of a misdemeanor and could be fined from $25 to $100. (Jim Crow History.org)
1901-1909, Theodore Roosevelt Administration
Congress becomes resegregated when George H. White of North Carolina fails in his reelection bid. Negroes would not serve again in Congress until 1929. (Brown and Stentiford, 562)
Alabama – Miscegenation [Constitution] Declared that the legislature could never pass any law authorizing or legalizing “any marriage between any white person and a Negro, or descendant of a Negro.” (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Education [Constitution] Separate schools to be provided for white and colored children. No child of either race to be permitted to attend a school of the other race. (Jim Crow History.org)
Assassination of President McKinley.
Booker T. Washington publishes Up From Slavery. (Brown and Stentiford, 598)
Between 1901 and 1947, the California state government enacted laws that created segregated communities for “Asian Americans.” (Brown and Stentiford, 49)
Thomas Dixon, Jr. publishes his response to Harriet Beecher Stowe, The Leopard’s Spots: An Historical Romance of the White Man’s Burden, 1865-1900, a best-selling novel which introduces readers to the Negro Problem and trauma that the North inflicted upon the South during Reconstruction. (Brown and Stentiford, 237)
Louisiana – Streetcars [Statute] All streetcars must provide separate but equal accommodations. Penalty: Passengers or conductors not complying could receive a fine of $25 or imprisonment up to 30 days. A railway company that refused to comply could receive a fine of $100, or imprisonment between 60 days and six months. (Jim Crow History.org)
W.E.B. DuBois publishes his landmark polemic, The Souls of Black Folk. It pronounces that the “problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line.” (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
Florida – Miscegenation [Statute] Intermarriage with a Negro, mulatto, or any person with one-eighth Negro blood shall be punished. Penalty: Imprisonment up to ten years or a fine not more than $1,000. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Railroads [Statute] Amended 1900 law stating that railroads were required to furnish separate apartments for white and colored passengers only on passenger trains, not on freight trains. (Jim Crow History.org)
Arkansas – Streetcars [Statute] Streetcar companies are to separate white and black passengers. Penalties: Passengers who refused to take their assigned seat will be charged with a misdemeanor and fined $25. Companies that fail to enforce the law will also be found guilty of a misdemeanor and fined $25. (Jim Crow History.org)
Race riot in Springfield, Ohio. (Brown and Stentiford, 128)
Congress bars Chinese immigration with amendments to the Chinese Exclusion Act. (Brown and Stentiford, 53)
Kentucky passes the “Day Law” which requires racial segregation of all public and private schools. (Brown and Stentiford, 438)
Mississippi – Streetcars [Statute] Streetcars were to provide equal but separate accommodations for white and colored passengers. Penalties: Passengers could be fined $25 or confined up to 30 days in county jail. Employees liable for a fine of $25 or confinement up to 30 days in jail. A streetcar company could be charged with a misdemeanor for failing to carry out law and be fined $100 and face imprisonment between 60 days and six months. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Public accommodations [Statute] Any person could donate lands to a city for a park, with the condition that the use of a park be limited to the white race only, or to white women and children only, or to the colored race. Municipalities could accept such gifts for the “exclusive use of the class named.” (Jim Crow History.org)
Florida – Streetcars [Statute] Separation of races required on all streetcars. Gave Caucasian mistresses the right to have their children attended in the white section of the car by an African nurse, but withheld from an African woman the equal right to have her child attended in the African section by its Caucasian nurse. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Streetcars [Statute] Authorized streetcars to separate the races in their cars. Penalty: Conductors who failed to enforce the law could be fined up to $100, or imprisoned for up to 30 days for each offense. (Jim Crow History.org)
Thomas Dixon, Jr. publishes The Clansman: An Historical Romance of the Ku Klux Klan, the second installment of his Reconstruction trilogy. (Brown and Stentiford, 238)
Founding of American Breeders Association. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)
The Niagara Movement forms. An organization of black intellectuals who opposed Booker T. Washington and his Tuskegee Machine, the Niagara movement promoted negro political equality and voting rights. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
The Burke Act provides citizenship to Indians in certain areas under certain conditions. (Brown and Stentiford, 580)
Founding of U.S. based journal, Eugenics and Social Welfare Bulletin. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)
Founding of the Race Betterment Foundation. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)
Berea College v. Kentucky, Supreme Court upholds Kentucky law that forbids the education of whites and negroes in the same facility. (Brown and Stentiford, 72)
Rumors of negro assaults on white women lead to a race riot in Atlanta. The riot claims the lives of 25 negroes and one white. Hundreds are injured. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
Race riot in Brownsville, Texas. (Brown and Stentiford, 128)
Race riot in Greensburg, Indiana. (Brown and Stentiford, 128)
Mississippi – Railroads [Statute] Railroad commission to provide separate waiting rooms for white and black passengers. Separate restrooms were to be provided also. (Jim Crow History.org)
Mississippi – Miscegenation [Statute] Prohibited marriage between a white person with a Negro or mulatto or a person with one-eighth or more Negro blood, or with an Asian or person with one-eighth or more “Mongolian” blood. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Railroads [Statute] Firms providing meals to passengers at railroad stations were prohibited from serving meals to white and colored passengers in the same room, at the same counter, or at the same table. Penalty: Misdemeanor, could be fined from $25 to $100, or imprisoned up to 30 days. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Miscegenation [State Code] Restated 1867 constitutional provision prohibiting intermarriage and cohabitation between whites and blacks. Penalties remained the same. A political code adopted in the same year defined the term “Negro” to include “mulatto,” which was noted as “persons of mixed blood descended from a father or mother from Negro ancestors, to the fifth generation inclusive, though one ancestor of each generation may have been a white person.” Note: This code added two additional generations to the original 1867 definition of what constituted a “Negro” person. (Jim Crow History.org)
Florida – Railroads [Statute] Separate waiting rooms for each race to be provided at railroad depots along with separate ticket windows. Also called for separation of the races on streetcars. Signs in plain letters to be marked “For White” and “For Colored” to be displayed. Penalties: Railroad companies that refused to comply with the provision could be fined up to $5,000. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Streetcars [Statute] Required all streetcars to comply with the separate coach law passed in 1889. Penalty: Streetcar companies could be fined from $100 to $1,000 for failing to enact law. A passenger wrongfully riding in an improper coach was guilty of a misdemeanor, and faced fines from $5 to $25. (Jim Crow History.org)
The “Gentleman’s Agreement” between President Theodore Roosevelt and Japanese leaders restricts Japanese immigration to the United States. (Brown and Stentiford, 53)
First use of “racialism,” as “prejudice based on race difference” (Barkan, 2), in the English language. (Online Etymology Dictionary)
Oklahoma admitted to the Union with a constitution modeled on Mississippi’s. (Brown and Stentiford, 563)
Georgia – Penal institutions [Statute] Separate eating and sleeping accommodations were required for white and black prisoners, and while working. (Jim Crow History.org)
Race riot in Springfield, Illinois. (Brown and Stentiford, 128)
Jack Johnson, a negro, reigns as heavyweight boxing champion until 1915. (Brown and Stentiford, 419)
Louisiana – Public accommodation [Statute] Unlawful for whites and blacks to buy and consume alcohol on the same premises. Penalty: Misdemeanor, punishable by a fine between $50 to $500, or imprisonment in the parish prison or jail up to two years. (Jim Crow History.org)
Louisiana – Miscegenation [Statute] Concubinage between the Caucasian or white race and any person of the Negro or black race is a felony. Penalty: Imprisonment from one month to one year, with or without hard labor. (Jim Crow History.org)
1909-1913, William Howard Taft Administration
Federal patronage of negroes sharply curtailed under President Taft. (Brown and Stentiford, 679)
Florida – Railroads [Statute] Separate accommodations required by race. Penalty: Passengers who failed to comply with law would be fined up to $500. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Railroads [Statute] Depot buildings required to provide separate waiting areas for the use of white and Negro passengers. (Jim Crow History.org)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People is founded in New York City. Some of the members of the Niagara Movement contribute to the founding of the NAACP. The board of directors of the NAACP includes several white progressives. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
“Great Migration” of 500,000 negroes to the North. (Gilmore, 17)
Founding of the Urban League (NUL). (Schuman et al, 54)
Founding of the Eugenics Record Office. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)
The NAACP launches its monthly magazine, The Crisis. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 14)
Louisiana – Miscegenation [Statute] Restatement of the law passed in 1908, using the words “Persons of the Caucasian and colored races.” (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Jails [Statute] Unlawful for any sheriff or jailer “to confine in the same room or apartment of any jail or prison white and Negro prisoners.” (Jim Crow History.org)
Franz Boas (Jew) publishes The Mind of Primitive Man, a turning point in anthropological thought, ushering in the notion of cultural relativism and the ethnological method. (Brown and Stentiford, 529)
First International Conference on Eugenics. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)
Hispanics in New Mexico finally receive full citizenship after admission to the Union. Texas restricts the right to own land to members of the white race. (Howe, 810)
Jones Act conferes U.S. citizenship on Puerto Ricans. (Brown and Stentiford, 374)
Louisiana – Residential [Statute] Building permits for building Negro houses in white communities, or any portion of a community inhabited principally by white people, and vice versa prohibited. Penalty: violators fined from $50 to $2,000, “and the municipality shall have the right to cause said building to be removed and destroyed.” (Jim Crow History.org)
Woodrow Wilson Administration, 1913-1921
In the Wilson administration’s first congressional session “there were no less than twenty bills advocating ‘Jim Crow’ cars in the District of Columbia, race segregation of Federal employees, excluding negroes from commissions in the army and navy, forbidding the intermarriage of negroes and whites, and excluding all immigrants of Negro descent. (Gilmore, 18)
President Wilson issues an executive order segregating the federal government’s operations in Washington. (Gilmore, 18) Wilson segregates the federal civil service. (Brown and Stentiford, 679)
President Wilson segregates the U.S. Navy and replaces negroes who hold appointed offices with whites. (Brown and Stentiford, 564)
U.S. v. Sandoval, Supreme Court describes American Indians as “essentially, a simple, uninformed and inferior people” incapable of exercising the privileges of citizenship. (Brown and Stentiford, 581)
Florida – Education [Statute] Unlawful for white teachers to teach Negroes in Negro schools, and for Negro teachers to teach in white schools. Penalty: Violators subject to fines up to $500, or imprisonment up to six months. (Jim Crow History.org)
1914-1918, First World War
World War I engulfs Europe, and involves much of the world through colonial empires and alliances. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
Louisville, Kentucky enacts a law forbidding whites and negroes from residing in areas where members of another race were the majority. (Brown and Stentiford, 115)
Louisiana – Public accommodation [Statute] All circuses, shows and tent exhibitions required to provide two ticket offices with individual ticket sellers and two entrances to the performance for each race. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Railroads [Statute] Negro porters shall not sleep in sleeping car berths nor use bedding intended for white passengers. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Health Care [Statute] White female nurses were prohibited from caring for black male patients. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Miscegenation [State Code] The penalty for intermarriage is imprisonment in the penitentiary from two to five years. (Jim Crow History.org)
The Great Migration begins. Many negroes move first from rural areas to cities in the South, then to Northern cities. The Great Migration peaks in the early 1940s. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
Lynching of Leo Frank in Georgia. (Gilmore, 197)
Film director D.W. Griffith adapts several novels by Thomas Dixon, Jr. into the nation’s first modern motion picture, The Birth of a Nation, which depicts the Ku Klux Klan as heroic defenders of white womanhood and civilization. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
Rebirth of the Ku Klux Klan in Stone Mountain, Georgia. (Brown and Stentiford, 239)
Supreme Court in Guinn v. United States strikes down the grandfather clause in voting. (Brown and Stentiford, 228)
Founding of U.S. based journal, Eugenical News. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)
Madison Grant publishes The Passing of the Great Race. (Brown and Stentiford, 562)
1917-1918, First World War (U.S. involvement)
The Immigration Act of 1917 bans “idiots,” “feeble-minded persons,” “criminals” “epileptics,” “insane persons,” alcoholics, “professional beggars,” all persons “mentally or physically defective,” polygamists, and anarchists.
Asiatic Barred Zone Act bans immigration from all of Southwest and South Asia.
June – A race riot in East St. Louis, Illinois, erupts over housing and jobs between working-class whites and negroes. Eight whites and about 100 negroes are killed in the riot. Thousands of fleeing residents of the city lose their possessions and homes in the aftermath. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
August – A race riot in Houston erupts between the negro soldiers stationed at Camp Logan and the white residents and police officers in nearby Houston. Over 100 soldiers are arrested, and 63 of them are court-martialed. Twenty are later executed, seven are set free, and the rest are given life sentences. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
U.S. buys the Virgin Islands from Denmark. (Nugent, 281)
U.S. Army officials try to force the French to segregate troops on the basis of race. (Gilmore, 18)
Buchanan v. Warley, Supreme Court invalidates laws requiring racial segregation of neighborhoods. (Brown and Stentiford, 114)
First use of “racialist” in the English language. (Online Etymology Dictionary)
The Asiatic Barred Zone act restricts Asian Indian immigration to the United States. The law deems Asians ineligible for American citizenship. (Brown and Stentiford, 53)
Louisiana – Prisons [Statute] Provided for the segregation of the races in all municipal, parish and state prisons. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Public accommodations [Statute] Ordered that Negroes were to use separate branches of county free libraries. (Jim Crow History.org)
Congress passes the Indian Veterans Citizenship Act which gives U.S. citizenship and full civil rights to Indian WW1 veterans. (Brown and Stentiford, 580)
Race riots across the nation claim more than 200 lives. The biggest riot is in Chicago. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv) Race riot in Charleston, South Carolina in Longview, Texas. (Brown and Stentiford, 128)
“Red Summer” – an estimated 25 race riots in the United States. (Brown and Stentiford, 128)
Founding of Commission on Interracial Cooperation. (Gilmore, 19)
Decline in scientific respectability of racial typology. (Barkan, 4)
Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) gains thousands of followers, until the group’s dissolution in the late 1920s. The popularity of UNIA stems from the Black Star Line, a shipping company, founded in 1919. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
Resegregation of Harvard University dorms. (Brown and Stentiford, 563)
North Carolina repeals its poll tax. (Brown and Stentiford, 603)
Mississippi – Miscegenation [Statute] Persons or corporations who printed, published or circulated written material promoting the acceptance of intermarriage between whites and Negroes would be guilty of a misdemeanor. Penalty: Fine up to $500 or imprisonment up to six months, or both. (Jim Crow History.org)
August – The Nineteenth Amendment passes, granting the right to vote to women. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
Lothrop Stoddard publishes The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy.
1921-1923, Warren Harding Administration
Second International Conference on Eugenics. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)
A race riot in Tulsa, Oklahoma, nearly wipes out the entire negro area, including the “Black” Wall Street. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
Louisiana – Housing [Statute] Prohibited Negro and white families from living in the same dwelling place. (Jim Crow History.org)
Louisiana – Education [Constitution] Called for separate, free public schools for the education of white and black children between the ages of six and eighteen years. (Jim Crow History.org)
Arkansas – Miscegenation [Statute] Prohibits cohabitation between whites and blacks and defines the term “Negro” as any person who has any Negro blood in his veins. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Voting Rights [Statute] “…in no event shall a Negro be eligible to participate in a Democratic party primary election held in the State of Texas…” Overturned in 1927 by U.S. Supreme Court in Nixon v. Herndon. (Jim Crow History.org)
Ozawa v. United States, Supreme Court confirms the policy which refused American citizenship to Japanese immigrants. (Brown and Stentiford, 401)
Dyer anti-lynching bill passes the House with Republican support, but fails in the Senate due to Southern Democratic resistance. (Brown and Stentiford, 256)
Virginia passes a law that makes negro-white intermarriage a crime. (Brown and Stentiford, 503)
1923-1929, Calvin Coolidge Administration
Rosewood Massacre in Florida. (Brown and Stentiford, 304)
Dyer federal anti-lynching bill defeated by Southern opposition in Congress. (Brown and Stentiford, 197)
Supreme Court in Moore v. Dempsy overturns some criminal cases in which negroes had been excluded from juries. (Brown and Stentiford, 228)
United States v. Bhagat Singh Thind, Supreme Court rules that Indians (subcons) are not white and denies citizenship to “Indian-Americans.”
Immigration Act of 1924 restricts immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe. (Brown and Stentiford, 53)
Asian Exclusion Act, a component of the Immigration Act of 1924, prohibits individuals from Asian nations from immigrating to the United States. The language of the law defined any individual from an Asian nation as ineligible for U.S. citizenship. (Brown and Stentiford, 53)
Virginia passes the Racial Integrity Act. The law requires the Virginia Bureau of Vital Statistics to record a racial description of every newborn baby. It outlaws marriages between white and nonwhite partners. (Brown and Stentiford, 275)
Virginia passes a eugenic sterilization law. (Brown and Stentiford, 275)
Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 gives U.S. citizenship to all American Indians born in the United States. (Brown and Stentiford, 580)
American Communists alone arguing for complete equality of the races. (Gilmore, 4)
Negro literature, art, and criticism form the Harlem Renaissance, an influential cultural movement. The Harlem Renaissance leads to similar cultural movements in Chicago and Kansas City. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
Georgia – Business licenses [Statute] No license would be issued to any person of “the white or Caucasian race to operate a billiard room to be used, frequented, or patronized by persons of the Negro race” and vice versa. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Education [Statute] Required racially segregated schools. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Public accommodations [Statute] Separate branches for Negroes to be administered by a Negro custodian in all county libraries. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Miscegenation [Penal Code] Miscegenation declared a felony. Nullified interracial marriages if parties went to another jurisdiction where such marriages were legal. (Jim Crow History.org)
Psychologists begin to attack the concept of inherent mental differences between racial groups. (Barkan, 5)
A. Philip Randolph forms the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
Georgia – Race classification [State Code] Classified a “Negro” as any person with at least one quarter Negro blood. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Education [State Code] Required schools to be racially segregated.Teachers who were guilty of receiving or teaching white and colored pupils in the same school would not be compensated. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Miscegenation [State Code] Colored clergyman can marry Negroes only. Also nullified interracial marriages if parties went to another jurisdiction where such marriages were legal. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Public carriers [Statute] Public carriers to be segregated. (Jim Crow History.org)
Historian Carter G. Woodson founds Negro History Week, later evolving into Black History Month. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
Arthur Estabrook and Evan McDougle publish Mongrel Virginians: The Win Tribe. (Brown and Stentiford, 275)
Corrigan v. Buckley, Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of racial covenants. (Brown and Stentiford, 720)
Carl Brigham develops the SAT test. (Brown and Stentiford, 562)
Alabama – Education [State Code] All schools to be segregated by race. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Miscegenation [Statute] “Unlawful for a white person to marry anyone except a white person.” Another statute enacted the same year changed the law to read that all persons with any ascertainable trace of Negro blood must be classified as persons of color. Penalty: Both races would be imprisoned in the penitentiary for one to two years. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Public accommodations [City Ordinance] No Negro barber in Atlanta allowed to serve white children under fourteen years of age. Court later declared the ordinance unconstitutional. (Jim Crow History.org)
Florida – Education [Statute] Criminal offense for teachers of one race to instruct pupils of the other in public schools. (Jim Crow History.org)
Florida – Race classification [Statute] Defined the words “Negro” or “colored person” to include persons who have one eighth or more Negro blood (Jim Crow History.org)
Buck v. Bell, Supreme Court upholds the constitutionality of state eugenic sterilization laws. (Brown and Stentiford, 275)
Supreme Court rules in Lum v. Rice that “separate but equal” applies to Asians and is within the discretion of the State in regulating its public schools and does not conflict with the 14th Amendment. (Brown and Stentiford, 235)
Founding of U.S. based journal, Eugenics: A Journal of Race Betterment. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)
Alabama – Miscegenation [State Code] Miscegenation declared a felony. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Race classification [State Code] Classified all persons with any Negro blood as colored. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Public accommodations [State Code] Forbid the use by members of either race of toilet facilities in hotels and restaurants which were furnished to accommodate persons of the other race. (Jim Crow History.org)
The Ku Klux Klan makes a large march down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. (Brown and Stentiford, 445)
Anti-lynching bill dies in Congress. (Brown and Stentiford, 256)
American communists continue their campaign against segregation. The national platform of the CPUSA includes calls for full racial equality, the abolition of Jim Crow laws, enfranchisement of African Americans, integration of schools, juries, unions, and the military, a federal law against lynching, the end of chain gangs, and equal job opportunities and pay. (Brown and Stentiford, 177)
Louisiana – Public Carrier [Statute] Equal but separate accommodations to be provided on all public carriers. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Miscegenation [State Code] Miscegenation declared a felony. Also unlawful for Caucasian persons to marry Asians or Malays. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Race classification [Statute] Required all persons to fill out voter registration forms with information concerning their racial ancestry. If there was any admixture of Negro blood in the veins of any registrant, person would be considered a person of color. (Jim Crow History.org)
1929-1933, Herbert Hoover Administration
Debut of Amos ‘n’ Andy on the radio. (Brown and Stentiford, 25)
The crash of the stock market reveals serious problems with the American economy. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
“Raciology” a vanishing vocation. (Barkan, 4)
The Hays Code prohibits depictions of miscegenation in Hollywood films. (Brown and Stentiford, 533)
Nation of Islam founded in Detroit, Michigan. (Brown and Stentiford, 566)
Mississippi – Education [State Code] Required schools to be racially segregated, and the creation of separate districts to provide school facilities for the greatest number of pupils of both races. In addition, authorized the establishment of separate schools for Native Americans. (Jim Crow History.org)
Mississippi – Miscegenation [State Code] Miscegenation declared a felony. Nullified interracial marriages if parties went to another jurisdiction where such marriages were legal. Also prohibited marriages between persons of the Caucasian race and those persons who had one eighth of more Asian blood. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Public carriers [Statute] Motor common carriers could confine themselves to carry either white or colored passengers. (Jim Crow History.org)
Scottsboro Boys trial. (Gilmore, 118)
Third International Conference on Eugenics. (Brown and Stentiford, 530)
Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment lasts from 1932 to 1972. (Brown and Stentiford, 307)
First use of “racist” as a noun in the English language. (Online Etymology Dictionary)
Franklin D. Roosevelt is elected president. His promise of a New Deal and a “Black Cabinet” in 1933 attracts many negro voters to the Democratic Party. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
Louisiana – Miscegenation [State Code] Outlawed interracial marriages. Nullified interracial marriages if parties went to another jurisdiction where such marriages were legal. Also prohibited Negroes and Indians to marry each other. (Jim Crow History.org)
Louisiana – Residential [State Code] No person or corporation shall rent an apartment in an apartment house or other like structure to a person who is not of the same race as the other occupants. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Public accommodations [Statute] All circuses and tent show must provide separate entrances for white and black customers. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Education [State Code] Required racially segregated schools. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Miscegenation [State Code] Miscegenation declared a misdemeanor. Also forbid marriages between persons of the Caucasian and Asian races. (Jim Crow History.org)
1933-1945, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Administration
Georgia – Education [State Code] The board of education was responsible to provide instruction of black and white children in separate schools. (Jim Crow History.org)
NAACP begins its legal campaign to desegregate education. (Gilmore, 2)
Negroes launch the “Don’t Buy Where You Can’t Work” economic campaign. (Brown and Stentiford, 246)
The act which establishes the Civilian Conservation Corps forbids discrimination on the basis of race. (Brown and Stentiford, 162)
Louisiana repeals its poll tax. (Brown and Stentiford, 632)
Indian Reorganization Act overturns the Dawes Act. (Brown and Stentiford, 209)
Tydings-McDuffie Act promises independence to the Philippines, strips Filipinos of citizenship, and caps immigration at 50 per year. (Nugent, 273)
The Nation of Islam comes under the leadership of Elijah Muhammad. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
Costigan-Wagner federal anti-lynching bill defeated by Southern opposition in Congress. (Brown and Stentiford, 196)
A domestic ideal of racial tolerance, necessitated by the demands of fighting fascism, becomes the “American way.” (Gilmore, 3)
Arkansas – Public accommodations [Statute] All race tracks and gaming establishments were to be segregated. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Miscegenation [State Code] Illegal for a white to marry anyone but a white. Penalty:Felony, one to two years imprisonment. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Health Care [State Code] Separate mental hospitals to be established for blacks. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Public Carriers [Statute] Required segregation on all public transportation. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Education [Statute] Required school bus drivers to be of the same race as the children they transported. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Health Care [Statute] Established a state tuberculosis sanitarium for blacks. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Public carriers [State Code] Directed that separate coaches for whites and blacks on all common carriers. (Jim Crow History.org)
Delaware state law requires racial segregation in public education. (Brown and Stentiford, 105)
A repatriation act is passed that pays Filipinos their passage back home on condition they never return. (Nugent, 273)
Ethiopia, the last African nation under native rule, is attacked by Italy. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
The National Council of Negro Women is formed. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
W.E.B. Du Bois publishes Black Reconstruction, a book that reinterpreted Reconstruction to highlight the gains that came about for negroes. (Brown and Stentiford, 251)
Segregation of CCC camps. (Brown and Stentiford, 162)
Costigan-Wagner federal anti-lynching bill defeated by Southern opposition in Congress. (Brown and Stentiford, 196)
Pearson v. Murray, Maryland Supreme Court orders the University of Maryland Law School to admit negro students. (Brown and Stentiford, 112)
Opening prayer at the Democratic National Convention delivered by a negro. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 26)
Samuel Dickstein’s (Jew) House of Un-American Activities Committee becomes a permanent feature of Congress. (Gilmore, 171)
First use of “racism” in the English language (from the French term, “racisme,” in 1935). (Online Etymology Dictionary)
Jesse Owens wins four gold medals at the Summer Olympics in Berlin. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
Costigan-Wagner federal anti-lynching bill defeated by Southern opposition in Congress. (Brown and Stentiford, 196)
Florida repeals its poll tax. (Brown and Stentiford, 632)
Department of the Interior under Harold Ickes produced the first of 26 episodes of American All, Immigrants All, broadcast on the CBS network, celebrating the contributions of immigrant and minority Americans. (Brown and Stentiford, 664)
The American Anthropological Association unanimously passes a resolution condemning racism. (Gilmore, 199)
The Carnegie Corporation commissions Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal to write a comprehensive study of American race relations. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 4)
Gunnar Myrdal arrives in the U.S. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 4)
First use of “racist” as an adjective in the English language. (Online Etymology Dictionary)
Gaines v. Canada. Supreme Court rules that states which provide a legal education for white students must also make a comparable education available to negro students. (Brown and Stentiford, 113)
Boxer Joe Louis defeats Max Schmeling in a rematch from a 1937 fight. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
1939-1945, Second World War
On the personal invitation of Eleanor Roosevelt, Marian Anderson sings at the Lincoln Memorial. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
Television is introduced to the American public at the New York World’s Fair. (Brown and Stentiford, 770)
Thomas Dixon, Jr. publishes his final novel, The Flaming Sword, which claims communism and miscegenation threaten to destroy America. (Brown and Stentiford, 239)
The University of Pennsylvania, the most racially egalitarian university in 1946, boasted only 40 negroes out of an institutional enrollment of 9,000. Negro enrollment in the North and the West never exceeded 5,000 negroes in the 1940s. (Brown and Stentiford, 595)
NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund is chartered. (Brown and Stentiford, 554)
Nationality Act further clarifies the citizenship status of American Indians. (Brown and Stentiford, 580)
Alabama – Miscegenation [State Code] Prohibited intermarriage and cohabitation between whites and blacks or the descendant of any Negro. Penalty: Imprisonment in the penitentiary for two to seven years. Ministers and justices of the peace faced fines between $100 and $1,000 and could be imprisoned in the county jail for up to six months. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Prisons [State Code] Unlawful to chain together white and black convicts or allow them to sleep together. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Railroads [State Code] Code commanded that separate waiting rooms be provided for blacks and whites as well as equal but separate accommodations on railroad cars. Did not apply to passengers entering Alabama from another state that did not have similar laws. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Education [State Code] County Boards of Education to provide free separate schools for white and colored children. (Jim Crow History.org)
Author Richard Wright publishes Native Son, a chilling novel about youth, poverty, and Jim Crow. It is called the “new American tragedy.” (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
President Roosevelt appoints William Hastie as his “Aide on Negro Affairs” and Benjamin O. Davis to brigadier general. (Brown and Stentiford, 247)
1941-1945, Second World War (U.S. involvement)
The United States joins the Allies and wages war against the Axis Powers of Germany, Japan, and Italy in World War II. Negro activists call for a Double V campaignk, the defeat of enemies abroad and racism in America. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
January – The 332nd Fighter Group – Tuskegee Airmen – of the Army Air Corps forms. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
June – A. Philip Randolph threatens a March on Washington. President Roosevelt issues Executive Order 8802 banning racial discrimination in hiring of government of defense industry during World War II. (Schuman et al, 54)
Florida – Voting rights protected [Statute] Poll tax repealed. (Jim Crow History.org)
Mississippi – Voting rights [Constitution] Instituted poll tax requirement. (Jim Crow History.org)
Mississippi – Miscegenation [State Code] Marriage between white and Negro or Asian void. Penalty: $500 and/or up to ten years imprisonment. Anyone advocating intermarriage subject to fine of $500 and/or six months. (Jim Crow History.org)
Mississippi – Health Care [State Code ] Segregated facilities at state charity hospital and separate entrances at all state hospitals. (Jim Crow History.org)
Louisiana – Health Care [Statute] Separate but equal accommodations for the races to be provided in old age homes. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina law requires racial segregation in public education. (Brown and Stentiford, 105)
President Roosevelt signs Executive Order 9066 into law, which declared ares of the United States as military areas and allowing military leaders to exclude or remove individuals deemed to be a threat. (Brown and Stentiford, 51)
Internment of Japanese Americans from West Coast states begins, lasting until 1946. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
James Farmer founds the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). (Schuman et al, 54)
Ashley Montagu publishes Man’s Most Dangerous Myth: The Fallacy of Race. (Barkan, 3)
The Marine Corps accepts its first negro recruits. (Brown and Stentiford, 247)
Popularization of the “Double V” campaign (victory against foreign and domestic racists). (Brown and Stentiford, 248)
Texas – Public carriers [State Code] Ordered separate seating on all buses. (Jim Crow History.org)
The Magnuson Act repeals the Chinese Exclusion Act and permits Chinese nationals in the U.S. to become naturalized citizens.
Beaumont, Texas race riot. (Brown and Stentiford, 67)
Major race riot in Detroit. (Schuman et al, 54)
243 instances of racial violence in 47 American cities during 1943. (Brown and Stentiford, 219)
Zoot Suit race riot in Los Angeles. (Brown and Stentiford, 372)
An American Dilemma becomes the cornerstone of the later Brown v. Board of Education ruling. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 6)
James Farmer of CORE leads the first successful “sit-in” protest in Chicago. (Brown and Stentiford, 288)
Florida – Miscegenation [Statute] Illegal for whites and Negroes to live in adultery. Penalty: up to $500, or up to two years imprisonment. (Jim Crow History.org)
Harry McAlpin becomes the first negro admitted to a White House press conference. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 34)
Smith v. Allwright, Supreme Court abolishes the white primary. (Brown and Stentiford, 155)
1945-1953, Harry Truman Administration
Florida – Antidefamation [Statute] Unlawful to print, publish, distribute by any means, any publications, handbills, booklets, etc. which tends to expose any individual or any religious group to hatred, contempt, ridicule, or abuse unless the name and address of those doing so is clearly printed on the written material. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia repeals its poll tax. (Brown and Stentiford, 632)
Nat “King” Cole launches the first negro radio variety show on NBC. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
John Johnson founds Ebony magazine. (Brown and Stentiford, 423)
Georgia – Education [Constitution] Separate schools to be provided for the white and colored races. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Public Carriers [Statute] Required separate waiting rooms and ticket windows for the white and colored races as well as separate seating on buses. Penalty: Misdemeanor carrying a fine of $500. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Voting Rights [Constitution] Established voting qualifications to included being able to read and write, understand and explain any article of the U.S. Constitution. Elector had to be employed for the greater part of the 12 months preceding registration. (Jim Crow History.org)
National Football League welcomes its first negro players, integrating professional football. (Brown and Stentiford, 755)
Secretary of State Dean Acheson issues a study of the damage domestic racism had on American diplomacy. (Brown and Stentiford, 164)
The Luce-Celler Act of 1946 grants naturalization rights to Indians and Filipinos and reestablishes immigration from India and the Philippines.
Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia, Supreme Court forbids racial segregation of bus passengers engaged in interstate travel. (Brown and Stentiford, 184)
December 5 – President Truman issues Executive Order 9808 which establishes the President’s Committee on Civil Rights. (Brown and Stentiford, 279)
Cold War, 1947-1991
President Truman’s Committee on Civil Rights issues its 178-page report, “To Secure These Rights.” The report calls for laws requiring states to end discrimination in education, mandating a ban against discrimination in the armed services, laws to guarantee fair employment practices for blacks, federal prohibition of lynching, repeal of poll taxes and other discriminatory voting restrictions, denial of federal grants when discrimination in evidence, an expanded civil rights division at the Justice Department, creation of permanent civil rights commissions at the federal and state levels, specific federal ban on police brutality, and enforcement of a Supreme Court decision against restrictive real estate covenants. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 38)
Arkansas – Public Accommodation [Statute] A series of statutes were passed that made segregation at polling places, on motor carriers and railroad cars and within prisons mandatory. (Jim Crow History.org)
Arkansas – Public accommodation [Statute] Required separate washrooms in mines. (Jim Crow History.org)
Arkansas – Voting rights [Statute] Required voters to pay poll tax. (Jim Crow History.org)
Arkansas – Miscegenation [Statute] Sexual relations and marriage between whites and blacks illegal. Penalty: First conviction $20 to $100, second, $100 minimum and up to 12 months imprisonment, third and subsequent convictions, one to three years imprisonment. (Jim Crow History.org)
Arkansas – Health Care [Statute] Separate tuberculosis hospitals to be established for Negroes. (Jim Crow History.org)
Arkansas – Education [Statute] Required segregation of races in public schools. (Jim Crow History.org)
82% of the American people are reportedly opposed to Truman’s civil rights program. (Brown and Stentiford, 788)
President Truman speaks at the annual meeting of the NAACP, the first chief executive to ever do so. (Brown and Stentiford, 788)
Jackie Robinson joins the Brooklyn Dodgers, becoming the first negro player in Major League Baseball since 1887, breaking the color line in baseball. (Schuman et al, 54)
NAACP issues a document entitled An Appeal to the World to the United Nations. (Brown and Stentiford, 164)
William and Alfred Levitt, both Jews, pioneer the mass production of suburban housing (Levittowns). (Brown and Stentiford, 471)
Patton v. Mississippi, Supreme Court rules all-white juries unconstitutional. (Brown and Stentiford, 558)
Trujillo v. Garley, Indians gain the right to vote in New Mexico. (Brown and Stentiford, 581)
Harrison v. Laveen, Indians gain the right to vote in Arizona. (Brown and Stentiford, 581)
February 2 – President Truman sends a special message to Congress proposing a ten-point civil rights program, including an antilynching measure, abolition of the poll tax, a permanent fair employment practices committee, a Justice Department civil rights bureau, and the abolition of segregation in interstate commerce. (Brown and Stentiford, xxv)
President Truman introduces civil rights legislation and issues Executive Orders concerning fair treatment in federal employment and desegregation of the military. (Schuman et al, 54)
President Harry S. Truman orders the desegregation of the U.S. military with Executive Order 9981. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
Larry Doby integrates the American League in Major League Baseball, playing for the Cleveland Indians. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
U.N. Declaration on Human Rights declares, “No one shall be held in slavery or servitude slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all forms.” (Davis, xvi)
Democratic Party splits after the adoption of a strong civil rights plank at its national convention. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 40)
A group of Southern Democrats form the States Rights Democratic Party to oppose the reelection of Harry Truman because of his proposed civil rights program. (Brown and Stentiford, 233)
Perez v. Sharp, California Supreme Court strikes down California’s anti-miscegenation law. (Brown and Stentiford, 397)
Sipuel v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, Supreme Court orders OU to provide negro students with the same legal education it provided for white students. (Brown and Stentiford, 144)
Shelley v. Kraemer, Supreme Court strikes down de jure racial segregation, restricted covenants, in housing. (Brown and Stentiford, 316)
Georgia – Voting rights [Statute] Those persons registering to vote were required to correctly answer ten out of thirty questions. Many of the questions were quite difficult. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Employment [Statute] Coal mines required to have separate washrooms. (Jim Crow History.org)
A federal courts orders the University of Kentucky to admit negroes to its engineering, graduate, law, and pharmacy schools. (Brown and Stentiford, 438)
Essayist James Baldwin critiques Richard Wright’s depiction of negro protest to racism in his short essay, “Everybody’s Protest Novel.”
Kansas statute permits racial segregation in education in cities with over 15,000 population. (Brown and Stentiford, 105)
By 1949, at least 17 states – Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and West Virginia – and the District of Columbia had enacted laws requiring racial segregation of public school children. Four other states – Arizona, Kansas, New Mexico, and Wyoming – provided for a local option in determing whether to segregate public education. Wyoming was the only state that did not exercise this option. (Brown and Stentiford, 104)
NBA welcomes three negroes players, integration of professional basketball. (Brown and Stentiford, 755)
The first segment of the Civil Rights Movement is underway by 1954.
Emergence of rock and roll music. (Brown and Stentiford, 694)
Korean War, 1950-1953
Texas – Public accommodations [Statute] Separate facilities required for white and black citizens in state parks. (Jim Crow History.org)
Sweatt v. Painter, Supreme Court rules that when considering segregated graduate education, “intangibles” must be considered part of “substantive equality.” (Roberts and Klibanoff, 49)
McLaurin v. Oklahoma State Regents, Supreme Court rules that an institution of higher education could not provide different treatment to a student on the basis of race. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 49)
Henderson v. United States, Supreme Court abolishes racial segregation in railroad dining cars. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 49)
Thirty states have anti-miscegenation laws on the books. (Brown and Stentiford, 503)
Ralph Bunche becomes the first negro to win the Nobel Peace Prize. (Klarman, From Jim Crow, 3)
Integration of the NBA. (Brown and Stentiford, 63)
Althea Gibson breaks the color line in tennis. (Brown and Stentiford, 329)
Carr v. Corning, segregated schools legal in Washington, D.C. (Brown and Stentiford, 102)
Texas – Voting rights [Constitution] Required electors to pay poll tax. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Miscegenation [Statute] Unlawful for person of Caucasian blood to marry person of African blood. Penalty:Two to five years imprisonment. (Jim Crow History.org)
NBC institutes a code of standards and practices that required that all groups represented on the radio be treated with dignity and respect. (Brown and Stentiford, 666)
South Carolina repeals its poll tax. (Brown and Stentiford, 632)
John Johnson founds Jet magazine. (Brown and Stentiford, 423)
CBS adapts Amos ‘n’ Andy, a popular radio program that promoted racial stereotypes of negroes, into a weekly half-hour television show with an all black cast. (Brown and Stentiford, 25)
USIA creates a pamphlet for American ambassadors designed to help them depict American race relations in a positive manner, The Negro in American Life. (Brown and Stentiford, 165)
Brown reaches the Supreme Court. (Brown and Stentiford, 108)
Louisiana – Adoption [Statute] Forbid interracial adoptions. (Jim Crow History.org)
Louisiana – Miscegenation [Statute] Cohabitation between whites and blacks illegal. Penalty: Up to $1,000, or up to five years imprisonment, or both. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Health Care [Statute] Establishment of TB hospitals for blacks. (Jim Crow History.org)
NBC implemens a policy of “integration without identification, allowing the negro to appear on the radio without explicit reference to race. (Brown and Stentiford, 666)
The McCarran-Walter Act lifts the ban on Asian immigration established by the Asian Exclusion Act. (Brown and Stentiford, 54)
Supreme Court hears arguments in the Brown case. (Brown and Stentiford, 108)
Ralph Ellison publishes Invisible Man, a stinging critique of Jim Crow. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
Louisiana – Miscegenation [State Code] Prohibited marriage between whites and persons of color. Penalty: Up to $1,000 and/or five years imprisonment. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Voting rights protected [State Code] Repealed poll tax statute. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Employment [State Code] Unlawful for cotton textile manufacturers to allow different races to work together in same room, use same exits, bathrooms, etc. Penalty $100 and/or imprisonment at hard labor up to 30 days. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Miscegenation [State Code] Marriage of white with Negro, mulatto, Indian, or mestizo void. Penalty: Not less than $500 and/or not less than 12 months imprisonment. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Adoption [Statute] Crime to give colored person custody of a white child. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Public carriers [State Code] Public carriers to be segregated. (Jim Crow History.org)
1953-1961, Dwight Eisenhower Administration
Texas – Public carriers [Penal Code] Public carriers to be segregated. (Jim Crow History.org)
Tennessee repeals its poll tax. (Brown and Stentiford, 632)
CBS pulls Amos ‘n’ Andy from the air after negro protests. (Brown and Stentiford, 25)
Earl Warren becomes chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 42)
Desegregation of public schools in Washington, D.C. (Brown and Stentiford, 165)
The Baton Rouge bus boycott is the first of its kind in the American South that attempted to end segregation on city buses. (Brown and Stentiford, 66)
The Supreme Court decides for the plantiffs in the landmark Brown v. Board of Education. The ruling makes illegal segregation and discrimination in the nation’s public schools. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
Bolling v. Sharpe, Supreme Court outlaws racial segregation in Washington, D.C. public schools. (Brown and Stentiford, 101)
Hernandez v. Texas, Supreme Court rules that the Fourteenth Amendment extends beyond whites and negroes and covers individuals of Mexican ancestry. (Oyez)
Founding of the Citizens’ Councils in Mississippi. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 66)
Over three million Hispanics deported by the federal government in Operation Wetback. (Brown and Stentiford, 373)
Louisiana – Education [Statute] Immediately after the Brown decision, Louisiana amended its Constitution to state that all public and elementary schools would be operated separately for white and black children. Penalty: $500 to $1,000 for not enforcing and imprisonment from three to six months. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Voting rights protected [State Code] Repealed poll tax. (Jim Crow History.org)
Brown II, Supreme Court renders its decision on the implementation of Brown. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 71)
Emmett Till, a fourteen-year-old black native of Chicago, is kidnapped and murdered while visiting family in Mississippi for whistling at a white woman. Two men are arrested for his murder, but are later acquitted, sparking a national controversy and widespread coverage by the white Northern press. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 87)
Massive resistance, a segregationist strategy to reduce integration, is outlined on the editorial pages of the Richmond News Leader on November 21, 1955. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 109)
NAACP activist Rosa Park is arrested in Montgomery, AL for violating a city ordinance and Alabama state law by refusing to give up her seat on a municipal bus to a white man. Her decision inspired the later Montgomery Bus Boycott which lasted for 381 days. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 109)
Alabama – Public Carrier [Statute] Called for segregation on public transportation. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Education [State Code] Regular school attendance statute repealed. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Public accommodations [Municipal Ordinance] Abolished previously required segregation in the city of San Antonio’s swimming pools and other recreational facilities. (Jim Crow History.org)
Gayle v. Browder, Supreme Court outlaws segregation in all public transportation. (Brown and Stentiford, 615)
Autherine Lucy attempts to integrate the University of Alabama but fails. (Brown and Stentiford, 217)
Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott begun in 1955 ends after 381 days, drawing national and international attention, and propels Martin Luther King, Jr., to the forefront of the civil rights crusade. (Schuman et al, 54)
By the end of 1956, eleven southern states had enacted 106 pro-segegation laws. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 118)
Alabama legislature rules that the U.S. Supreme Court has no standing to force the desegregation of public schools. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 128)
Integration of the University of North Carolina. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 133)
NAACP barred from the State of Alabama (Roberts and Klibanoff, 141)
November – U.S. Supreme Court rules that the racial segregation of Montgomery buses is unconstitutional. (Roberts and Klibanoff, 141)
Billy Holiday, acclaimed jazz singer, publishes her autobiography, Lady Sings the Blues. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvii)
Alabama – Public accommodation [City Ordinance] The city of Huntsville, Ala., passed a municipal ordinance that set aside one day a week when Negroes could use the municipal golf course. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Recreation [City Council Resolution ] The Huntsville, Ala., City Council passed a resolution that made it unlawful for white and blacks to play cards, dice, dominoes, checkers, pool, billiards, softball, basketball, baseball, football, golf, or track together. Also applied to swimming pools and beaches. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Public Carriers [City Ordinance] Birmingham, Ala., acted to “reaffirm, reenact and continue in full force and effect” ordinances which prescribed segregated seating on city buses to prevent “incidents, tensions and disorder.” (Jim Crow History.org)
Mississippi – Education [State Code & Constitution] Separate schools to be maintained. All state executive officers required to prevent implementation of school segregation decision by “lawful means.” Governor may close any school if he determines closure to be in best interest of majority of children. (Jim Crow History.org)
Mississippi – Public carriers [State Code] Public carriers to be segregated. (Jim Crow History.org)
Mississippi – Public accommodation [Statute] Firms and corporations authorized to choose their clientele and the right to refuse service to any person. (Jim Crow History.org)
Louisiana – Recreation [Statute] Firms were prohibited from permitting on their premises any dancing, social functions, entertainments, athletic training, games, sports or contests in which the participants are members of the white and Negro races. (Jim Crow History.org)
Louisiana – Public carriers [Statute] Revised older laws requiring that common carriers provide separate waiting rooms for white intrastate passengers and for Negro intrastate and interstate passengers. (Jim Crow History.org)
Louisiana – Employment [Statute] Provided that all persons, firms or corporations create separate bathroom facilities for members of the white and Negro races employed by them or permitted to come upon their premises. In addition, separate eating places in separate rooms as well as separate eating and drinking utensils were to be provided for members of the white and Negro races. Penalty: Misdemeanor, $100 to $1,000, 60 days to one year imprisonment. (Jim Crow History.org)
Louisiana – Public accommodations [Statute] All public parks, recreation centers, playgrounds, etc. would be segregated. This provision was made “for the purpose of protecting the public health, morals and the peace and good order in the state and not because of race.” (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Public accommodations [Statute] State Commission of Forestry given authority to operate and supervise only racially separated parks and to admit to the facilities of the parks only persons who have the express permission of the state. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Public accommodations and recreation [State Code] Political subdivisions may alienate parks, etc. (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Education [State Code] No public funds to be allocated to non-segregated schools. Penalty: felony. (Jim Crow History.org)
South Carolina – Education [State Code] No appropriations for schools from and to which students transfer because of court order. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Education [State Code] No child compelled to attend schools that are racially mixed. (Jim Crow History.org)
Alabama – Public accommodations and recreation [State Code] Political subdivisions may alienate recreational facilities if approved by referendum. (Jim Crow History.org)
Louisiana – Education [Constitution] All public schools to be racially segregated. (Jim Crow History.org)
Louisiana – Education [Statute] Compulsory attendance suspended in school systems where integration ordered no state funds to non-segregated schools. (Jim Crow History.org)
Arkansas – Education [Statute] No child required to enroll in a racially mixed school. (Jim Crow History.org)
Arkansas – Public Carrier [Statute] Required segregation on all public carriers. (Jim Crow History.org)
Founding of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). (Schuman et al, 54)
Allen v. Merrill, Indians gain the right to vote in Utah. (Brown and Stentiford, 581)
Clash in Little Rock, Arkansas, over the desegregation of Central High School. President Eisenhower dispatches federal troops to keep order and enforce desegregation. (Schuman et al, 54)
September 2 – Eisenhower sends in the U.S. Army’s 1,200-man 327th Battle Group of the 101st Airborne Division to Little Rock to take control of Central High School. At the same time, he federally mobilized the entire Arkansas National Guard, about 10,000 Guardsmen, mainly to prevent Governor Faubus from attempting to use the Guard to oppose the federal soldiers. With this overwhelming show of disciplined soldiers, the threat from the mobs abated, although the shouting continued. The Little Rock Nine were able to enter Central High and begin attending classes on September 25. (Brown and Stentiford, 478)
The Civil Rights Act of 1957 pledges the federal government to prosecute abuses of negro civil rights. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvii)
With the support of the governor and the state legislature, the school board closed all public high schools in Little Rock after the end of the 1957-1958 year. The schools remain closed for one year. (Brown and Stentiford, 479)
Arkansas – Education [Statute] Governor may close schools by election with ballot to read: “For racial integration of all schools within the …school district,” or “Against racial integration of all schools within the school district.” (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Voting rights [Statute] This statute made voter registration extremely tedious and difficult. Law was designated as “An act to effect a complete revision of the laws of this state relating to the qualification and registration of voters.” For example, one of the questions asked “Under what constitutional classification do you desire to make application for registration?” (Jim Crow History.org)
Georgia – Public carriers [State Code] Segregation on public carriers. (Jim Crow History.org)
Mississippi – Recreation [Statute] Authorized governor to close parks to prevent desegregation. (Jim Crow History.org)
Louisiana – Health Care [Statute] All human blood to be used in the state of Louisiana for transfusions to be labeled with the word “Caucasian,” “Negroid,” or “Mongoloid” so as to clearly indicate the race of the donor. If the blood was not labeled it was not permitted to be used. (Jim Crow History.org)
Florida – Education [Statute] County boards of education may adopt regulation for closing schools during emergencies. Schools to close automatically when federal troops used to prevent violence. (Jim Crow History.org)
Florida – Public Carrier [Statute] Races to be segregated on public carriers. (Jim Crow History.org)
Texas – Education [Statute] No child compelled to attend schools that are racially mixed. No desegregation unless approved by election. Governor may close schools where troops used on federal authority. (Jim Crow History.org)
Cooper v. Aaron, Supreme Court rules unanimously for integration to proceed immediately at Little Rock Central High School in Arkansas. (Brown and Stentiford, 186-187)
Martin Luther King, Jr., Ralph Abernathy, and other negro ministers form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. (Brown and Stentiford, xxvi)
Little Rock reopens and integrates its public schools. (Brown and Stentiford, 479)
Alaska admitted to the Union.
George Lincoln Rockwell founds the American Nazi Party. (Brown and Stentiford, 577)
Ain't My America: The Long, Noble History of Antiwar Conservatism and Middle-American Anti-Imperialism
The abysmal 2008 presidential election should have Americans scratching their heads, pondering how the political economy of the United States devolved into a duopoly of two nearly identical, state-loving political parties that are always ready to intervene militarily anywhere on the planet.
It was not always this way, and how we got here is the focus of Bill Kauffman’s Ain’t My America. The book is a pithy romp through American history, focusing on antiwar and antistate advocates from eighteenth century Antifederalists to the brave, post-9/11 minority who still dare to say no to an overweening federal government. The result is a remarkable effort that connects John Randolph to Freda Payne, George Washington to George McGovern, William Cullen Bryan to Bob Dylan, and a host of noble and colorful iconoclasts in between.
Kauffman identifies a long-running American strain of individualist thought crucial to a free society, one with two notable characteristics. The first is a recognition of the devastating effects of war on the natural order. Here Kauffman connects the popular dissent to the War of 1812, the Mexican and Spanish-American wars, the twentieth century’s world wars, the Cold War, and Vietnam. Common threads include the beliefs that war is unnecessary, that it serves vested interests over the general interest, that essential freedoms will be compromised in carrying it out, that the common man will pay with treasure and blood, and that it will lead to a permanently expanded state.
The second philosophical characteristic of a free society important to Kauffman is that of localism. Here the idea of maintaining roots and revering the local over the international—the anchored over the unanchored—is important for constraining the nation-state. Indeed, for a nation-state to grow, it needs dependents willing to abandon the ties of hearth, home, and family, if only because this helps when sending soldiers off to one of the 100-plus countries where the U.S. government has military bases. Kauffman emphasizes the important contributions of Allan Carlson of the Howard Center on the full costs of nationalism and militarization on families and communities. Kauffman concludes: “Divorce, dispersal, disruption of courtship patterns ye shall know the warfare state by its rotten fruits.”
Kauffman introduces his readers to people like John Randolph, who opposed the War of 1812 by asking, “Who would suffer [by war]? The people. It is their blood, their taxes, that must flow to support it.” Noting the loss in freedoms war brings, Randolph added, “The Government of the United States was not calculated to wage offensive foreign war—it was instituted for the common defence and general welfare and whosoever should embark it on a war of offence, would put it to a test which it was by no means calculated to endure.”
Another outspoken critic Kauffman introduces is George S. Boutwell, who had been Grant’s treasury secretary and later broke with President McKinley in opposition to the war with Spain and the (virtually unknown today) slaughter of Filipinos following their “liberation.” Asked Boutwell: “Is it wise and just for us, as a nation, to make war for the seizure and government of distant lands, occupied by millions of inhabitants, who are alien to us in every aspect of life, except that we are together members of the same human family?”
Such anti-imperialists of the nineteenth century would pass the baton to the Veterans of Future Wars and America Firsters of the twentieth, a time when criticizing the government’s wars could land you in jail. Kauffman describes a South Dakota farmer who served a year and a day in prison for saying, “If I were of conscription age and had no dependents and were drafted, I would refuse to serve. They could shoot me, but they could not make me fight.” Kauffman also describes the efforts to pass the Ludlow Amendment in the late 1930s to counter the New Dealers’ well-known penchant for warfare. This amendment would have required all declarations of war to be approved by national referendum, but it failed in a close House procedural vote.
Lastly, Kauffman chronicles the rise of the New Right following World War II, led by a cadre of ex-communists to promote the militarization of society in order to defeat “the god that failed them, the Soviet Union and world communism.” The great individualists who bemoaned the costs of that campaign included Howard Buffet, Harold R. Gross, Murray Rothbard, Robert Taft, Felix Morley, and others, many of whom wrote for The Freeman.
Ain’t My America is not your high school civics text. In our era of centralized education with No Child Left Behind, that may be its strongest attribute.
Taking the Oath of Office
It is probably safe to say that the presidential inauguration is the transcendent public ritual of American representative government. Unlike the coronation of a monarch or any ritual associated with the rise to power of a dictator or autocrat, the inauguration of a president is a cyclical, regularly scheduled event held every four years, and one to which, perhaps thankfully, since the ratification of the 22nd Amendment in 1951 no one individual can be subjected more than twice. It is also a ritual that involves all three branches of the federal government at the seat of the first branch—the legislative—at the U.S. Capitol.
The regularity of presidential inaugurations lends a reassuring sense of stability, continuity, and permanence to a political system that permits turnover in officeholders and change in policy agendas. Moreover, it is a peaceful change in government, unlike the violence that so often accompanies a new head of state elsewhere. Lastly, the evolution of inaugural ceremonies, from the relatively simple affair of George Washington’s first inaugural to the current lavish, expensive, and choreographed event calculated to maximize media exposure, mirrors similar changes in American political culture in which money, the media, and appearance rather than reality prevail.
Consider the symbolism of inauguration day. In instances in which a new president has been elected, the outgoing president and a delegation of congressional leaders escort the president-elect from the White House to the Capitol. 1 Members of the Joint Congressional Inaugural Committee escort the president-elect from a holding room in the Capitol outside to the inaugural platform on the West Front. The chief justice of the Supreme Court administers the oath in the presence of the public—the electorate who chose the president—as members of Congress, past and present, justices of the Supreme Court, members of the diplomatic corps, and other dignitaries bear witness. In this way, all three branches of the federal government and the public they serve join in a ritual of renewal and reaffirmation.
On March 4, 1917, crowds gathered to observe the second inauguration of President Woodrow Wilson on the East Front of the US Capitol, where 27 presidents have taken the oath of office. In 1981 the event was moved to the West Front.
The administration of the oath of office as a ritual of reaffirmation combines the worlds of the sacred and the profane—or in other terms—religion and politics. The president-elect with hand on an open Bible takes the oath as specified in Article II, section 1, of the Constitution: “I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”
In promising to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution, the secular Bible of our form of government, the ritual invokes the solemnity of sacrament. Elements of the sacred and the profane coalesce in a civic religion whose sacred texts are the Bible and the Constitution, though not necessarily in that order.
Just as feasts and celebrations follow other sacred ceremonies, the remainder of inauguration day takes the form of festival. The president and privileged members of Congress have lunch in the Capitol’s Statuary Hall, where dead American heroes in marble and bronze link past with present. In hosting the president, congressional leaders symbolically offer both the olive branch of cooperation and the none-too-subtle claim of priority of the first branch of government. The president and his entourage then travel back to the White House at the head of an increasingly elaborate parade. From a reviewing stand, the president watches as everything from baton-twirling high school bands to military marching units pass in review, acknowledging and celebrating the new occupant of the White House. The day concludes with inaugural balls that evening at various locations around the city, at which the political power elite parties with its corporate backers and major financial supporters.
President Harry S. Truman and his successor Dwight D. Eisenhower smile and wave as their car leaves the White House en route to the Capitol on inauguration day, January 20, 1953.
The function of festival in this case seems to be to bring the consecrated one back down to the grubby secular world of social and political obligations— although most new presidents do not return to earth until they encounter their first foreign policy crisis or their first real opposition from Congress.
A brief historical survey of the Capitol component of presidential inaugurations reveals that although the ceremony has become increasingly stage-managed, the essential elements of sacred ritual and festival have always been present. Prior to 1937, when the date was changed to January 20 as a result of the 20th Amendment, inauguration day was set on March 4. The first inauguration, however, did not take place on March 4, 1789, but nearly two months later, on April 30, because Congress lacked a quorum necessary to do business, including counting the electoral votes cast for president and vice president.
The Constitution does not specify that president must go to Congress to take the oath of office, but Washington did so on April 30, 1789. Washington had been commissioned to command the Continental Army by the Continental Congress, and he had voluntarily resigned his commission at the end of the war in a show of military subordination to civil authority, so it came as little surprise that he swore the oath on the balcony outside the second-floor Senate Chamber of Federal Hall, the then-capitol in New York City. Because no Supreme Court justices had yet been appointed, Robert R. Livingston, chancellor of the state of New York, administered the oath. A Bible had to be borrowed from nearby St. John’s Masonic Lodge when none could be found in Federal Hall. Livingston raised the Bible Washington bent over and kissed it, setting a precedent followed by most of his successors. The president then went back into the building and delivered his inaugural address in the Senate Chamber in the presence of both Houses of Congress.
Livingston raised the Bible Washington bent over and kissed it, setting a precedent followed by most of his successors.
Following the inaugural address, the president and members of Congress walked to St. Paul’s Chapel for special services and prayers for the new nation—a further indication that although the Founding Fathers might have opposed government support for any particular religious establishment, they expected religion to support the state. A giant fireworks display that evening concluded inaugural observances. 2
The first inauguration to take place at the Capitol in Washington, D.C., was one of the most significant in the nation’s history. Thomas Jefferson’s March 4, 1801, inauguration was the first instance in which the presidency changed political parties. It also was the result of the first time an election had to be decided by the House of Representatives. The House decided the election in Jefferson’s favor over his erstwhile running mate Aaron Burr only two weeks before inauguration day. Only one wing of the Capitol, the old Senate wing, had been completed, and the swearing-in ceremony was scheduled for the Senate Chamber. Jefferson walked the short distance from his lodgings at Conrad and McMunn’s boardinghouse on New Jersey Avenue, escorted by several members of Congress and a crowd of onlookers. 3 The semicircular Senate chamber was crowded with an estimated 1,000 spectators, an impossible number given the size of the chamber, to hear Jefferson’s inaugural address, carefully worded to reassure the public and his Federalist opponents that continuity would prevail over change. 4
The inauguration of Jefferson’s successor, James Madison, moved to the larger House Chamber in 1809, which continued to be the site until 1829, with the exception of James Monroe’s inaugural in 1817, which had to be held in front of the temporary Old Brick Capitol because the restoration of the Capitol had not been completed following the fire set by British troops in 1814. 5
On March 4, 1873, President Ulysses S. Grant made his way through the Capitol to deliver his inaugural address on the East Steps. This wood engraving shows him moving with a procession from the Senate Chamber through the Rotunda in a traditional ritual of inauguration day.
In 1829, however, the inauguration of Andrew Jackson as the seventh president of the United States moved the ceremony outside to the East Portico of the Capitol. A ship’s cable stretched across the central East Front stairs kept the large crowd back. At the close of the ceremony, the crowd pressed forward to greet Jackson, the cable broke, and the president had to flee on horseback. Spontaneously, the crowd followed down Pennsylvania Avenue in an improvised and chaotic parade. 6 The ensuing reception at which an estimated 20,000 revelers trashed the White House has become notorious in American history. 7
The East Front remained the usual site for presidential inaugurations until 1981. The Capitol was still a work in progress at the beginning of the Civil War in 1861 when Abraham Lincoln took the oath of office. The two new wings designed by architect Thomas U. Walter and constructed by army engineer Montgomery C. Meigs had been completed and occupied, but the cast-iron dome was still under construction. 8 Its completion, Lincoln is reported to have said later, was a sign that the Union would survive the Civil War. 9
Lincoln’s second inaugural came just as the Civil War was drawing to a close in 1865. A war-weary president ennobled the occasion with his inaugural address, which many consider the greatest speech in American history. 10
Some scholars believe Lincoln's assassin John Wilkes Booth and other conspirators can be seen in this photograph taken by Alexander Gardner.
Most inaugural addresses are eminently forgettable— either droning generalities or blowsy platitudes. In recent memory, inaugural addresses have been, predictably, expressions of optimism as presidents exercise their role as the nation's chief therapist. John Kennedy’s inaugural speech may have set the tone, although more eloquently than his successors. Kennedy, the last president to wear the traditional stovepipe hat on inaugural day, also was the first president to use a poet, Robert Frost in Kennedy’s case, on the program. 11
The apparent need for optimism even goes so far that each inauguration now must have an upbeat official theme, all variations on the innocuous, such as Richard Nixon’s “Forward Together” in 1969 and George W. Bush’s 2001 “Celebrating America’s Spirit Together,” both of which at least had the virtue of brevity over Bill Clinton’s 1997 “An American Journey: Building a Bridge to the 21st Century.”
Lincoln, however, did not see himself as a Dr. Feel Good therapist bearing tidings of rosy optimism, nor did he need to seek the services of a poet. His second inaugural address was a somber, deeply felt, and articulate meditation on the meaning of the Civil War to the soul of America. The last paragraph— “with malice toward none”—is rightly considered the most famous passage of any presidential inaugural speech. 12
In keeping with tradition, the outgoing president escorts the president-elect to the U.S. Capitol for the inauguration. In 1929, President Calvin Coolidge poses with his successor President Herbert Hoover.
Including Jackson and Lincoln, 27 presidents took the oath of office at the East Front of the Capitol. Exceptions included vice presidents who succeeded presidents who died in office or resigned—John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, and Gerald R. Ford. 13 William Howard Taft was sworn in on March 4, 1909, in the Senate Chamber because of bad weather and the advanced age of Chief Justice Melville W. Fuller. On January 20, 1945, Franklin D. Roosevelt overrode congressional protests and held his fourth inauguration at the White House because of the war he felt an elaborate celebration was not called for, although some suggest that he was feuding with congressional leaders. 14
In 1981, planners moved the inauguration of Ronald Reagan to the West Front of the Capitol, setting a precedent that continues to this day. The West Front location provides more space for spectators and a larger platform for dignitaries but most of all, with its sweeping vista of the Mall, the West Front is best suited for televising the event and provides the new president his first opportunity to demonstrate that most important of qualities, being “presidential.” 15
Reagan’s second inauguration in 1985 was unusual for a different reason. Because of bad weather, the ceremony moved inside to the Capitol Rotunda, the first time that location had been used for this purpose. It also was held on January 21 rather than the 20th, which fell on a Sunday. Reagan took the oath privately at the White House on Sunday and then publicly at the Capitol on Monday. 16
In 1981, the inauguration of President Ronald Reagan was moved from the East Front to the West Front of the Capitol, setting a precedent continued by Presidents William J. Clinton (1993 and 1997), George W. Bush (2001 and 2005), and Barack Obama (2009 and 2013). The West Front allows a view from the Mall and provides more space for onlookers.
White House Historical Association
George W. Bush’s inauguration, on January 20, 2001, was the 68th time the oath of office was administered, the 54th time a president was inaugurated following his election, the 51st inauguration ceremony held in Washington, the 49th held at the U.S. Capitol, and the fifth at its West Front.
Although it is tempting to dismiss the pomp and pageantry of presidential inaugural ceremonies as just another indication of the triumph of style over substance in American political culture, in the case of the Capitol’s connection to presidential inaugurations, style is substance at least on this one occasion, when all three branches symbolically join in a national affirmation of purposeful unity.
This article was originally published in White House History Number 15 Fall 2004
Sugar Sun series location #6: Luneta
The Luneta at sunset.
Wealthy doñas, notoriously late risers, would bathe and dress just in time to catch the evening breeze that cooled the bay and blew away the mosquitos. Once there, they would catch up on the latest tsismis, gossip passed from calesa to calesa like a tattler’s telegraph. Then they would be off to eat and dance at a friend’s house, returning home shortly before dawn to sleep through another morning. Meanwhile, their servants ran their households, farms, and shops.
Javier’s carriage got in line with the others circling in comfort, leaving the poor to walk the shoreline. Calling the Luneta a park was a bit generous, considering the utter lack of trees or foliage. The only decorations were incandescent gas lanterns circling the perimeter, sort of like candles on a vast birthday cake.
— Under the Sugar Sun
Called the “Champs-Elysées of the Philippines” by a French physician in the early nineteenth century, Luneta Park was also dubbed “the favorite drive of the wealthy [and] the favorite walk of the poor people.”
There were three good reasons for this. First, as one American wrote: “The sunsets from the Luneta have been more than pyrotechnic, and I now believe that nowhere do you see such displays of color as in the Orient, Land of the Sunrise.” Troubling Orientalist fetish aside, I think he’s right. And the sunsets may have actually gotten better with pollution, as long as you like the color red. Hey, don’t blame me—Scientific American actually agrees.
Creative commons image of a Manila sunset by Randy Galang.
The second and third reasons for the popularity of the Luneta come from Edith Moses, wife of one of the first Philippine commissioners: “There is always a breeze and there are no mosquitoes besides that, one meets everyone he knows, and ladies visit in each other’s carriages in an informal way….There is the comfort of dispensing with hat and gloves, and many ladies and almost all young girls drive in low-necked dinner or evening dresses.” It boils down to (2) no mosquitos and (3) a serious party.
If the Luneta was the place to be, naturally it was where Javier took Georgina on their first “date,” though she did not realize that’s what it was. He’s a sly dog, that Javier. He’s also part Spanish, and the Spanish were the first to ritualize visits at the Luneta, including the rules of the road, prompting Georgina to ask:
“What would happen if we turned the carriage around and circled in the other direction?”
Javier laughed. “You are a rebel, Maestra.”
“No, really,” she urged on. “This whole orderly migration—I just can’t reconcile it with the chaos of the rest of the city.”
“That’s why the Spanish liked it,” he answered. “Only the archbishop and governor-generals’ carriages were allowed to pass against the line. That way you had no excuse but to recognize and salute them as they passed.”
“You could get in trouble for forgetting?”
“Absolutely. The Peninsulares believed it important to punish people for small sins lest they attempt any larger ones. It’s not an uncommon assumption among occupiers.”
— Under the Sugar Sun
Ouch. Javier was not a huge fan of the newly-arrived Americans, as most readers know, which is why of course he was destined to fall in love with one. But he had a point: the Yankees ultimately ruined a good thing.
The featured 1899 photo of the Luneta. These girls look like they’re having fun! (Umm, that was sarcasm. Look at the companion on the left with her arms folded across her chest.)
Maybe it was because the Luneta was not grand enough for them. The wife of Governor William Howard Taft was underwhelmed at first:
“And now we come to the far-famed Luneta,’ said Mr. Taft, quite proudly.
“Where?” I asked. I had heard much of the Luneta and expected it to be a beautiful spot.
“Why, here. You’re on it now,” he replied. An oval drive, with a bandstand inside at either end—not unlike a half-mile race track—in an open space on the bay shore glaringly open. Not a tree not a sprig of anything except a few patches of unhappy looking grass. There were a few dusty benches around the bandstands, nothing else—and all burning in the white glare of the noonday sun.
While Helen Taft did eventually warm to this “unique and very delightful institution,” it was not love at first sight. She was not the only one, either. One American wrote a letter back to her friend in Scranton, Pennsylvania, which the friend sought fit to publish in the local Republican newspaper: “ The Luneta is crowded every afternoon with officers dressed in spotless white from their heads to their heels driving fast horses and flirting with other men’s wives. The husbands, as a rule, are at the front and only get in occasionally, tired out and dirty, and it makes me sick.” Some Americans certainly brought their puritanical brand of Protestantism with them.
What harm in a bit of flirting? There had always been a social side to what went on at the park—innocent courtship right under the friars’ and nuns’ noses—which is why the place was an early favorite of my character Allegra. And officers flirting was common enough that it was captured in this awesome 1899 Harper’s Weekly centerfold, of which an original hangs in my dining room (because eBay makes such delights possible).
G. W. Peter’s illustration, “An Evening Concert on the Luneta,” which was published in Harper’s Weekly as the centerfold on 25 November 1899. I color-corrected a high resolution image I found to bring out the American soldiers on the right side.
There seems to have always been music at the Luneta—small bands were ubiquitous in the islands, and every village had at least one—but the Americans congratulated themselves for adding the Philippine Constabulary Band to the regular roster. These musicians, led by African American conductor Lt. Walter H. Loving, were widely noted for their excellence. They not only traveled to St. Louis for the 1904 World’s Fair, but they were also invited to play at President Taft’s 1909 inauguration.
Part of the March 8, 1909, feature on the band’s concert for Taft’s inauguration. In an earlier Boston Globe article, it quoted Maj. Gen. Franklin J. Bell, of American reconcentrado fame, as calling for an end to “freak features” of the parade. Even the above article, which was very favorable to the band, claims that the men had “never seen an instrument” before the American arrival, which is so preposterous a claim that only other Americans would believe it. A photo of the band in the March 1909 blizzard inauguration of President William Howard Taft.
One of the Constabulary Band’s favorite numbers was one Americans would still recognize, as it is played by modern university marching bands at football games:
“Hey, that’s ‘Hot Time in the Old Town,’” Georgina exclaimed. “How’d they learn American music?”
“The ‘Hototay’ we call it,” Allegra said. She sat between Javier and Georgina, but she was too tiny to be much of a barrier. “The song is everywhere, even funerals. Filipinos think it is your national anthem.”
Georgina laughed. “Maybe it should become yours.”
“You suggest we adopt the drinking song of an occupying army?” Even before Javier finished the question, he regretted asking it. Hay sus, why couldn’t he keep his mouth shut?
—Under the Sugar Sun
Maybe Javier was a bit sensitive, but Georgina certainly did arrive in the Philippines with the “benevolent assimilation” bias of the other Insulares and Thomasites, though she will take her mission to an interesting and sexy extreme. Though it is important to point out that even at the beginning, she was not hateful. Many were. Take the author of those 1900 letters published in the Scranton Republican, who said: “ As soon as the concert is over, ‘The Star Spangled Banner’ is played…Every soldier and sailor and all the Filipinos (deceitful wretches) stand with uncovered heads until the last strains die away….” Manila was still a field of battle in the Philippine-American War, true, but this author failed to realize that the Americans were the Redcoats here, not the patriots!
As an aside, my husband gave me a huge coffee table book from 1899 entitled Our Islands and Their People—a threatening premise, as if “their people” are infesting “our islands,” and how dare they! The text of the book is pretty neutral, and the photographs themselves beautiful, but the captions are outrageous. You can read more on the racism of the day here.
The Americans believed that they were improving the islands, but they did not improve the Luneta. In fact, they may have ruined it. If you have been the Luneta, you are probably confused by everything written above because the main body of the park is most definitely not along the shoreline—not anymore. In the construction of the port of Manila in 1909, the Americans reclaimed 60 hectares of land, the first of many expansions.
Park with gazebos and benches in Manila, Philippines (1901). To the right is the Luneta Beach. The Ermita Beach went on south behind the tree. Roxas Blvd. of today goes along where the water line and beach is in this picture. Luneta Park area was filled in where the Manila Hotel, Elks Club, Army & Navy Club, and US Embassy are today. Original at the Library of Congress, provided by John Tewell.
By 1913, a columnist for the San Francisco Chronicle wrote: “ Today the Luneta remains as it was in the old Spanish days, but its chief charm, the seaward view, is gone. This is due to the filling in of the harbor front, which has left the Luneta a quarter of a mile from the waterfront.” On their new land, the Americans built a “Gringo Luneta,” in the words of Nick Joaquin, and it was here that they eventually put their own exclusive social clubs, like the Elks Club, the Army and Navy Club, and the Manila Hotel—all gated or indoor establishments. They managed to keep the seaside space for themselves and relegate the poor and non-white to their own homes. Shame—especially since Mrs. Taft brought the idea of the Luneta back to Washington D.C. with the rededication of the Potomac Drive. Don’t ruin the original and then rebuild it halfway across the world.
A postcard from the Commonwealth period, 1934-1946.
One thing that hasn’t changed in Manila since 1900 is the traffic. The anonymous visitor who called the Filipinos “deceitful wretches” also said about the end of the evening: “there is a crack of the whip and a grand hurrah and one mad dash for the different homes. I wonder there are not dozen smash-ups each afternoon, but there are not. I used to melt and close my eyes, expecting to be dashed into eternity any moment, but I have learned to like it, and I don’t want anyone to pass me on the road.” We’ve all been there.
A vintage postcard of the Malecón.
Some park goers did not wait for the end of the evening to race, though. With the old shoreline, the water went right up to the walls of Fort Santiago—or almost. There was a single open road there, called the Malecón, where carriages practically flew:
The two vehicles ate up the open road. Georgie did not consider herself a coward, but she was torn between fearing for the horses’ safety and for her own. Maybe sensing that, Javier put his arm around her shoulders, pulling her closer to his side. It was too cozy by half, but it steadied her enough to make the frenetic motion bearable.
The two nags kept changing the lead. One would break out in a small burst of speed, and then slow in recovery while the other made his move. They had at least a mile to go until the “finish” at Fort Santiago, and it seemed that Georgie’s original prediction was on the mark: the sole surviving animal would win. It was less a race than a gladiatorial bout. Unfortunately, their own horse showed signs of exhaustion first, probably because he pulled an extra passenger. His movements became choppy. His head drifted to the side, and he kept jerking it forward, again and again, as if the motion could create the winning momentum.
With every spasm of the horse’s head, the carriage jolted. Soon, the frame on Georgie’s side started shaking. The roof above them was supported by three thin pieces of bamboo, and she watched one pull out of its fastener. The front corner of fabric flapped wildly in the wind, pulling hard at the other two rods. Even more worrisome was the squeak of the wooden wheel to her left. If that splintered, the whole apparatus would collapse, probably pulling the two men and the horse right on top of her. The sound of hooves, wind, and screaming jockeys drowned out Georgie’s increasingly frantic warnings.
Or so she thought.
Javier tapped the driver’s shoulder. Hard. When the man didn’t respond, he grabbed the fellow’s arm and shouted. The driver argued back, probably insisting his animal could still win. Javier glanced over at Georgie briefly and added something in Spanish about “the lady.” He signaled again, this time his face quite stern. Javier’s scowl was, no doubt, the most effective weapon he had.
Georgie was grateful. They were finally slowing down. “The carriage is falling apart,” she tried to explain when she could finally be heard over the din.
“I know,” Javier said in quick English, peering over her lap to the wheel beneath. “We’ll make it, don’t worry. But I blamed quitting on you, so act like you might swoon.”
Georgie fanned herself wildly with her hand and threw back her head. Was that right? She had never before tried to feign fragility—it was not a safe thing to do in South Boston.
Javier watched her for a second, an unreadable expression on his face. Then he laughed—at her this time, not with her. “Wow, you do that badly.”
She gave him a little swat on the arm. “What a terrible thing to say.”
One eyebrow rose. “I don’t think so. I dislike weak women.”
“Then why put on a charade for the driver?”
Javier glanced up at the disappointed Filipino. “So he and his horse wouldn’t lose face. Honor matters even for a Manila cabbie, so I thought a little play-acting from you would be an easy solution. Now I’m not so sure.”
Georgie did not like her competency questioned, even in such a ridiculous arena. “I had no idea that theater was required. How convincing does this have to be?”
He looked at her intently. “Very.”
She slumped back in the seat, trying again to look helpless.
“Ridiculous,” Javier murmured under his breath as he reached out to her. Before she could react, he pulled her close, tucking her right shoulder under his arm and pressing her solidly against his chest. He gently brushed her cheek with his fingertips, the way one might soothe a skittish child. Up until that moment, Georgie had only pretended to faint now she actually felt light-headed.
“Are you okay, mi cariño?” His words played to the driver, but they felt genuine enough to her.
She looked up. This close, she could see honey-colored circles in his brown irises. They looked like rings on a tree. Did she see in them the same fire she felt, or was this a part of the show?
Gently Javier tilted her chin up, his lips now inches away. No one had ever tried to kiss her, not even Archie–his amorous attentions had all been by pen. She thought about resisting, but that was all it was, a thought. Javier’s breath was clean. Only the smallest bite of scotch lingered from lunch. Given her past, Georgie had never believed alcohol could be an aphrodisiac, but on this man the crisp scent was provocative. He smelled of confidence and power, yet his lips looked surprisingly soft—
—Under the Sugar Sun
Watch the video: Σενάρια της νέας κυβέρνησης που ευνοούν ή δυσχεραίνουν την Ελλάδα. OPEN TV (January 2022).