History Podcasts

W F Babcock - History

W F Babcock  - History

W. F. Babcock

(Seagoing Barge: t. 2,128 ~gross); 1. 240'10"; b. 43~9-;
dr. 25'8" (mean); dph. 19'4"; cpl. 6; a. none)

W. Babcock-a wooden-hulled, schooner-rigged barge launched in 1882 at Bath, Maine, by A. Sewall and Co-was acquired by the Navy,from the Lucken-, bach Steamship Co. on 18 October 1917. Given Id. No. 1239 and commissioned on 8 November, W. Babcock operated as a collier at the 5th Naval District until 8 August 1918, when she was assigned to the Naval Overseas Transportation Service. Plying the eastern seaboard between New England and Norfolk, W. Babcock served as a coastwise collier through the end of World War I. Reassigned to the Ist Naval District on 15 August 1919, she was struck from the Navy list on 20 November 1919 and simultaneously sold to Reinhard and Hall. Her name disappeared from the shipping registers about that time.

America's Oleaginous Affectation - Wax Lips

When Ralphie Parker&rsquos 4th Grade class dejectedly hand over their wax fangs to Mrs. Shields in the perennial holiday movie favorite, A Christmas Story, legions of grownups are reminded of what a penny used to buy at their local Woolworth's store. But there is far more to these paraffin playthings than a penny's worth of fun.

It is hard to recall a time when there were no wax fangs, lips, moustaches, or harmonicas for kids to smuggle into school. Most of us remember the peculiar disintegrating flavor of Wax Lips from bygone Halloweens and birthday parties but we don&rsquot know where these long-enduring icons of American culture actually started. The answer, oddly enough, can be found by way of the oil patch.

The 1859 birth of the oil industry and introduction of kerosene for illumination changed America. "This flood of American petroleum poured in upon us by millions of gallons, and giving light at a fifth of the cost of the cheapest candle," wrote British chandler James Wilson in 1879. Kerosene sales devastated the candle business, much like widespread use of electricity would impact the kerosene market at the turn of the century.

A byproduct of kerosene distillation, paraffin, soon found its way from refinery to marketplace in the form of sealing waxes and even chewing gums. By 1900, tallow candles were history as ninety percent of all candles were made from paraffin. The new century brought other new and surprising uses as well.

"Crayola" crayons were introduced by Binney & Smith in 1903 and were instantly successful. Edison's popular new phonographs needed paraffin for their wax cylinders. Then an inspired Buffalo, NY confectioner used fully refined, food-grade paraffin and a sense of humor to find a niche in America's imagination.

John W. Glenn had come to the United States from England at age 15 in 1888 and grew up in his father's wholesale candy business. When the elder Glenn passed away in 1912, son John continued the business as J.W. Glenn Co. There he introduced America to paraffin "penny chewing gum novelties," delighting children everywhere. His products' popularity grew quickly and by 1923, J.W. Glenn Co. employed almost 100 people, including 18 salesmen traveling nationwide from offices located at 65 Carroll St.

In 1927, Franklin C. Gurley, Sr. left his position at Buffalo's National Aniline & Chemical Co. to build a candy business of his own. He purchased Robert White's new confectionary company, W&F Manufacturing Co., which had incorporated only the year before to produce, ". all kinds of candies, chocolates, ice cream dainties and parafine (sic) novelties." Gurley reported his occupation as "confectioner" by the 1930 census.

Just a few blocks away, Glenn Confections was busily engaged in producing their popular paraffin novelties, and continued to do so after becoming the wax candy division of W&F Manufacturing Co. Wax horse teeth (said to taste like wintergreen), and other novelties chattered profitably down Glenn's production line while Franklin Gurley explored further expansion opportunities for his rapidly growing company.

W&F Mfg. began producing novelty candles for Socony-Vacuum Oil Co. in 1939, using paraffin from Socony's nearby refinery at Olean, NY -- once home to the world's largest crude oil storage site. W&F's "Tavern Candles" Santas, reindeer, elves and other colorful Christmas favorites are still prized by E-Bay collectors as are Gurley's elaborately molded Halloween candles. Decorative and scented Gurley paraffin candles soon became W&F Mfg.'s principal product, accounting for 98% of sales, but production of Glenn's wax candy novelties continued. A field of metal tanks, some holding 20,000 gallons of paraffin, stood adjacent to Gurley's Buffalo factory.

As W&F's wax candy division, Glenn Confections produced the popular ancestors of today's Wack-O-Wax and Nik-L-Nips. In the town of Emlenton PA, a few miles south of Oil City, the Emlenton Refining Co.

(and later the Quaker State Oil Refining Co.) supplied fully refined food-grade paraffin to W&F for these bizarre but beloved treats.

Quaker State veteran Barney Lewis remembers selling Emlenton paraffin to W&F Products. "It was always fun going to the plant in North Tonowanda, they were very secret about how they did stuff, but you always got a sample to bring home. Wax lips, Nickle NIPs - little coke bottle shaped wax filled with a colored syrup. Other companies supplied W&F, one being now the IGI Group in Canada." (International Group Inc., founded in 1943 as International Waxes Ltd. of Toronto.)

At its peak, W&F produced about 30-million novelty wax candies annually, but the company's principle product, decorative candles, fought an uphill battle as import competition became fierce. The price of paraffin went from 7¢ to 50¢ per pound during the 1982 oil shortage. W&F Products struggled. In 1994, after almost 70-years in business, the company failed. Its attorney summarized, "Unfortunately, competition from China and other Pacific Rim countries that rely on cheap labor ultimately forced W&F's decision to close its doors." Among the 250 former employees, rumors persisted that W&F was driven into bankruptcy by a failed pursuit of the Guinness record for "world's largest candle."

W&F Products' creditors scrambled for assets. The company was sold piecemeal, including the proprietary hardware that Glenn Confections had long used to produce their strange assortment of paraffin candies.

Ben Shepherd owned Challenger Candy Co., 650-miles away in Secor, IL where he produced bagged cotton candy. Shepherd bought Glenn Confections' unique wax candy equipment and hauled it from Buffalo to Secor, where he continued production of the nostalgic favorites. Despite a continuing national sweet tooth and the predictable Halloween demand for the novelties, Challenger Candy Co. lasted only a few years before going bankrupt. American Candy Co. of Selma, AL, in business since 1900, stepped in to once again rescue Wax Lips from oblivion.

Employee Earnest Shears traveled to the tiny community of Secor ("South East CORner" of Roanoke, IL) to help move the wax candy production machinery over 700 miles to the American Candy Company's 36,000 square foot plant in Selma. "In Secor, there was a post office, a tavern, and the Challenger Candy Company and that was all there was to the whole town. Nothing else. It took two or three months to move it all to Selma," Shears recalls.

American Candy Company&rsquos Wax Candy Division continued the long tradition of producing Wax Lips and other popular novelties that John W. Glenn had begun back in Buffalo, NY over 80-years earlier. But only briefly.

In 2002, after over 100-years in business, American Candy Co. fell to intense marketplace competition and filed for Chapter 11 protection. The company had once employed as many as 500 people. Wax Lips appeared doomed again as the company was sold off.

Then Concord Confections of Ontario, Canada came to the rescue. Concord purchased the Wax Candy Division for $3 million and moved it over 1,000 miles back to Concord, Ontario - only about 20-miles from the IGI Wax plant and "across the river" from Carroll Street in Buffalo were the novelty originated. Today as a small part of Tootsie-Roll Industries, Concord Confections continues to produce Wax Lips (Wack-O-Wax) and other paraffin candies for new generations of schoolchildren.

Despite a 2,000 mile itinerant business history and a long series of owners, Wax Lips survive to delight kids and prompt memories in the rest of us. Today, the petroleum industry produces an astonishing range of products for modern consumers. But among the many products that find their history in the oilfield, few are as unique, peculiar, and revered as Wax Lips.

Thanks to the American Oil & Gas Historical Society for this story.

Surnames Babcock to Baldwin Babcock, Allen Harwood , Electrical Engineer Southern Pacific Co. Office San Francisco, Cal. Born Aug. 12, 1865, at Buffalo, N. Y. Educated at Phillips Exeter Academy 1884, at the University of California 1887 and took a special course at Lehigh University 1888. Entered railway service 1901 as electrical engineer North Shore Rd at San Francisco, Cal., and has been electrical engineer Southern Pacific Co. since Nov. 1903. Babcock, Charles M. , Master Mechanic Texas & Pacific Ry. Office Gouldsboro, La. Born Dec. 7, 1860, at Summerfield, Ill. Entered railway service 1878 as machinist Cairo & Fulton Rd (now St. Louis Iron Mountain & Southern Ry) at Baring Cross, Ark. since which he has been consecutively machinist St. Louis Southwestern Ry, machinist Fort Worth & Denver City Ry, machinist Texas & Pacific Ry, erecting shop foreman, general foreman, and is now master mechanic Louisiana division same road. Babcock, Stephen H. Address Salt Lake City, Utah. Born Dec. 6, 1848, at Niles, Mich. Entered railway service Oct. 5, 1865, since which he has been consecutively to Aug. 1875, clerk in local freight office, and agent Michigan Central Rd at Jackson, Mich. afterward held various positions with Northern Pacific Rd. Denver & Rio Grande Rd and Rio Grande Western Ry Aug. 1, 1890 to Jan. 1, 1892. right of way agent Rio Grande Western Construction Co. Jan. 1, 1892 to March 1, 1895, general freight agent Rio Grande Western Ry March 1, 1895 to July 1, 1901, traffic manager same road July 1, 1901 to July 1, 1903, assistant general traffic manager Denver & Rio Grande Rd and Rio Grande Western Ry. Backus, Frederick F. , General Freight and Passenger Agent Toronto Hamilton & Buffalo Ry. Office Hamilton, Ont. Born June 4, 1860. Entered railway service 1874 as clerk Merchants' Dispatch Transportation Co., since which he has been consecutively clerk local office New York Central Rd at Rochester, N. Y. assistant cashier same office to 1884, chief clerk to general northwestern agent Lehigh Valley Rd at Rochester 1884 to 1885, traveling freight agent same road at Buffalo, N. Y. 1885 to Oct. 4, 1886, clerk general office Blue Line at Rochester Oct. 4, 1886 to Dec. 1, 1897, Canadian agent Blue Line and Canada Southern Line at Toronto, Ont. Dec. 1, 1897 to date, general freight and passenger agent Toronto Hamilton & Buffalo Ry. Backus, William T. , Superintendent Ohio Division Cincinnati Northern Rd. Office Van Wert, O, Born March 4, 1850. at Rochester, N. Y. Educated at Oberlin College at Oberlin, O. Entered railway service 1870, since which he has been consecutively to 1872, telegraph operator Central Ohio Rd 1872 to 1873, telegraph operator Pittsburg Cincinnati & St. Louis Ry 1873 to 1877, circuit manager Western Union Telegraph Co. 1877 to 1885, dispatcher and trainmaster Baltimore & Ohio Rd 1885 to 1887, chief dispatcher Missouri Pacific Ry 1887 to Aug. 1, 1897, superintendent Ohio division Cincinnati Jackson & Mackinaw Ry at Van Wert, O. Aug. 1, 1897 to March 1898, engaged in business at Van Wert March 1898 to Feb. 1, 1899, master of transportation Cincinnati Northern Rd Feb. 1, 1899 to date, superintendent Ohio division same road at Van Wert, O. Bacon, Clarence Harrison , Commercial Agent Rock Island System. Office Pueblo, Colo. Born Aug. 24, 1867, near Decatur, Ill. Educated at South Dakota Agricultural College 1887-1890. Entered railway service 1891 as stenographer Chicago & Northwestern Ry at Chicago, since which he has been consecutively 1892 to 1898, stenographer, rate clerk and tariff clerk Chicago Rock Island & Pacific Ry at Chicago 1898 to 1901, chief clerk freight department same road at Denver, Colo. 1901 to date, commercial agent Bock Island System at Pueblo, Colo. Bacon, Edmund H. , District Passenger Agent Chicago Indianapolis & Louisville Ry. Office Louisville, Ky. Born June 14, 1869. Educated at the University of Kentucky at Lexington, Ky., class of 1886. Entered railway service 1886 as assistant city ticket agent Queen & Crescent Route at Lexington, since which he has been consecutively Aug. 1886 to Feb. 1887, assistant ticket agent Chesapeake & Ohio Ry and Kentucky Central Ry at Lexington Feb. 1887 to July 1890, traveling passenger agent Kentucky Central Ry same place July 1890 to Oct. 1891, city ticket agent Chesapeake & Ohio Ry at Louisville, Ky. Oct. 1891 to Aug. 1893, southern passenger agent same road same place Aug. 1, 1893 to date, district passenger agent Louisville New Albany & Chicago Ry and its successor, the Chicago Indianapolis & Louisville Ry, at Louisville. Bacon, Edward Rathborn , Vice-President Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Rd. Office New York, N. Y. Born Nov. 22, 1846, at New York, N. Y. Educated at Phillips Exeter Academy at Exeter, N. H. Admitted to the bar at Buffalo, N. Y., in Nov. 1869, and was for 18 years counsel for different railroad companies was vice-president of the Cincinnati Washington & Baltimore Rd in 1881. and was president of the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Ry and the reorganized road (the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Rd) from its organization to 1902, when he was chosen vice-president same road was one of the reorganizers of the Baltimore & Ohio Rd and is one of its directors. Bacot, Daniel Norborrie , Superintendent Savannah & Statesboro Ry. Office Statesboro, Ga. Born Dec. 21, 1878, at Greenville, S. C. Educated at Furman University, Greenville, S. C., 1893-1894. Entered railway service 1899 as file clerk in general superintendent's office Seaboard Air Line, since which he has been consecutively to Dec. 1, 1901, stenographer and secretary to general superintendent and secretary to vice-president and general manager same road Oct. 1, 1901 to Jan. 1, 1902, chief clerk to general manager Georgetown & Western Ry Jan. 1, 1902 to Sept. 15, 1905, chief clerk to superintendent Fifth division Seaboard Air Line Sept. 15, 1905 to date, superintendent Savannah & Statesboro Ry. Badgley, Louis Clark , Superintendent Toluca Marquette & Northern Rd. Office Toluca, Ill. Born July 7, 1862, at Brighton, Ont., Canada. Educated in the public schools. Entered railway service 1881 as operator Chicago St. Paul Minneapolis & Omaha Ry, since which he has been consecutively to 1900, operator Northern Pacific Rd, division car accountant same road, timekeeper for division superintendent Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Rd, and operator in general office same road at Topeka, Kan. 1900 to March 1901, paymaster Toluca Marquette & Northern Rd March 1901 to date, superintendent same road. Baer, George F. , President The Reading Company, Philadelphia & Reading Ry and Central Railroad of New Jersey. Office Philadelphia, Pa. Born Sept. 26, 1842, in Somerset County, Pa. Educated at Somerset Institute, Somerset Academy and Franklin and Marshal College. At the age of 13 he entered the office of the Somerset Democrat and worked at the printing trade for over two years in 1861 with his brother became the owner of that paper. Studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1864. In 1868 removed to Reading, Pa., where he was engaged in the - practice of law for many years in 1870 became counsel for the Philadelphia & Reading Rd and subsequently was elected a director of that company, but resigned as director owing to his inability to agree with the policy of President McLeod. He took an active part in the reorganization of the company and in April 1901 was elected president of the Reading Company, the Philadelphia & Reading Ry and the Central Railroad of New Jersey, which positions he still holds. Bagley, John , Vice-President and General Manager Tacoma Eastern Rd. Office Tacoma, Wash. Born June 28, 1850, at Quebec, Que. Educated in the common schools. Entered railway service 1883 as president Portage Lake & Lake Superior Ry, since which he has been consecutively 1885 to 1893, president Ingalls White Rapids & Northern Rd 1893, when the Ingalls White Rapids & Northern Rd was sold to the Wisconsin & Michigan Ry to Jan. 1, 1898, vice-president latter road 1899 to date, general manager in charge building and operating Tacoma Eastern Rd is also vice-president same road. Bail, B. H. , General Freight Agent Philadelphia & Reading Ry. Office Philadelphia, Pa. Born May 5, 1849, at Verona, Oneida County, N. Y. Entered railway service Feb. 21, 1863, since which he has been consecutively to Aug. 1, 1875,. clerk New York Central Rd at Syracuse, N. Y. Aug. 1875 to May 1, 1881, agent and traveling contracting agent Merchants' Despatch Transportation Co. May 1, 1881 to May 1, 1883, general freight agent Utica & Black River Rd May 1, 1883 to Jan. 1, 1887, general freight agent New York West Shore & Buffalo, Wailkill Valley and Syracuse New York & Ontario Rys Jan. 1, 1887 to May 1, 1888, New York state agent Wabash and Wabash Western Rys May 1, 1888 to Jan. 4, 1889, assistant general freight agent Philadelphia & Reading Rd Jan. 4, 1889 to date, general freight agent same road and its successor, the Philadelphia & Reading Ry April 1, 1892 to Aug. 1, 1893, also general freight agent Lehigh Valley Rd is also general freight agent Atlantic City Rd. Bailey, Daniel S. , Trainmaster Illinois Central Rd. Office Rantoul, Ill. Born Nov. 5, 1846, at Danville, Ill. Educated in the common schools. Entered railway service 1865 as station baggageman Illinois Central Rd at Ashley, Ill., since which he has been consecutively March 1 to June 1, 1865, night operator at Anna, Ill. June 1, 1865 to Dec. 1866, night operator and train dispatcher at Chainpaign, Ill. Dec. 1866 to Feb. 1873, day dispatcher same place Feb. 1873 to 1877, chief train dispatcher at Chicago, Ill. 1877 to 1880, assistant trainmaster same place 1880 to 1889, assistant division superintendent at Amboy, Ill. 1889 to 1890, division superintendent at Rockford, Ill. 1890 to April 1, 1902, division superintendent Springfield division at Clinton, Ill. April 1, 1902 to date, trainmaster at Rantoul, Ill. entire service with Illinois Central Rd. Bailey, W. F. , Ex-General Passenger Agent Colorado Midland Ry. Born April 6, 1861, at Pittsburg, Pa. Entered railway service 1877, since which he has been consecutively messenger and clerk Pittsburg & Lake Erie Rd. two years rate clerk Missouri Pacific Ry three years rate clerk Pennsylvania Lines five years rate clerk Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Rd one year chief clerk passenger department Erie Lines at Chicago five years to June 1, 1895 1895 to Feb. 1, 1901, general passenger agent Colorado Midland Ry. Bailey, William E. , General Auditor Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Ry. Office Chicago, Ill. Born Oct. 26, 1857, at Dowagiac, Mich. Entered railway service April 4, 1884, since which he has been consecutively to Oct. 21, 1885, clerk in bookkeeping department auditor's office Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Rd at Topeka, Kan. Oct. 21, 1885 to June 30, 1890, traveling auditor and clerk in charge of freight accounts Wichita & Western division same road at Wichita, Kan. July 1, 1890 to March 1, 1892, special agent accounting departmant same road under assistant general auditor March 1, 1892 to April 15, 1895, chief clerk to general auditor April 15, 1895 to Feb. 1, 1899, assistant to first vice-president same road Feb. 1, 1899 to May 1900, auditor Southern California Ry and Santa Fe Pacific Rd May 1900 to Oct. 4, 1905, assistant general auditor Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Ry Oct. 4, 1905 to date, general auditor same road. Baily, William E. , Superintendent Lehigh & Hudson River Ry. Office Warwick, N.Y. Born April 7, 1854, at Tamaqua, Pa. Entered railway service 1876 as freight brakeman Philadelphia & Reading Rd, since which he has been consecutively freight conductor, train dispatcher, traveling dispatcher and trainmaster on same road to 188$ Sept. 1, 1888 to 1889, traveling dispatcher Central Rd of New Jersey 1889 to Dec. 15, 1892, assistant trainmaster same road Dec. 15, 1892 to July 17, 1893, superintendent transportation Lehigh & Hudson River Ry July 17 to Oct. 7, 1893, superintendent Philadelphia Reading & New England Rd Nov. 1, 1893 to date, superintendent Lehigh & Hudson River Ry. Bainbridge, F. H. , Principal Assistant Engineer Chicago & Northwestern Ry. Office Chicago, Ill. Graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute class of 1884. Entered railway service as inspector of shops Northern Pacific Rd, since which he has been consecutively 1886 to 1893, draftsman Edge Moor Bridge Works at Wilmington, Del. 1893 to 1895, resident engineer Pencoyd Iron Works and Mount Vernon Bridge Company at Chicago 1895 to 1898, successively engineer Buffalo & Niagara Falls Electric Ry in charge of office of Albert Noble, civil engineer with contractors on Illinois Central Rd. and Atchison Topeka & Santa Fe Ry 1898 to 1902, in charge of construction work Chicago & Northwestern Ry 1902 to April 1903, engineer Western Expanded Metal Co. April 1903 to June 1904, assistant engineer bridges Illinois Central Rd June 1904 to Feb. 1, 1905, engineer bridges same road Feb. 1, 1905 to date, principal assistant engineer Chicago & Northwestern Ry. Baird, David G. , Secretary Lehigh Valley Rd. Office Philadelphia, Pa. Born July 19, 1853, at Woodlawn, Cecil County, Md. Entered railway service 1873 as bookkeeper Lehigh Valley Rd. since which he has held various positions In the executive and treasury departments of that road and its subordinate wrporations. Is now secretary of the Lehigh Valley Rd and all companies comprised in its system. Baird, John B. , General Freight Agent Northern Pacific Ry. Office St. Paul, Minn. Born June 21, 1855, at Woodlawn, Md. Entered railway service 1876 as clerk in general office Pennsylvania Rd at Philadelphia, Pa., since which he has been clerk for general manager Chicago St. Paul Minneapolis & Omaha Ry rate clerk in general freight office Northern Pacific Rd. to May 1, 1903, assistant general freight agent the reorganized road, the Northern Pacific Ry May 1, 1903 to date, general freight agent same road. Baker, A. W. , Assistant Division Superintendent Southern Pacific Co. Office Oakland Pier, Cal. Entered railway service 1879, since which he has been consecutively to 1884, telegraph operator and relief agent Southern Pacific Co. at various places 1886 to 1894, chief clerk to resident engineer Western division same company 1894 to 1898, chief accountant 1898 to Aug. 1903, chief clerk in offices of superintendent and resident engineer Western division at Oakland Pier, Cal. Aug. 1903 to date, assistant superintendent same division. Baker, Albert Livingston , General Fright and Passenger Agent Tillsonburg Lake Erie & Pacific Ry. Office Tillsonburg, Ont., Canada. Born Aug. 6, 1892, at Tillsonburg, Ont. Educated in the public schools. Entered railway service Nov. 13, 1887, since which he has been consecutively to Oct. 1, 1891, night operator Michigan Central Rd, at Brownsville, Ont., Canfield, Ont., and Waterford, Ont. Oct. 1, 1891 to Jan. 22, 1892, day operator and clerk same road at Bismarck, Ont. Jan. 22, 1892 to July 22, 1897, agent same road at Tillsonburg, Ont. Feb. 1, 1898 to date, general freight and passenger agent Tillsonburg Lake Erie & Pacific Ry. Baker, Archer , European Manager Canadian Pacific Ry. Office London, England. Born June 21, 1845, at York, England. Entered railway service Sept. 24, 1869, since which he has been consecutively to Nov. 1870, clerk to president Missouri Valley Rd Nov. 1870 to March 1871, superintendent's clerk Brockville & Ottawa Ry March 1871 to July 1873, accountant same road and Canada Central Ry July 1873 to Dec. 1876, secretary and treasurer same companies Dec. 1876 to April 1878, secretary and treasurer Brockville & Ottawa Ry April to July 1878, assistant general manager same road and Canada Central Ry July 1878 to June 1881, general manager Canada Central Ry June 1881 to May 1885, general superintendent Canadian Pacific Ry (Eastern division) May 1885 to Aug. 1900, European traffic agent same road Aug. 1900 to July 1905, European traffic manager July 1905 to date, European manager same road. Baker, Horace , Assistant General Superintendent Eastern District Southern Ry. Office Greensboro, N. C. Born Oct. 11, 1859, in Missouri. Entered railway service 187S as clerk in supply department Missouri Pacific Ry, and held various subordinate positions with that road and the Wabash Ry until Oct. 1885 Oct. 1885 to Feb. 1897, treasurer and paymaster Havanna Rantoul & Eastern Rd. Feb. 1887 to Dec. 1890, chief clerk to superintendent Illinois Central Rd Dec. 1890 to Sept. 1891, trainmaster Chicago district Sept. to Dec. 1891, local freight agent at Chicago Dec. 1891 to April 1, 1900, superintendent Chicago division at Centralia, Ill. April 1, 1900 to April 15, 1901, superintendent Amboy division at Clinton, Ill. April 15, 1901 to June 1902, superintendent Freeport division, all on the Illinois Central Rd. June 1902 to April 1, 1904, superintendent Charlotte division Southern Ry at Charlotte, N. C. April 1, 1904 to date, assistant general superintendent Eastern district same road. Baker, Joseph B., Jr. , Superintendent Philadelphia Terminal Division Pennsylvania Rd. Office West Philadelphia, Pa. Born Aug. 31, 1855, at Gap, Lancaster County, Pa. Educated in private schools and at Lehigh University. Entered railway service July 1883 as rodman in roadway department Philadelphia & Reading Rd., since which he has been consecutively July 1884 to March 1885, rodman and assistant engineer general superintendent's office Pennsylvania Rd. at Altoona, Pa. March 1885 to March 1887, assistant supervisor Lewistown division March 1887 to July 1888, assistant supervisor Middle division same road at Mifflin, Pa. July to Dee. 1888, assistant supervisor Philadelphia Wilmington & Baltimore Rd (part of the Pennsylvania Rd System) at Philadelphia, Pa. Dec. 1888 to Feb. 1889, assistant superintendent Pittsburg division at New Florence, Pa. Feb. to June 1889, supervisor Monongahela division June to Sept. 1889, on special work at Johnstown and Conemaugh, Pa. Dec. 1889 to Oct. 1895, supervisor Philadelphia division at Paoli, Pa. Oct. 1895 to Feb. 17, 1897, assistant engineer Middle division Philadelphia & Erie Rd division Feb. to April 1897, assistant engineer Pit tsburg division April 1897 to Jan. 1902, successively assistant superintendent Pittsburg division and assistant engineer Philadelphia division Jan. to June 1902, superintendent Frederick division at York, Pa. June to Nov. 1902, superintendent Cambria & Clearfield division at Cresson, Pa. Nov. 1902 to date, superintendent Philadelphia Terminal, division Pennsylvania Railroad division same road at West Philadelphia, Pa. Baker, Ralph H. , Liverpool Agent Pennsylvania Rd., Mexican Ry and American & Australian Line. Office 20 Water St., Liverpool, England. Entered railway service 1892 as agent Mexican Ry at Liverpool, England, since which he has been consecutively July 1894 to date, also Liverpool agent Pennsylvania Rd and American & Australian Line April 1897 to date, also Liverpool agent North Staffordshire Ry of England. Baker, Walter Reginald , Assistant to President Canadian Pacific Ry. Office Montreal, Canada. Born in England, 1852. Entered railway service 1873 as local freight and passenger agent at Ottawa with Canadian Central Ry, since which he has been consecutively Feb. to Sept. 1881, assistant to general superintendent and local treasurer Western division Canadian Pacific Ry Sept. 1881 to May 1882, purchasing agent same division May 1882 to June 1883, assistant to general manager same road June 1883 to Sept. 1, 1892, general superintendent Manitoba & Northwestern Ry Sept. 1, 1892 to May 14, 1900, general manager same road May 14, 1900 to May 1, 1901, executive agent Canadian Pacific Ry at Winnipeg, Man. May 1, 1901. to Sept. 1, 1905, assistant to the vice-president Sept. 1, 1905 to date, assistant to the president same road. Baker, William Edgar . Address New York. Born Oct. 18, 1857, at Springfield, Mass. Educated at Lafayette College at Easton, Pa. Entered railway service 1877, since which he has been consecutively to 1884. engineer St. Paul & Pacific Ry, civil engineer St. Paul Minneapolis & Manitoba Ry, and civil engineer Canadian Pacific Rd. 1884 to 1889, resident engineer International & Great Northern Ry 1889 to 1892, superintendent for the ThomsonHouston Electric Co. in charge of the, installation of electricity on the West End Street Ry System of Boston, Mass. 1892 to 1894, general manager Columbian Exposition Intramural Ry 1895 to Feb. 1899, general superintendent Metropolitan West Side Elevated Rd of Chicago Feb. 1899 to March, 1902, general superintendent Manhattan Elevated Ry of New York. Balcom, William A. , Division Engineer Denver & Rio Grande Rd. Office Pueblo, Colo. Born July 6, 1860, at Edgewood, Ill. Educated at Illinois University. Entered railway service 1878 as rodman and draftsman Illinois Central Rd., since which he has been consecutively to 1881 with Illinois Central Rd summer of 1879, levelman Sioux City & Pacific Rd 1882 to 1887, with Union Pacific Ry 1887 to date, division engineer Denver & Rio Grande Rd. Baldwin, Archibald Stuart , Chief Engineer Illinois Central Rd. Office Chicago, Ill. Born Sept. 28, 1861, at Winchester, Va. Entered railway service 1879 as rodman Richmond & Allegheny Rd (now the Chesapeake & Ohio Ry), since which he has been consecutively 1880 to 1882, assistant engineer and engineer Iron & Steel Works Association of Virginia 1882 to 1885, draftsman and engineer Baltimore & Ohio Rd, Philadelphia extension 1885 to 1886, principal assistant engineer Missouri River Bridge at Kansas City, Mo., for Chicago Milwaukee & St. Paul Ry 1886 to 1887, resident engineer Louisville St. Louis & Texas Ry 1887 to 1886, assistant engineer Louisville & Nashville Rd 1891 to Sept. 1901, roadmaster same road at Elizabethtown, Ky. Sept. 1901 to May 1, 1903, principal assistant engineer Illinois Central Rd May 1, 1903 to March 20, 1905, engineer of construction March 20, 1905 to date, chief engineer same road. Baldwin, Francis Wayland , Superintendent Transportation Interoceanic Ry. Office Mexico City, Mex. Born Sept. 20, 1854, at Weedsport, N. Y. Entered railway service 1869. since which he has been consecutively 1869 to 1871, station agent's clerk and operator Central Vermont Rd 1871 to 1873, clerk auditing department, and 1873 to 1877, station agent and operator same road. 1877 to 1881, in charge of freight trainmen and distribution of cars 1881, superintendent's clerk Texas Mexican Ry 1882, trainmaster and dispatcher same road 1883, trainmaster Mexican National Ry 1884 to Oct. 4. 1886, assistant general superintendent Mexican National Ry Oct. 4, 1886 to July 1, 1891, superintendent Ogdensburg & Lake Champlain division Central Vermont Rd July 1, 1891 to March 1892, assistant general superintendent, and March 1892 to Dec. 1899, general superintendent same road April to June 1903, trainmaster, and June 1903 to Nov. 1905, superintendent Pacific divisions National Rd of Mexico Nov. 1905 to date, superintendent transportation Interoceanie Ry. Baldwin, Hadley , Superintendent St. Louis Division Cleveland Cincinnati Chicago & St. Louis Ry. Office Mattoon, Ill. Born Feb. 24, 1867. Educated at University of Michigan, class of 1893. Entered railway service Sept. 1893, since which he has been consecutively to Feb. 1896, masonry inspector and assistant engineer Cleveland Cincinnati Chicago & St. Louis Ry Feb. to July 1896, supervisor of track July 1896 to Jan. 1897, resident engineer at East St. Louis, Ill. Jan. 1897 to May 1898, supervisor of track May 1898 to June 1902, engineer maintenance of way at Indianapolis, Ind. June to Nov. 1902, engineer of construction at Cincinnati, O. Nov. 1902 to date, superintendent St. Louis division at Mattoon, Ill. entire service on the Cleveland Cincinnati Chicago & St. Louis Ry. Baldwin, Henry Furlong , Vice-President and General Manager Du Pont Powder Co. Office Wilmington, Del. Born April 17, 1862, at Waterbury, Md. Graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Entered railway service in 1884 as rodman Louisville & Nashville Rd, since which he has been consecutively rail inspector, supervisor and roadmaster same road until Aug. 1889 Aug. 1889 to March 1890, division roadmaster New York Lake Erie & Western Rd March 1890 to May 1894, chief engineer Chicago & Eastern Illinois Rd May 1894 to Oct. 1895, chief engineer Chicago Peoria & St. Louis Ry Oct. 1, 1895 to April 1900, engineer maintenance of way Erie Rd at Jersey City, N. J. April 1900 to Jan. 1904, chief engineer Chicago & Alton Ry Jan. 1904 to date, vice-president and general manager Du Pont Powder Co. Baldwin, William Ashbridge , President Cleveland & Marietta Ry. Office Fittsburg, Pa. Born June 28, 1835, at Philadelphia, Pa. Entered railway service Nov. 1851 as chainman engineer corps Coal Run Rd in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania, since which he has been consecutively March 1852 to 1854, assistant engineer same road 1854 to March 1857, leveler and topographer Lackawanna & Bloomsburg Rd March 1857 to Dec. 1858, assistant engineer, leveler and topographer Honduras Inter-Oceanic Rd at Honduras, Central America Dec. 1858 to Nov. 1859, clerk to superintendent Western division Pennsylvania Rd Jan. 1860 to Feb. 1862, assistant engineer Pennsylvania Rd Feb. 7, 1862 to March 13, 1863, superintendent Western division Philadelphia & Erie Rd (Pennsylvania Rd lessee) March 13, 1868 to May 7, 1870, assistant general superintendent same road May 7. 1870 to Oct. 1, 1873, general superintendent Philadelphia & Erie division Pennsylvania Rd Oct. 1, 1873 to Sept. 1, 1881, general superintendent same division same road, and S. & S. divisions Northern Central Ry Sept. 1, 1881 to May 1, 1882, manager Pennsylvania Co. and Pittsburg Cincinnati & St. Louis Ry Lines May 1, 1882 to March 31, 1888, manager Pennsylvania Co.'s lines April 1, 1888 to April 1892, vice-president and general manager Buffalo Rochester & Pittsburg Ry Nov. 1893 to date, president Cleveland & Marietta Ry Nov. 1893 to Dec. 31, 1899, also general manager same road. Baldwin, William Wright , Assistant to President Chicago Burlington & Quincy Ry. Office Burlington, Ia. Born Sept. 28, 1845, at Keosauqua, Ia. Graduated from the Iowa State University, 1866. Entered railway service 1879 as land commissioner Chicago Burlington & Quincy Rd. After the consolidation of the St. Louis Keokuk & Northwestern Rd and the. Chicago Burlington & Kansas City Ry with the Chicago Burlington & Quincy Rd, he was elected president of these two roads is also assistant to president Chicago Burlington & Quincy Ry. Source: The Biographical Directory of the Railway Officials of America Edition of 1906 Edited and compiled by T. Addison Busbey Associate Editor The Railway Age. Chicago 1906 Fluor-BWXT provides $3,000 donation to Friends of Portsmouth

Fluor-BWXT recently donated $3,000 for charitable outreach in Scioto County to Friends of Portsmouth, a non-profit 501c3 organization. &ldquoWe are thrilled to offer our financial support to such a worthy organization,&rdquo said JD Dowell, Fluor-BWXT Site Project Director. &ldquoFriends of Portsmouth strategizes their efforts by focusing on families, the youth, by creating memorable opportunities that strengthen the community. Read More

At Fluor-BWXT Portsmouth (FBP), we hire across a spectrum of job families.

Series of PORTS Cleanup Fact Sheets Released

The U.S. Department of Energy has put together a series of fact sheets to provide stakeholders a better understanding of the major projects at PORTS. The fact sheets can be easily downloaded, printed and shared. Click here to view them.

The PORTS Visitor Guide provides directions, site security rules, travel information, nearby restaurants and more.

He was born in Stroud, Gloucestershire, the younger child and only son of Frederick Winterbotham, solicitor, and his wife, Florence Vernon Graham. He was educated at Charterhouse School, in Godalming, Surrey. He married four times: Erica Horniman (1921), daughter of Frederick John Horniman, tea trader and MP, Madge Mary Moncrieff Anderson (1939), Joan Petrea Trant (1948) and Kathleen Price (1987). [1]

At the start of the war, in 1914, he enlisted in the Royal Gloucestershire Hussars Yeomanry. He transferred to the Royal Flying Corps in 1916, and became a fighter pilot. He was shot down and captured on 13 July 1917, in Passchendaele, and spent the rest of the war as a prisoner, for much of the time in Holzminden prisoner-of-war camp.

Upon his release in 1918 he went to Christ Church, Oxford, to study law. He took a law degree (1920) in the shortened course for returning servicemen, [2] but had no liking for an office job. He pursued farming opportunities in Britain, Kenya, and Rhodesia without success. By 1929 he was back in Britain, and considered becoming a stockbroker in the City. Instead he was recruited to join the staff of the Royal Air Force, where he was assigned to the newly created Air Section of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI-6). [3] During the next few years, Winterbotham began the process of building up an intelligence service for the RAF. His job was to gather information on the development of military aviation in hostile or potentially hostile countries. He recruited agents, and filed and analyzed their reports.

One of these reports revealed that Germany had secret arrangements with the Soviet Union for the training of military pilots in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. William de Ropp, the agent who supplied this information, also informed Winterbotham that the Nazis, not yet in power, wanted to cultivate high-level contacts in Britain they imagined that "imperialist" Britain would be sympathetic to their own dreams of racial conquest. Winterbotham, who was socially well connected, seemed a likely channel. [3]

This led to a visit by Nazi "philosopher" Alfred Rosenberg in 1932. Winterbotham, with the full knowledge of MI-6, escorted Rosenberg around Britain, made some appropriate introductions, and played up to him. Neither Ropp nor Rosenberg knew that Winterbotham had any intelligence connections—he was just a civilian official of the Air Staff.

Winterbotham continued in this role for the next seven years. He became a regular visitor to Germany, and an apparent Nazi sympathizer. As such, he was welcomed into the highest circles in Germany, meeting Hitler and Göring, and with Göring's Luftwaffe subordinates such as Erhard Milch and Albert von Kesselring. He gathered a tremendous amount of information on the Luftwaffe and on German political and military intentions. [4]

In 1938, Winterbotham recruited Sidney Cotton to carry out some very successful aerial reconnaissance over Italy and Germany in 1939–40 in a private Lockheed 12A aircraft.

These games came to an end when World War II broke out in 1939. As a top ranking member of MI6 (he reported directly to its head, Sir Hugh Sinclair, and his successor in 1940, Sir Stewart Menzies), Winterbotham was fully aware of Britain's successful code-breaking operation against the German Enigma cipher machine. The intelligence derived from Enigma decrypts was absolutely authentic (it was what the Germans were telling each other) and it was often of immense value. This source was so valuable it was given the special classification "Top Secret Ultra", or simply "Ultra".

In April of 1940 the cryptographers at Bletchley made a breakthrough when they succeeded in deciphering four small messages regarding Luftwaffe personnel. This led Winterbotham to consider how the information from this would be handled once it became more plentiful, and he shared his ideas on this topic with his Chief. His chief gave him "permission to set up a completely new organisation for the translation, distribution and complete security of the decoded signals. " [5]

A key part of the solution was arranging for the secure delivery of Ultra to the various commanders, and making sure that they did nothing to give away the secret that Enigma was being read. Winterbotham took charge of this process. He formed "Special Liaison Units", which were attached to each field headquarters that received Enigma. [6]

An SLU consisted of a few RAF officers and enlisted men, low in rank to avoid drawing attention. They received Ultra messages by radio from Britain, carefully encrypted in Britain's strongest cipher. They decrypted the messages, and handed them over to the commander, who was often the only person cleared to know where the information came from. (At some HQs, there might be one or two deputies also cleared.) The SLU was expected to retrieve the Ultra message after the commander had read it and keep it under lock and key. [6]

The SLU was also expected to keep the recipient commander from telling anyone else about the origins of the message or acting too obviously on its contents. Naturally, this sometimes led to conflicts with field commanders who objected to being second-guessed. After the U.S. entered the war, these field commanders were often not British. [6]

Winterbotham was responsible for recruiting and training the SLU personnel for this difficult role. They had to be very able technically, be close-mouthed, keep a low profile, and also be diplomatic enough to manage commanders who far outranked them. When diplomacy failed, Winterbotham flew out to the problem HQ to resolve the quarrel. He had the ultimate authority of the Allied governments behind him, as both Britain and the U.S. would do almost anything to avoid exposing the secret of the decryptions. [6]

Ultra remained secret even after the war. Then in 1974, Winterbotham's book, The Ultra Secret, was published. This was the first book in English about Ultra, and it explained what Ultra was, and revealed Winterbotham's role, particularly with regard to the dissemination and use of Ultra.

There had been mentions of Enigma decryption in earlier books by Władysław Kozaczuk, Ladislas Farago and Gustave Bertrand. However, Winterbotham's book was the first extensive account of the uses to which the massive volumes of Enigma-derived intelligence were put by the Allies, on the western and eastern European fronts, in the Mediterranean, North Africa, and perhaps most crucially, in the Battle of the Atlantic.

Winterbotham's account has been criticized [ by whom? ] for inaccuracies and self-aggrandizement. Winterbotham acknowledged in the book that he was no cryptologist and had only slight understanding of the cryptologic side of the multi-faceted and strictly compartmentalized Ultra operation. His description of the pioneering work done by Poland's Cipher Bureau before the war is minimal. Winterbotham later responded that he had simply passed on the story that he had been given at the time. He erroneously suggested that Japan's PURPLE cipher machine was a version of the German Enigma and confused "Dilly" Knox with a different person.

Noted in the book is the myth of Winston Churchill and the Coventry Blitz. During The Blitz of 1940–1941, Coventry was severely bombed by the Luftwaffe on the night of 14–15 November. There was heavy damage and numerous civilian casualties. Winterbotham asserted that Enigma decrypts had provided clear advance warning of the raid but that Churchill personally decided not to take any special countermeasures that might alert the Germans that the British were reading Enigma. This story has been widely repeated, even though it has been refuted by other historians and memoirists. [ citation needed ] Peter Calvocoressi was head of the Air Section at Bletchley Park that translated and analysed all decrypted Luftwaffe messages. He wrote that "Ultra never mentioned Coventry. Churchill, so far from pondering whether to save Coventry or safeguard Ultra, was under the impression that the raid was to be on London." [7]

Winterbotham concluded that the war's outcome "was, in fact, a very narrow shave, and the reader may like to ponder [. ] whether or not we might have won had we not had Ultra".

James Holland credits [8] Winterbotham with responding to a letter from Barnes Wallis with a desperate cry for assistance ("help oh help") with a letter of his own, in February 1943. Winterbotham's letter ensured the chief of the air staff, Air Chief Marshall Sir Charles Portal, knew of the Wallis plan, and took a favourable view of it. Portal overrode the resistance of Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet, head of Bomber Command, to Wallis' proposal, and the Dambusters raid, code-named Operation Chastise in May 1943, was approved.

Before and after The Ultra Secret, Winterbotham wrote several other books dealing with various aspects of his intelligence work.

Babcock Arboretum

In 2019, the Arboretum celebrated its 100 year anniversary in Quincy. A botanical garden intended in part for scientific study, Babcock Arboretum features signage with the Latin and common names of plants and trees as well as recognition of who may have gifted them.

A registered arboretum, Babcock Arboretum is named in honor of Professor J. Verner Babcock, who taught botany at the college from 1938 to 1978.

Eastern Nazarene College is situated on a section of land that was originally part of the historic Quincy family estate. Originally a lush 400-acre property, the land was cleared over the years to build homes for Quincy family members, a girls’ school, and the college. The original homestead had a wide variety of plants, some of which are still on campus today.

Three original Norway Spruce trees remain on the left side of Canterbury Hall. The grand tree in the center of campus facing the student center was a gift in the late 1800s from Charles Francis Adams II to the Quincy Mansion School for Girls. An impressive specimen of the Beeches variety is believed to have traveled across the Atlantic from Europe in a small pot. Charles Francis Adams II, who was known for giving trees as gifts, ordered 50 Beeches from Europe around the turn of the century. Not all of the trees on campuses were gifts, but a good number of them were donated in memory of individuals or groups associated with the college.

You’ve probably noticed small plaques adorning some of the trees on ENC’s campus connecting the plant to ENC’s Babcock Arboretum . Since 1993, ENC’s collection of 75 varieties has been designated an official arboretum named for the colorful Professor J. Verner Babcock who taught botany at ENC from 1938 until 1978.

What is an arboretum?

An arboretum is a botanical garden containing a collection of plants intended at least partly for scientific study.

What are those small plaques on every tree?

These signs have the trees Latin name, the common name, and a number assigned to that plant. They also designate whether that tree was gifted on behalf of a specific person and if so, who it was gifted by.

Why is ENC an arboretum?

ENC sits on part of the land of the historic Quincy family estate. Originally a 400 acre property full of beautiful trees and flowers, the land would host numerous homes for the Quincy family members of the years, a school for girls, and eventually ENC. The original homestead had a wide variety of plants each specially chosen for the unique climate and location. Some of those plants are still standing and are the basis of ENC’s arboretum. Today three of the properties original Norway Spruce trees remain on the left side of Canterbury Hall. The grand tree in the center of campus facing the student center is believed to have been a gift in the late 1800s from Charles Francis Adams II to the Quincy Mansion School for Girls. W hat is today an impressive specimen of the Beeches variety, once traveled from Europe across the Atlantic in a small pot. Charles Francis Adams II wa s known for giving trees as gift s and had ordered 50 Beeches from Europe around the turn of the century. You can see some of his other Beeches at his property on Hospital Hill in Boston.

Not all of the trees on campuses were gifts, but a good number of them were donated in memory of a special individual or group. These are just a few of the many trees that were gifted to the campus. The next time you’re taking a walk, take a moment to glance at the trees you pass. Take advantage of ENC’s beautiful outdoor museum!

Aesthetically, the trees add grandeur and majesty to our compact campus. Imagine ENC with no plantings! It becomes apparent that the space that the trees occupy is not simply the emptiness between buildings, but vast, inviting outdoor rooms and corridors. To walk from the open campus lawn into the shelter of the central grove provides a powerful, psychological hug which speaks of arrival, protection, and inclusion. The peace and serenity of our site soothes our spirits and refreshes our minds as we hurry through the crowded days and endless schedules. The trees remain stable, unhurried, a fortress.

W F Babcock - History

History of Early American Automobile Industry

The New Century had arrived and the automobile industry was bursting at the seams with all of its activity. With so many different models that were being made either by an individual or a well known company, it is impossible to give an estimate on how many there were. All of the several automotive magazines were filled with advertisements for everything from bolts to a finished car. There were some routine body types to very radical ones, but they were all automobiles. The name for the vehicle was now known as an "automobile".

1900 saw the ending of the relationship between Col. Pope and Whitney. Whitney was under investigation for manipulating company stocks. This stunk to high heaven with Pope. He wanted no part of it and sold his share of the company to Whitney. Pope concentrated on his American Bicycle Company for the next two years.

Before he left, he bought out Riker Elrctric Motor Vehicle Company, Elizabethtown, NJ, in 1900 and the Riker company was part of the deal that Pope sold to Electrical Vehicle Company. Shortly thereafter, Col. Pope began to concentrate on his Pope bicycles and began to buy up all of his competitors and one of these was the American Bicycle Company of Toledo, OH.

his is the first advertisement for an American Automobile and is cut from the 1895 November Issue, the first one, of the Horseless Age Magazine, the first automotive trade magazine in the world.

One of the world's greatest flim-flam artist was E. J. Pennington who came to Racine, WI, in 1894. After selling his Pennington engine that he had invented to Thomas Kane, a furniture manufacturer, they formed a partnership and made the Kane-Pennington car that was finished in 1896, in time to be exhibited at the race on November 2, . However, because from the lack of participants, the race was delayed until Thanksgiving. In the meantime, he took his car and engine and left for England. He stayed there for four years, and scamed millions of dollars from British car makers before returning to the the U. S. and established the Anglo-American Rapid Vehicle Transit Company. He established his business in Barnes Bicycle plant owned by E. C. Stearns of Syracuse, NY. Stearns owned a huge automobile parts supply store and was owner of the Stearns Automobile Co.

However, unknown to E. C. Stearns, he had left England after his so called Anglo-American Rapid Vehicle Transit Company had been declared bankrupt in England and with no further hoped of carrying on his phony companies there, he returned to this country.

It wasn't long before Stearns joined with the Anglo-American Rapid Transit Co.making the Stearns company a subsidery. the money was drained from the Stearns company and it went bankrupt. Stearns continued in his parts supply business.

E.J. Pennington was not finished yet! He showed up in Carlisle, PA in 1900 with a real loser, the Tractmobile.

1901 Tractomobile Advertisement

The Tractobile was built by E.J. Pennington's Pennsylvania Company of Carlisle, PA and was built from 1900-1902. It was a device that could be attached to a carriage and the carriage could be motor driven instead of horses. The steam motor was connected to a removable frame built between two bicycle wheels with a tiller connected to the right wheel. A full automobile could be ordered. Only a very few were built. This was a disaster!

Motor-Car Journal, December, 1902

News from the United States is frequently interesting, and many readers Pennington and will regard the following item from the Millions. "Motor Age" with a certain amount of curiosity. "It is announced that the plant of the Racine Boat Manufacturing Company, of Racine, has been sold for 300,000 dol. to the. American Automobile Company, which was recently incorporated for 500,000 dol. According to newspaper reports this capital is to be increased to 5,000,000 dol. and the concern is to endeavour to build 100 automobiles per week. Then comes the information that among the directors is the long lost E. J. Pennington, who has scalped clouds and small investors with flying machines, jumped material and financial ditches with -motor-bicycles, and planned numerous wonderful automobile enterprises. It is to be sincerely hoped, if the report is true,, that the other directors are as well ported in company organization as Mr. Pennington."

He next appeared back in Racine, WI, in 1903 to work on his next scam or as called in the article as his latest freak

Copied from the 1903 Horseless Age Magazine

The American Automobile Company, of London, England (American Works, Racine, Wis.), the latest promoting scheme of the notorious E. J. Pennington, is sending out and has been distributing at the recent Tri-State Vehicle Show at Cincinnati a circular addressed to the carriage trade, which reads, in part, as follows:

"Do you want to make money? If so, come and see us. Instead of making less than $100 on each vehicle, why not triple it by buying one of our automobile attachments by which you can realize from $200 to $400 profit?

"We are not automobile or carriage builders, but we build the automobile horse or locomotive which is applied to the horse drawn vehicle the same as is a horse —viz., we draw and steer with our locomotive attachment applied to any horse drawn vehicle as does the horse.

"We are the oldest automobile manufacturers in England and amongst the oldest on the Continent, having devoted over twelve years to the business. We have also taken out over 400 patents throughout the world on automobiles, etc. Our shareholders in England have decided to spend $1,500,000 in putting in more machinery and equipment, so that by next year we hope to be able to turn out 50.000 locomotives. We have now over sixty customers in this country—none of them ordering less than 100 outfits—and shall have over 400 by March 1.

"Everybody that wishes to make money and be in the swim should get in line, as we give exclusive territory, and it is being taken up very fast."

The scheme of giving exclusive territory —for a cash deposit—has been "worked" before in the automobile line in this country by irresponsible parties, and it is to be hoped that none of the vehicle dealers or vehicle manufacturers may fall into the trap laid for them. Pennington has been exploiting the ignorance of the general public in motor matters for over a decade he has organized in succession the Pennington Moor Foreign Patents Syndicate, Limited, the Anglo-American Rapid Vehicle Company, the Pennsylvania Steam Vehicle Company, the American Automobile Company, etc., with an aggregate capitalization of over a hundred million dollars, but is not known ever to have placed a practical vehicle in the hands of a purchaser. None of his vehicles have ever taken part in any road contest in this country, nor abroad as far as our knowledge goes, and in view of this fact the vehicle men will do well to think twice before they listen to the claims of this combine. If they want any further particulars about the career of Pennington the back volumes of The Horseless Age will be of service to them

After scamming for another nine years, he wound up in Springfield, MA trying to convince the city to build an electrical railway. While standing on a curb in downtown Springfield, he fell into a puddle of water and died from pneumonia.


All signs point to a resuscitation of the Anglo-American Rapid Vehicle promotion in Philadelphia. The Pennington war machine is now getting itself arrested there, as it did in the vicinity of New York some time ago. Gibbs, the well known stock-jobber of the City of Brotherly Love, identified with this scheme in its inception, has been relieved of his official duties in several other watered corporations of which he was the chief promoter, and now has leisure to devote to the automobile project. The widows, the orphans and the omnipresent gudgeon in finance will again be invited to bite.

Copied from The Genealogy History

Adrian Hazen Hoyt, M.D., youngest child of Joseph and Susan (Currier) Hoyt, born at Magog, Province of Quebec, March 7, 1862, attended the public schools of his native town, and the business college of Davis and Dewie in Montreal, and subsequently matricuated at Dartmouth College, from which he was graduated with the class of 1887, with the degree of M.D. Returning to Magog he began the practice of his profession there, but finding it not congenial to his bent of mind, he went to St. Johnsbury, Vermont, where he entered the employ of the Standard Electric Company. A year an a half later he removed to Manchester, New Hampshire, and engaged in electrical experimental work for several years. Later he accepted the position of manager of the Whitney Electrical Instument Company, when it began to operate in Manchester, and when it removed to Penacook he continued as superintendent and manager of the company, filling those positions until 1905. In that year he build his present residence in Penacook, and engaged in business for himself. He has since erected a shop and employs a number of mechanics in the manufacture of electrical instruments and automobiles, and in doing repair work. In addition to his other work, in the year 1905 he was instructor in manual training and electrics in St. Paul's School. Dr. Hoyt displays the same energy and entusiasm in his industrial employment and in inventing, that his forefathers, "the fighting Hoyts," did in subduing the wilderness. and carrying on ware against the enemies of their country. He has secured twenty-five or more patents on electrical measuring instruments and scientific apparatus.

When the Hoyt Steamer first appeared on Jeff Theobald's web site it was described as a Hoyt Steamer, Penacook, USA. There is only one Penaccok in the United States and it is in New Hampshire abutting Concord, which is one hour drive from where I live. I decided to drive there and see if I could get some information on it. To my amazement, the Hoyt Electrical Instrument Company is still in business with Adam Hoyt, grandson of Adrian, as president. He was really happy that I was interested in the Hoyt automobile. I showed him the picture of his grandfather's car on Theobald's site which he had never seen one before.

He said that the only information that he could give about them is what his grandmother told him. His grandfather had died before he was born. He said that his grandfather had made six electric and five steam cars before he gave them up. He had no pictures of any of them. Afterwards he had a repair shop until 1912.

According to this article, Dr. Hoyt began to build his steam cars at this time at his American Manufacturing Company in Penacock. On my visit there, I was shown the original wooden factory building. The new brick factory was built in 1950.

In Beverly Rae Kimes book she has these Hoyt steam cars pictured with the descriptions

1898 Concord Steamer, Designed by Adrain Hoyt and built by the Concord Motor Coach Company, Concord, NH, for a Special Customer

Copied from the Concord Insider Newspaper, This Day in History"

"May 8, 1900: Having made several battery-powered cars at his American Manufacturing Co. in Penacook, Adrian Hoyt secures a 10-year local tax exemption for his auto-making concern. He hopes to employ 150-250 men and make three cars a day. A few days later he will drive one of his cars through downtown Concord to show how efficiently a car can deliver the mail. The car business never takes off, but Hoyt Electric does."

Including his previous electrics and steamers, he built 11 cars.

Copied from the 1902 Automobile Topics Mgazine

Dr. Hoyt on the right with J. M. MacAlman in MacAlman's 1902 Locomobile

Three months afer this picture was taken, an advertisement apeared in the journal

1902 Locomobile Automobile Advertisement

Dr. Hoyt owned the first automobile in New Hampshire and was one of the founders of the New Hampshire Automobile Club in 1900.

A number of these devices are used in the construction of automobiles, in which Dr. Hoyt has always taken a deep interest, he being the first owner and user of an automobile in the state of New Hampshire. He is the inventor of the alternating current ammeter, and was one of the first in America to make practical use of the X-ray.

Detroit Automobile Company

Three months after riding behind Charles King's automobile, Henry Ford tested his Quadracycle.With te help of King, his quadracycle is was tested in late 1896. He kept experimenting with his vehicles. In 1899, William Murphy, one of the largest land owner in American, saw Ford's designs and hired as the engineer for his new company, Detroit Atomobile Company. Several models were planned, but only a few were made. This included abiout ten runabouts and a couple of delivery wagons.

1899 Detroit Runabout Automobile

1899 Detroit Victoria Phaeton Automobile

1899 Detroit Surrey Automobile


Copied from Gardner Hiscox 1902 Book, Horseless Vehicles, Automobiles and Motor Cycles

This company has brought out a line of gasoline motor vehicles that make a complete outfit for all the wants of automobile work for pleasure or business. The general outline and finish of all their vehicles are designed with similar parts and the running and motor gear are interchangeable on all the light carriages. The touring cart is a convertible vehicle most desirable for its kind. In place of the rear box for parcels or hand grip, its removal gives place for a trunk, or a seat may take its place and you have a stylish dos-a-dos. The suspension steel wheels and rubber tires are alike in all their carriages and the forward steering wheels are pivoted at the hubs. Among the distinctive features of these vehicles are, the single lever which by a forward and backward movement through the space of about 12 inches, starts the engine, and controls the forward speeds and the backup, doing away the confusion arising from a multiplication of levers.

The automatic feeding device gives perfect combustion at any speed, leaving no odor from unconsumed gases. A perfectly balanced engine, with absolutely no vibration. A device, actuated by a button under the foot, which controls the speed, which may be varied from a slow walk to about 40 miles per hour, for the pleasure vehicles. An absolutely new sparking device, which is positive, never fails, and is practically indestructible. Every part is encased and is dust and water proof. No chains or belts of any kind, the driving gear being connected direct to the rear axle, through the compensating gear. The frame is rigid, but flexible

The style and finish of these vehicles are most acceptable to good taste in the purchasers of the automobile type of pleasure carriages. The delivery wagon is built on the same lines as their other vehicles in motor and running gear, and is a light and quick moving vehicle for light trade.

Copied from the 1901 Automobile Topics Magazine

What was originally the Detroit Vehicle Company has since its reorganization become known by its new name, the Henry Ford Com pany, and its engineer, Mr. Henry Ford, has designed a new automobile which, he says, will outclass the first one he manufactured at every point, though the latter proved itself a very fast machine at the races at the Grosse Pointe track. The officers in the Henry Ford Company are as follows: Clarence A. Black, president Albert E. F. White, vicepresident Wm. H. Murphy, treasurer Lem. W. Bowen, secretary. The new company will begin to manufacture machines at once in the plant of the old Detroit Automobile Co., which went out of existence a year ago. The plant is located at 1343 Cass Avenue, Detroit.

William H. Murphy, the treasurer of the company, is the man who is responsible for the new company. When the old company went out of existence he furnished the funds for Ford to continue his experiments, and when the first machine was completed it had cost him several thousand dollars. The new machines will have greater power with less weight. The capital stock of the company has been fixed at $60,000

1901 Detroit Vehicle Co. Runabout, Detroit, MI

In 1899, a company called Detroit Vehicle Co. was formed to manufacture Henry Ford's automobiles. Ford had been working for Thomas Edison for a number of years and when he was hired to be the chief engineer for the new company, he immediately left the Edison company. The Detroit Vehicle Co.was in business for less than two years when the investors pulled the plug and shut down the factory. Only a very few cars were built..

Ford Motor Car Company continues in Chapter 9

Victor Exibhit at the 1900 New York Automobile Show

Century Motor Vehicle Company, Syracuse, NY

What could be more fitting for the new century than an automobile named "Century" made by The Century Motor Vehicle Co. Syracuse, NY.

The Century Motor Vehicle Company, Syracuse, NY, was a great name for the new century and plans were made to build automobiles of all types of motor power. Five men were the founders that included Charles F. Saul, Charles Listman, Charles A. Bridgman, Hiram W. Plumb, and William W. Wagoner. Vangoner had made its protype in 1899. The new steam and electric protypes were finished in 1900 and were put into production in early 1901.

1900 Century Steam Automobile

Most unusual for the period was is shaft drive for the steamer. By November, 60 had been finished. Some of these were exported to England under the Jackson name.

The 1901 advertisement suggests that they could be built as an electric or a steamer.

1901 Century Runabout Automobile

1902 Century Tourist Steamer Tonneau

Gasoline models followed in 1902 powered by a single-cylinder, 7-horse power engine on a 72 in. wheelbase known as the Century Tourist and priced at $750. By this time all of the steam and electric models had been sold and none of these would be further produced.

Copied from the 1903 edition of the English Motor-Car Journal

1903 Century Dos-A-Dos Automobile

It is driven by an 8-h.p. horizontal single-cylinder motor, located at about the centre of the frame. The cylinder is 5 in. diameter by 6 in. stroke, the normal speed being 700 revolutions per minuto. The ordinary system of electrical ignition is employed, the timing of the spark being mechanically accomplished in connection with the throttling of the mixture, which is furnished by a float-feed carburettor. The water circulation is maintained by a gear-driven pump and radiator, about six gallons of water 4being carried. The motor is coupled direct to the transmission gear by means of a flange coupling. The change gear is of the Crypto type, giving two speeds forward and a reverse, and is operated by a single lever. On the top speed the power is transmitted direct, without the intervention of any gearing. A single roller chain connects the change-gear shaft with the rear live axle. A spur gear differential is used. The two gears are firmly keyed to the axle .Artillery wood wheel are used.

1904 Century Landaulet Automobile

Funds were running out in 1903 and production slowed down to almost a stamd still. In early 1904, the company declared bankruptcy.

Holyyoke Automobile Co. Holyoke, MA

Charles R. Greuter was a Swiss Born engineer who designed and built the American Automobile called the Holyoke. The Holyoke, was named after the Massachusetts town by the same name. The Holyoke used one and two cylinder over head valve engines. Grueter invented the over head valve engine. The first Holyoke was large touring car with a two cylinder engine. In1903, one of the Matheson brothers visited the Holyoke factory and Grueter drove him back to Grand Rapids. MI, a distance of 1000 miles, in his Holyoke car witout any trouble.

1900 Holyoke, "Little Elephant" Gasoline Trap,

They powered by a 24hp 4-cynlinder ohv engine In 1903, Matheson Brothers of Grand Rapids, MI, owners ot the Matheson Automobile Company, purchased the Holyoke factory and moved the Marheson company to Holyoke. Charles Grueter was hired as the designer and engineer for Matheson. He stayed with the until 1908.

In 1899, Frank Stanley owner of the McKay Sewing Machine Company in Lawrence, founded the Stanley Mfg. Co.to build a steam automobiles using Whitney's patents. They were named Whitney-Stanley and they were runabouts built with or with a canopy top for two persons. However, by lowering the backboard for a foot rest, four passengers could be accomodated. The car weighed 850 pounds. The engine was was two cylinders, the water tank held 23 gallons, and the gasoline tank held 8 gallons ennough for 90 miles with an average speed of 12 mph, or if desired a higher speed could be obtained. The Whitney-Stanley automobiles were superior in construction that the former Whitneys. Late In 1900, the Whitney-Stanley name was changed to MacKay.

1900 McKay Automobile Advertisement

The McKay Manufacturing Co, was owned by the McKay Sewing Machine Co. in Lawrence, MA. with full patent rights of the Whitney automobiles.

1901 Mc Kay Automobile Advertisments

1900 Mckay Delivery Wagon

The McKay was first shown at the 1900 New York Automobile Show with a price tag of $1,800.nad 25 cars had been built by the end of the year. McKay automobiles cease production in 1902 and the facatory focused on its sewing machines.

In 1901, The Keene Steammobile, built by the Steammobile Company of America, Keene, NH, superceded the Trinity Bicycle Company who had built the Keene Steammobile in 1900. The only change was the name automobile and company names.

Steamobiles Display at the 1900 New York Automobile Show

1901 Steamobile at the 2009 London to Brighton Race

The engine had a 31/2-inch stroke with 3 inches in diameter and the weight of the vehicle was 1125 lbs. The running gear was 93 inches with 54-in tread with 35-in wheels and 31/2 pneumatic tires. Capicity of the water tank was 26 gallons and the gas tank held 8 gallons. The color was black and Brewster Green. Price of the runabout was $1,100 and the coach was $1,300 F.O. B.

William S. Rogers, from Boston,who had built a gasoline car under his name took over as supertendent in 1902. and continued with the same model, a runabout. 25 had been sold by this time at $850 each. Later that year a dos-A-dos was added for $900.

1902 Steamobile Advertisement

The Standard Roller Hearings Company, of Keene, N. H., will build steam vehicles at the factory they recently purchased from the Steamobile Company of the same place. The new machine is to be called the Transit. It is built for two, but will carry four persons. The carriages have water tube boilers and burn kerosene. The water capacity is 30 gallons. A condensing apparatus is attached, and provides for the continued use of the water supply. The regulation of the water is automatic, as is also that of the oil, which is not under pressure. The fuel tank has a capacity of 16 gallons. The frame construction is all steel. The lubrication of the engine and of all the running parts of the vehicle is automatic. As will be observed from the view of the vehicle given above, the design is a complete departure from all types now on the market, and is built either for high speed on level roads.

It was announced in late 1902 that the company had too many vecicles to be sold and no more was to be produced. It was the country's first victom of over production.

In 1900, Irvin D. Lengel, made his Reading Steamer prototype and tested on the streets and long distance driving before putting it into production in 1901. He would advertise it as "running definitely without any trouble".1900 Reading Runabout Prototype became the 1901 Model. Most steamers at this time were two cylinders, but the Reading Steamer had a four-cylinder engine.

1900 Reading Steam Carriage, The Steam Vehicle Co. of America, Reading, PA

It was only a very short time before his creditors showed up and it was incorporated as the Meteor Engineering Company. Lengel was amongst the incorporators and the name was changed to Meteor.

The Meteor Steamer Company and the Reading Steamer shared the same facility. The customer who placed the first oder for a Meteor thought that he was buying a gasoline car, but cancelled the order when he learned about his mistake. For the 1903 New York Show, three Meteors were built to look like a gasoline car. Not one vehicle was sold. They did make a gasoline prototype before gong under that year

1903 Meteor Steamer Tonneau

1900 Canda Quadracycle, Canda Mfg., Newark, New Jersey

In 1896, Canda Mfg. Co acquired the rights to the Duryea engine and hired Charles Duryea to be their supertendent to build express and deivery wagons. Before production began, Duryea backed out of the deal and not so long after, he left for Peroia, IL. In 1900, the company decided to build their own cars and put into production the Tandem Quadracycle. A new typical runabout model was offered in 1901 before closing down. George W. Condon bought remains and sold the remaing cars for $195 each with 25 per cent down. The original price was $485.

In 1899, Foster & Company, Rochester, NY, were piano makers decided to build automobiles and made their prototype. a year later, the Foster Automobile Company was incorporated for $100,000 to build steam and electrical vehicles. The compamny was sold immediately to Paul Dinsmore and all the investors left the company except G. G. Foster. It was incorporated as the Foster Automobile Mfg. Company. Both steam and electrics were made and 165 were sold by the end of 1901.

1900 Foster Advertisement

1901 Foster Advertisement

The electric model was dropped at this time and the steamer was its primary model. A gasoline model was made for 1903, but, because Whitney had brought infringement of patents against the company non were made. and since the the president, Densmore, had absconded with the company's assests in 1903, bankruptcy was declared. Foster was also a suspect because in 1904, he disappeared from sight.

Copied from the 1901 Horseless Age Magazine


Our readers will remember the Jonathan B. West litigation at Rochester. N. Y., which has now been in the courts for nearly two years, the defendant having meantime died. The plaintiffs. Mason Brothers, laundrymen, oi that city, sued for $41 damages, alleged to have been sustained by a runaway caused by defendant's steam automobile, claimed to be noisy and a terror to horses. Plaintiffs secured a verdict, but the case was appealed, and the decision of the lower court was reversed by Judge Sutherland, who held that the automobile in question was not a nuisance and that the automobile in general had as good a right to the road as the horse. Another appeal was taken to the Appellate Division, with the result that the decision of Judge Sutherland is overruled, the court holding that defendant was negligent in running a machine tfirough the streets that emitted steam in Such quantities. Automobiles must be quietly conducted to establish their right upon the highway. Presiding Justice Adams hands down a dissenting opinion, holding that no negligence was shown.

The case will be carried to the Court of Appeals by the widow and son of the late inventor.

Buffalo Electric
Buffalo Electric Carriage Company, Buffalo, NY

The Buffalo Electric Carriage Company, Buffalo, NY, exibited their electric vehicle at the 1900 New York Automobile Show. It was guaranteed to travel 45 miles per charge which was nort a great seller and by 1906

1903 Buffalo Electric Advertisement

1902 Buffalo Electric Golf Brakes

The cars were very slow sellers and F. A. Babcock, an investor in the company, took control in 1906, and began to build the automobile as Babcock models.

1910 Babcock Electric Automobile Advertisement

The Babcock Electric automobiles were also slow sellers and they struggled along until 1912 when the company was sold to the Bufalo Vehicle Company. The prices were much higer than the two previous two electric models, but the only thing that save them was a contract with Wannamaker Department Stores that lasted until 1914. The company soon ceased operations and closed down.

Autocar's Early Business Vehicles
This information was taken from an article showing the early automobiles in the 1912 Issue of the Automobile Review Magazine

About the same time as the Pittsburg Motor Vehicle Company was producing cars in Pittsburgh, the Auto Car Company of Swissville, Penn., was experimenting along the same line, and in 1897, the vehicle shown herewith was produced. This is believed to be the first commercial vehicle offered in America for general use. The pleasure machines were made by the Pittsburgh Motor Vehicle Company, and the two concerns were merged into the Autocar Company in 1899. (Cruishank Screw Mfg. Co., Providence, RI had made a delivery van for its on use a year ealier.)

In 1897, a group of businessmen formed an automobile company known as the Pittsburgh Motor Vehicle Co. The first vehicle was a three-wheel, gasoline driven with a wicker body holding two people with a bicycle seat for the driver at the rear. It was changed to a four-wheel in 1898 and to a regular runabout body in 1899. The company was moved to Ardmore, PA in 1900 and its name was changed to Autocar Co. The first production model was in 1901 with twenty-seven cars being finished.

1898 Pittsburg Four-Wheeler Automobile, Wicker Body

1899 Autocar Advertisement Showing the Pittsburgh Runabout

1900 Autocar Automobile Advertisement

1901 Autocar Advertisement

1905 Autocar Advertisement

1910 Autocar Automobile Advertisement

The company was one of the premier builders until 1912, when they decided to focus on trucks. The Autocar Trucks were some of the best on the road and are still in business, even though White Motors bought the company in 1953

National Automobile and Electric Company, Indianapolis, IN

The National Automobile And Electric Company was organized in 1900 by L. S. Dow and Phillip Goetz. Goetz was a former engineer with the Waverly Electric Company, owned by the American Bicycle Company. Their first experimental car was built that year. Their first models were a typical runabout carriage body that was offered in several body styles. At the beginning, they also made horse-drawn carriages, but discontinued them in 1902 and the company was reorganized as the National Vehicle Company and concentrated on its electrics.

1901 National Runabout
National Automobile & Electric Vehicle Co. Indianapolis, IN

The company introduced its gasoline model in 1903 and in a letter to their customers in 1905, they were advised to also buy the electric for quick short trips. They were hedging their bets hoping that both models would be desired. This did not work and the electric pleasure car was phased out in 1906. Their new president, Arthur Newby, was a enthusiastic fan of gasoline cars. It was initialed offered as a light car, but by 1905, it had a four cylinder motor.

1905 National Automobile Advertisment

1905 National Advertisement

1906 National Side-Entrance Tonneau

1907 National Advertisement

1917 National Advertisement

The company continued to make cars along the lines that other makers were making until 1922 when it merged with eight other companies to become the Associated Motor Industry with Clarence Earl as its president., The Dixie Flyer and Jackson.were among them. The Jackson was discontinued, but the Dixie Flyer stayed in production until 1924 when the parent company went bankrupt.

Col. Albert Pope's Motor Car Companies

Disagreeing with the direction that the Electrical Vehicle Company was going, Col. Pope sold his interest in the Electric Vehicle Company to Whtney and started concentrating on his Pope Bicycle enterprises.

In 1900, Pope was contacted by Albert Spaulding , who owned a large sporting goods company, and suggested that his bicycle company and Pope's should merge. Pope agreed and the new company was formed as The American Bicycle Company. The American Bicycle company began to buy out all of its competitors. The first one to be bought was the Indiana Bicycle Company which owned the Waverly Electric Vehicle. Next was the Thomas Jeffrey's Rambler Bicycle Co. and with this sale was Jeffrey's 1900 Rambler model.

Copied from the Sept. 26, 1900 issue of the Horseless Age Magazine

The First International Automobile Exhibition and Tournament at Chicago, under the auspices of the Inter-Ocean, closed Tuesday, September 25, it being continued two days in order to make time for races delayed on account of bad weather. The exhibition may be considered a success from the standpoint of the builders, as they report many sales at the grounds. However, very little was shown which was new in principle, only the familiar types being exhibited. The attendance was rather light.. The American Bicycle Company displayed several types of Waverly electric vehicles, a Rambler gasoline carriage, and tricycles.

1900 Rambler Stanhope
American Bicycle Co. Chicago, IL

Jeffery was allowed to keep the Rambler name.

Also in September, The American Bicycle Company Company announced that its factory in Toledo, OH would devote all of its energies into making automobiles that would be steam driven. It was shown at the New York Automobile Show in November as a Billings named after its designer. Billings sold his rights to the American Automobile Co. and in 1901, the American Bicycle was reorganized as the International Motor Car Company and the car was made as a steam car in two models, the Westchester and the Toledo. That year the two models became the Toledo.

1900 Robinson Advertisement

In 1900, the partnership of Bramwell-Robinson broke up with each one making cars under their names. The 1900 Robinson was identical to the 1899 Bramwell-Robinson, with left hand wheel steering, making it the first lef-hand steering automobile in America.

1901 Robinson Touring with Left Hand Steering

Albert Pope left the Electrical Vehicle about the time that Hiram Maxim left and within two years, he was building another automobile empire under his name, Pope Automobiles. His first purchase was the Robinson, built by John T. Robinson & Co., Hyde Park, MA. Pope-Robinson bodies were made by Currier-Cameron & Company, Amesbury, MA.

John C. King of Chicago, IL, in his 1902 Pope-Robinson Touring car

1902 Pope-Robinson Runabout

Late in the year, it was aquired by Albert Pope and immediately renamed Pope Robinson Pope's nephew, Edward Pope, became the secretary-treasurer and Robinson was the president.

1902 Rear Entrance Tonneau

Pope always required the very best engines and construction and the Pope-Robinson met his requirements, but it carried a heft price tag of $6500, twice as much as the previous year. The sales became very sluggish and the price was dropped to $4500, but too late to save the car. Buick Motors bought the company to gain entry into ALAM.

1901 Advertisement of the 1900 Toledo Automobile

1902 Toledo Advertisement

1902 Toledo Advertisement

In 1902, a gasoline moel was made for the first time.

1902 Toledo Gasoline Automobile Advertiement

1902 Toledo Gasoline Rear Entrance Touring

In 1903, one of the steam models was dropped

1903 Toledo Touring Surrey

This would be the last models under the Toledo marque because in May of that year, the International Motor Car Company would be succeed by the Pope Motor Car Company and all models would have Pope as a prefix to their names. The Toledo was now Pope-Toledo.

Newman's 1904 Pope-Toledo Race before the race

Newman's Pope-Toledo during the race

1904 Pope Toledo Advertisement

From 1907, the quality of the car was more emphasized, such as "The Car That Meets Every Requirement" The body was an all steel one in 1908. This was its final full year and it went into receivership in 1909 and did not recover.

1908 Pope-Toledo Advertisement

Copied fom the 1908 Issue f the Automobile Topics Magazine

Touring-Runabout Latest Pope Model

"What is styled a touring runabout—a car designed to be readily converted from a two to a three or four-passenger vehicle—has been brought out by the Pope-Toledo factory of the Pope Motor Car Co. It is produced in response to a demand for a car which can quickly be made large enough to carry friends or family and have the comfort and appearance of a handsome touring car, or be converted into a two or three-seated runabout and possess all the style of this class of vehicle.

The new model is to be known as Type XVIII. It is, of course, a car with detachable seats, but the special feature is that as a touring car it is comfortable, roomy, stylish and handsome, while as a runabout it is racy and rakish in appearance. In the rear is a large seat, arranged to carry a folding, reclining top, which may be raised and extended over the front seat. This rear seat can be substituted by an artillery "seat, or taken off altogether if desired. In this way the car is made to hold two, three or four persons, as the case may demand, by merely a few minutes work in changing seats. The car is light, making a saving on tires, and has great strength and speed."

In 1908, Col. Pope was in financial difficulties and had to sell all of his marques except Pope-Hartford. Pope-Toledo's factory and machinery was sold to Overman Motors in November of 1908 and the overman company moved in.

Evidently there were two American Electric Vehicle Companies in Chicago. One had been in business since 1896 and this one that was newly created and was looking for a manufacturer to build their wheelss. They contacted the Indiana Bicycle Company to build wheels, but this company was anxious to build cars. They bought the Chicago Electric Vehicle Company and their new cars were introduced as the Waverly.

Copied from the 1898 Horseless Age Magazine

The extensive factory of the Indiana Bicycle Company, at Indianapolis, Ind., is to be devoted to the manufacture of electric vehicles, employing nearly 1,ooo hands, when all arrangements are completed.

Nearly three months ago the Indiana Bicycle Company entered into correspondence with the American Electric Vehicle Company, of Chicago, about constructing wire wheels for the vehicles. The Indiana company has two motor-carriage enthusiasts—President C. F. Smith and Secretary L. S. Dow. The correspondence resulted in an investigation of the vehicle being manufactured by the American company, which expressed a desire to make an arrangement with the Indiana company to manufacture the vehicles. A month ago the American company sent a vehicle to Indianapolis for test. An attractive run-about was sent, and Mr. Smith and Mr. Dow and others gave it hard serice. It was tried on rough roads and received numerous tests of hill-climbing, all proving satisfactory. Mr. Smith, Mr. Dow and Philip Goetz then purchased the controlling interest in the American company, and reorganized it with Mr. Smith as president, Mr. Goetz, vice-president Mr. Dow, secretary, and Mr. Richards, treasurer.

This is the name under which the vehicles manufactured by the American Electric Vehicle Co., now consolidated with the Indiana Bicycle Co., will be made and sold. A number of different types are now ready for market and others will be added soon. By October 1 the company expect to have 25 vehicles in stock ready for delivery.

When Pope bought the Indiana Bicycle Company in 1900, he was now the owber of the Waverley Electric.

Henry Fournier In A 1900 Waverly Electric

Fournier was the world champion race car driver and in 1902 became a partner in the Searchmont Company that made the Fournier-Searchmont automobiles. In 1901, Pope reorganized the company as the Internation Motor Car Company

1902 Waverly Advertisement Showing the International Motor Car Company

In 1904 the name was hyphenated as Pope Waverly

1904 Pope Waverley Advertisement

1905 Pope-Waverly Electric Chelsea Model

The Pope-Waverley Company went into receivership in 1908 and was purchased by long time executives of the company and they changed the name back to Waverly.

1907 Pope-Waverly with Rumble Seat

1908 Pope-Waverly Advertisement. last year of the Pope-Waverley automobiles

1911 Waverly Electric

1912 Advertisement for the Silent Waverley

Pope-Hartford was the only one that was soley built by the Pope company and was built at his factory in Hartford, CT. The prototype was built and tested in 1903 and was produced in 1904 with a single-cylinder. Fours were introduced in 1906 and a six in 1911.

1904 Pope-Hartford Automobile

1905 Pope-Hartford Automobile

1905 Pope Hartford Advertisement

1906 Model F Touring, front and side views

1905 Pope-Hartford Advertisement

When Pope died in 1909, his brother George took over and by this time he had lost all of his other models, but the Pope-Hartford was still enjoying modest success because of its reputation as a solid built car. It went into receiver ship in 1913, but was able to continue. By 1914, too many styles of Pope-Hartfords were being made for the amount of its annual sales which was around 700 per year. It was too late for the company to reduce the car to only three to a single chassis and in 1915, the company began to sell all of its property. Pratt and Whitney, makers of aircraft parts and planes, bought the factory.

1912 Pope Hartford Police Patrol Wagon for the City of Hartford, Ct

The Pope-Tribune was built in Hagerstown. MD, starting in 1904. Its factory once made the Crawford bicycle before Pope's American Bicycle Company added it to list of acquistions. The 1904 model was a runabout that debuted with a price tag of $650. It was cheapest model of Pope's automobiles

1904 Pope-Tribune Automobile

1904 Pope Cars Advertisement

1906 Pope-Tribune Automobile

Twin-cylinders and a 12 HP was made in 1905 and the 1906 model was a heavier than the previous models and the runabout was the only model made.

The History of the Steam-Generating Boiler and Industry

Gary Bases is the President of BRIL Inc., an independent consulting firm specializing in brick, refractory, insulation, and lagging. He is also the author of The Bril Book (a complete guide to brick, refractory, insulation, and lagging systems) The Bril Book II (a technical manual that includes bril application drawings for the power-generating industry) The Bril Book III—the Book of Bril and The Bril Book IV—Boiler Construction. He can be reached at [email protected]

The more we learn about the steam-generating industry, the more we can appreciate its diversity and rich history. Most people have never even been to a power plant, let alone know anything about the history of the power industry. Their knowledge of both extends only to the stacks they see in the distance.

If you ask someone who is credited with starting or inventing the automobile and the automobile industry, he will likely answer, “Ford.” But how many people know who started the steam-generating industry? Obviously the automobile industry has played an important role in shaping our country, but so has the power industry.

What Is a Boiler?

A boiler is a box formed by tubes that uses fire inside that box to heat water into steam. Surrounding those tubes and completely encasing the tube walls and the firebox area are the bril (brick, refractory, insulation, and lagging) materials. The number and size of the tubes, the type of fuel, and the overall physical dimensions of the boiler will all vary depending on what the boiler is designed to produce (water, steam, or heat) and the industry it is intended to serve (e.g., utility, industrial, medical).

Many components make up or act as a support system for the boiler to meet its designed steam or heat requirements. There are the tubes that carry the water and/or steam throughout the system soot blowers that keep the unit free of fly ash or dust by blowing steam water or air into the boiler burners that burn the fuel (oil, gas, coal, refuse) economizers that recover heat from the exit gas and pre-heat the water used for making steam and many more such systems, including brick, refractory, insulation, and lagging, which help the steam-generating boiler be energy and thermally efficient.

Who Invented the Boiler?

The steam-generating boiler’s roots go back to the late 1700s and early 1800s with the development of the kettle-type boiler, which simply boiled water into steam. The water was placed above a fire box and then boiled into steam. It wasn’t until around 1867, with the development of the convection boiler, that the steam-generating industry began.

It may be debated who developed the first steam-generating boiler however, most will agree that George Babcock and Steven Wilcox were two of the founding fathers of the steam-generating boiler. They were the first to patent their boiler design, which used tubes inside a firebrick-walled structure to generate steam, in 1867, and they formed Babcock & Wilcox Company in New York City in 1891. Their first boilers were quite small, used lump coal, fired by hand, and operated at a very low rate of heat input. The solid firebrick walls that formed the enclosure for the unit were necessary because they helped the combustion process by reradiating heat back into the furnace area.

The Stirling Boiler Company, owned by O.C. Barber and named for the street (Stirling Avenue) the facility was on in Barberton, Ohio, also began making boilers in 1891. Their eighth Stirling boiler design was called the H-type boiler (“h” being the eighth letter in the alphabet) and had a brick setting design. The Stirling boiler was much larger than the Babcock & Wilcox boiler and used three drums to help circulate the water and steam flow throughout the boiler.

In 1907, the Stirling Boiler Company merged with the Babcock & Wilcox Company. They renamed their boiler the H-type Stirling, and it became one of best-selling boilers of its time, probably because of its ability to produce up to 50,000 pounds of steam per hour.

However, they were not the only boiler manufacturers during the late 1800s. The Grieve Grate Company and the American Stoker Company were also making boilers of similar all-brick-wall design. They both used a traveling or screw-type grate at the bottom of the boiler to transport the fuel (lump coal) across the inside of the boiler. As the fuel traveled across the inside of the boiler, it was burned and the ash or un-burned fuel would drop into a hopper. These two companies later formed the Combustion Engineering
Company in 1912. The new Combustion Engineering Company offered their version of the Grieve and American Stoker boilers and called it the Type E stoker boiler.

The Birth of the Power Industry

With the advent of these new types of boilers and boiler companies, utility companies formed across the country to generate and distribute electricity to the industrial and residential markets. Many cities and towns had their own utility or electric company. Larger cities had numerous utility companies scattered around the city due to the limited amount of steam pressure each boiler and electric generator could produce (on average, approximately 50,000 pounds of steam per hour per boiler). These early utility companies might have as many as 10 to 16 boilers at each facility. Industrial companies that needed a lot of electricity or steam to run their facilities (e.g., Eastman Kodak, which made film and cameras in Rochester, New York, and The Box Board Company—later called the Packaging Corporation of America—which made the boxes for cereal companies in Rittman, Ohio) had their own steam-generating boilers.

These brick-wall-constructed boilers, sometimes referred to as brick-faced boilers, were the first in the evolution of boiler design, but they were limited in size and capacity. As the size of the boiler increased, so too did the furnace heat input, the boiler rating (pressure), and steam temperature. Thus, continually increasing the size of the boiler furnace raised the temperature the brick was subjected to. These three factors (heat input, pressure, and steam temperature) had a direct effect on the development of boiler furnace designs. The severe furnace conditions began to exceed the temperature limits of the brick walls, and the structural loads became excessive as the boilers kept getting bigger and taller. The young boiler industry needed to eliminate the all-brick-wall design and find an alternative construction that would keep the boiler thermally and energy efficient, generate more steam per hour, and cost less to build.

This led to the “tube and tile” boiler design around the early 1920s. A tube and tile boiler used large, widely spaced tube walls (6 in. diameter tubes on 9 in. centers) to help cool the surface temperature of the brick. This was a new and radically different design. Unlike the original boiler design, which used 22-in.-thick firebrick walls that required no insulation, the tube and tile boiler used thin tile (2½ in. thick) or firebrick (4½ in. thick) to keep the fire inside the fire box and added insulation over the brick or tile to keep the boiler thermally efficient. With this new development, the boiler industry began to grow just as the boilers began to grow in size and capacity.

By this time there were many more companies manufacturing these tube and tile boilers: Riley Stoker, Foster Wheeler, Erie City, Zurn, Nebraska, Peabody, Keeler, Union Iron Works, and The Trane Company (to name just a few), with the two largest by sales being the Babcock & Wilcox Company and Combustion Engineering. Each had their own unique loose tube wall constructed boiler designs with multiple boiler types depending on the required capacity. To save in engineering costs, each boiler company developed a line of boilers much like the automobile industry did with the Model-T Ford.

For example, Babcock & Wilcox developed their version of the tube and tile boiler starting with their type FF, which was a two-drum boiler capable of producing up to 54,000 pounds per hour of steam. For higher capacities they offered the FH, FJ, FL, and the FP, with the largest design and highest steam capacity (100,000 pounds per hour). The same goes for Combustion Engineering Company, which developed their V2M8 and V2M9 (vertical two drum) super-heater boilers.

The next two most important industry changes occurred in the late 1920s and early 1930s with the introduction of the flat studded tube and the loose tube wall constructed boilers. These two designs allowed the boilers to get the most heat out of burning pulverized coal. The flat studded tube increased heating surface between tubes by adding flat studs all along the tube wall surface. The loose tangent tube design used more tubes close or tangent spaced (touching each other) to increase the heating surface of the tubes. The flat studded tube wall required refractory, insulation, and outer casing to keep the fire inside the fire box, whereas the loose tube tangential wall design used a smear coat of refractory between the tubes and a steel inner casing over the refractory.

These two designs led to the development of larger, higher-capacity boilers, with the radiant boiler design the largest of all. The radiant boiler used one drum and an increased tube wall and super-heater surface area in the back pass, sometimes referred to as the convection pass (cp) or heat recovery area (hra), to increase steam capacity. For example:

  • Babcock & Wilcox developed the radiant or power boilers: RBC (Radiant Boiler Carolina type, named after the first contract for Carolina Power and Light) for coal fired, RBE (Radiant Boiler El Paso, named after the first contract for El Paso Electric) for oil and gas fired, the SPB (Stirling Power Boiler) for the utility market, and the SS (Small Stirling) boiler for the industrial market.
  • Combustion Engineering developed their radiant and radiant reheat boilers called the VU40 and VU50 (VU for vertical units) for both the utility and industrial markets.

The steam capacities of these radiant boilers ranged from 400,000 to 1,000,000 pounds of steam per hour. Consequently, the small city- and town-owned power plants became obsolete, as the utility companies could now produce enough electricity for larger residential areas and industrial companies.

Growth and Specialization

The biggest change in boiler design came with the development of the membrane tube wall in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Seamless tubes were welded together in a tube shop, using a steel membrane bar between the tubes, and made into a large tube panel. This eliminated the need for refractory for keeping the fire inside the fire box, reduced construction cost, shortened erection schedules, and increased the size of the boilers. The radiant boiler designs could now reach up to 4,000,000 pounds of steam per hour. Later the industry developed the largest of the boiler designs, the universal pressure and supercritical boilers. These steam-generating behemoths could now reach over 1,300 megawatts of electricity or 9,000,000 pounds of steam per hour.

During the past 100 years, the steam-generating industry has modified or developed boilers specifically suited for and in response to industry needs. For example, around the late 1940s many medical, industrial, college, and government facilities wanted the ability to generate their own steam and electricity. In response to this need, the package or shop-assembled boilers were developed. A package boiler is a pre-engineered steam-generating boiler that ranges in size and steam capacity (typically from 10,000 to 600,000 lb/hr) built in a shop and shipped by rail or barge. Many companies manufactured these small shop-assembled boilers.

Another example is boilers for the pulp and paper industry, which have been around a very long time and began with the kraft recovery process developed in Danzing, Germany, in 1853. In 1907, the kraft recovery process was introduced in North America. The pulp and paper industry needed a boiler that could generate large quantities of steam and electricity to help run their driers, help them be energy self-sufficient, and, most importantly, help them make smelt. Using the designs described above, the boiler manufacturers developed the “recovery” boiler.

The recovery boiler’s furnace area is designed to melt the sodium salts in black liquor (the byproduct left over from the pulp-making process). Black liquor droplets fall onto the char bed or furnace floor of the boiler, and the molten inorganic chemicals, or smelt, remains on the furnace floor and flows by gravity through the smelt spout openings into a dissolving tank. The smelt will then be recovered by the paper mill for use in pulp processing. Two such designs were Combustion Engineering’s chemical recovery boiler, called the V2R (vertical 2 drum recovery boiler), and Babcock & Wilcox’s process recovery boiler, called simply a PR boiler.

New Boiler Designs

The steam-generating industry also had to develop new boilers in response to non-commercial or industry demands. By the late 1970s and early 1980s, the growing disposal costs for landfills, the passage of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978, and an increased demand for electric power in the United States led to the development of alternative fuel–burning boilers. Many different types of boilers began to be designed to burn alternative fuels such as refuse (trash), wood, and biomass (vine clippings, leaves, grasses, bamboo, and sugar cane or bagasse). A boiler using fluidized bed technology was also designed as an alternative method of burning solid fuels such as coal. Each alternative fuel–burning boiler has the basic components of its predecessors. The boiler manufacturers only modified the fuel input equipment or modified the basic boiler parts to accommodate the transfer of additional air, ash, or the fuel itself.

Refuse, wood, and biomass boilers are similar to the utility radiant boilers and industrial boilers that burn coal. They fall into the category of “waste-to-energy” boilers. They differ only in the type of refuse, wood, or biomass they burn, and the fuel they burn may vary depending on the time of the year (e.g., autumn may bring more leaves). Due to the many variables of the fuel, the lower furnace environment is constantly changing. There are two basic methods of burning refuse: mass burning, which uses the refuse as received, and prepared refuse or refuse-derived fuel (RDF), for which the refuse is separated and sorted, with the remaining non-recycled material going to the boiler. The burning of either mass refuse or RDF can cause serious corrosion on the tube wall surface. Choosing the right refractory material for the lower furnace walls is critical for efficient boiler operation and tube protection.

Fluidized bed boilers have most of the basic components of all boilers (steam drum, tubes, economizers, super-heaters, etc.). However, its basic design is different from most other boiler designs. A fluidized bed boiler, depending on the boiler manufacturer, may have cyclones (not to be confused with a cyclone burner), fuel chutes, over-bed burners, collection hoppers, combustion chambers, and stripper coolers. Though the technology of gasification has been around since the 1920s, its use as an alternative fuel–burning method of generating electricity and power began in the late 1970s. The fluidized bed boiler uses a process by which solid fuels are suspended in an upward-flowing gas or air stream at the bottom of the unit. The burning fuel exists in a fluid-like state that has a high heat transfer but with lower reduced emissions. Like the refuse boiler, the lower furnace walls must be protected from the environment created by the burning of the fuel.


Unfortunately, power plants are often depicted as dirty, with air pollution spilling into the air. The truth is that power plants are in some of the prettiest areas of the country, along rivers and lakes spend millions of dollars annually to protect the environment and their neighbors and keep their facility clean and tidy. If allowed, everyone should visit a local power plant and see how beautiful the country around the plant is and how clean the plant is—and at the same time take note of what type of boiler it has.

The information contained in this article was obtained primarily from public sources, without direct input from any of the boiler manufacturers.

Combustion Fossil Power, Combustion Engineering, Inc., 4th Edition (1991).

Steam, its generation and use, Babcock & Wilcox Company,
40th Edition (1992).

Babcock & Wilcox a corporate history, Carlisle Printing Company,
N.W. Eft (1999)

Refractories in the Generation of Steam Power, McGraw-Hill Book
Company, F. H. Norton (1949).

W F Babcock - History

The Biographical Files are mainly used by those researchers interested in genealogy and family history. Each name or family name listed corresponds to a folder of materials that may contain research notes, newspaper clippings, obituaries, copies of original manuscripts, and photographs (see also our Photographs page)

Some of the files are readable online- name appears in blue. Otherwise, click on the “CONTACT THE ARCHIVES” button to make an appointment to see files in person. Please indicate on the form which file(s) you’d like to see.

A • B • C • D • E • F • G • H • I • J • K • L • M • N • O • P • Q • R • S • T • U • V • W • X • Y • Z •

Abbott, Gerald E., Sr.

Abbott, John T.


Abrams, Stacey

Adair, Forrest

Adair, Jenneywayne H.

Adams, Elbridge Gerry and Elizabeth Shumate

Adams, Eugene

Adams, John and Edith

Adams, Salathiel

Adams, Velma Crawford

Aderhold / Adderholt

Aderhold, J. Don and Gerry

Adkins see also Austin

Aides, E. Fred

Akin, George Russell

Akin, Ira Curtis (Curt)

Akin, Milton Chandler ‘Bud’

Akins, James (Cherokee County)

Akins, James Francis (documents)

Akins, Royal

Alexander, Hooper (see also Word)-2 folders

Alexander, Jo Holland

Alford, Charles J.

Alford (John T. and Lucy S.)

Allan, Elizabeth Ansley

Allen, Dr. David J.

Allgood, Dr. Conrad L

Almand, Dr. Joe M.,Sr.

Alston, Robert A.- 3 folders

Alston, Wallace

Anderson, Bill

Anderson, Jim

Anderson, Lib

Anderson, Richard O.

Anderson, Pvt. Robert B.

Andrew, Ruth

Andrews, James and Elizabeth

Ansley, David Henry

Ansley, Edwin P. (Ansley Park)

Ansley-Goss Gordon-Park Boynton-Bryan

Ansley, Wiley S.

Ansley, William Bonneau, Sr.

Arden, Irene

Arnold, Leila and Harry F.

Ashton, Clark

Atcheson, McDonald “Mac”

Atwood, Sanford

Austin, Aurelia (Mrs. M.A. Finch)

Avery, Myrta Lockett article: “Georgia: A Pageant of the Years”, 1933

Ayers, Oscar Lee

Bagwell, Clarise

Bailey, J.C. (of Bailey’s Shoe Shop) (see also Oral History section)

Bailey, Jackson

Bain, John Roderick

Baird, Rev. Joseph (McLain Families)

Baker, Calvin Ernest

Baker, Dr. W.B.

Baker, Thurbert

Baker, Miss Tommie L.

Baker, Walter, Sr.

Ballard, Rev. Jack

Ballard, Jessie Thompson

Bankston, Henry & Elizabeth, Sarah

Baranco, Juanita P.

Barnes, Tommy

Barnett, Dr. E.H. (First Presbyterian Church)

Barrow, Elsie

Baskett, Mickey and Jim

Bayles, Roberta

Bazemore, Thomas and Alice O. (Autobiography and Book of Sermons, 1901)

Beauchamp, John William

Beauford, John J.

Beavers, Lynda

Bechtel, Perry

Beck, Margaret W. (Mrs. Henry L.)

Becker, Cynthia (C.J.)

Beemon, Robert C.

Beggs, Douglas W.

Bell, Dr. James A.

Bell, Loretta and Thomas

Bell, Piromis Hulsey (Lawyer, ­ Calico House)

Bell, Richard (Judge)

Benbow, Doras

Benfield, Stephanie Stuckey

Bennett, M. C.

Bennett, Rob

Benning, Gus

Benning, Thomas C.

Bergmark, Jean Robitscher

Biffle, John

Biffle, Leander

Biffle Researchers newsletter

Billington, Barry

Billups, Lanier Richardson

Birney, Mrs. Alice McLillan

Bishop, Clara S. (deed from Levoy Hunter, LL 158)

Black, George Seaborn, Sr.

Blackburn, Ben B.

Blackstock, Winfield Scott and Helen Irvin

Blair, Michael

Bleckley, Logan E. (Code of Georgia 1882)

Bledsoe, Barbara

Blesset, Elijah

Blocker, Thomas

Blomberg, Ronald Mark

Blount, Roy, Jr.

Blue, Gussie

Blumefeld, Warren S.

Bobo, Walton E.

Boggs, W. Marvin (Mr. & Mrs.)

Boggus, Virginia

Bond, Braswell, Floyd Families

Bond, Esom Jackson

Bond, J. Robert

Bond, Joseph Ballinger (J.B.), 2 folders

Bond, Lee Chupp

Bone, Dr. David K.

Bonewicz, Ziggy

Booth, Julie

Boothe, Ed/Inez

Boozer, Jack

Borglum, Gutzon

Bothwell, Eugene

Bouie, Edward Sr.

Bouie, Wendolyn

Bowden, Ralph

Bowen- Barbara Evelyn Bowen Delores Bowen Ziegler Harold King Bowen

Bowers, Robert Bruce

Boyd, Winfrey

Boykin, Fred

Bradley, George P

Brady, Seaman Edwin C.

Branch, Caroline Montgomery (Mrs. Alfred, Jr.)

Branscome, Curtis

Brantley, L.G.

Brazell, Guy Charles & Lucylle Lane Tatum

Breen, William H. Jr. and Bettye M.

Bridges, Chandler

Bridges, Glenn

Bridges, Margaret Raymond

Britt, Nelson J. (see Gwinnett Families)

Britt, Richard

Brittain, Thomas C.

Brock Family – Sheriff & Brock Family (Isaac, Reubin, Elias, Emory, etc.)
Also Rev. W.T.M. Brock

Brockett, C.T.

Brodnax, Edna May Keener (Mrs. Thomas H.)

Brodnax, Fran

Brooks, Myrt

Broome, Robert

Brown, A. Worley

Brown, Cornelius

Brown, Derwin Sidney Dorsey- 2 folders

Brown, Dewey

Brown, Johnny (DeKalb Superintendent)

Brown, Josiah

Brown, Marel & Alex

Brown, Martha & Burl

Brown, Meredith

Brown, Robert L.

Brown, Thomas

Brown, William C.

Brown, William Hardy, Irena Matthews Brown & Family, William H, Jr.,
Posey Newton Brown & Family of Chase Brown of Douglasville, GA

Browne, Drennen

Bruster/Brewster (changed name)

Bryan, Jonathan (Sketches of Wife)

Bryan, Mary Givens

Bryan, Shepard

Bryan, Wright

Bryant, Lillian and “Gus”

Bryant, William M./Sunnie B.

Buchanan, L.C.

Buchanan, Owen E.

Budd, Warren C.

Bugay-Willis, Sabrina

Buggs, Elmer

Buice, Rev. Lester & Family

Burgess, Edward H.

Burgess, Henry

Burgess, Henry Claude

Burgess, Robert T. (Bobby)

Burke, Elizabeth

Burnett, Lucille S.

Burris, Chuck and Marcia (Mayor of Stone Mountain)

Burrus, Maud

Burton, Margaret L.

Bush, Marvin

Bushnell, Lucius

Butler, Gloria

Butler, John

Butzon, Mrs. Marta Kirsch

Caffey, Eugene Mead

Caldwell, Erskine

Caldwell, Ruby

Calhoun, Charles

Calhoun, Dr. F. Phinizy Jr.

Calhoun, James M.

Callaway, Allan

Callaway, John (Ellenwood)

Callaway, Roe & Lois

Callaway, Tom

Calloway, Robert

Camp, Benjamin (served in the 21st GA Regiment, Army of Northern Virginia)

Campbell, John Angus (1840-1933)

Campbell, Mary Foster

Candler, Asa Griggs

Candler, Charles Howard

Candler, Charles Murphey

Candler, John S.

Candler, Milton A./Eliza Caroline

Candler, Samuel C.

Candler, Scott

Candler, Scott Jr.

Candler, Warren Akin

Candler, William Word

Carley, George H. (Judge)

Carlisle, Mrs. Willis

Carlisle, Ralph (Judge)

Carlos, Michael C.

Carpenter, Robert

Carr, H.J. and family

Carrel, John (original documents – 1848 – Henry County)

Carroll, Bernice Vincent

Carroll, Ida Wallace

Carroll, John/Thomas

Carruth, Ludy/Ludie (1897 – 1910 deeds, original documents)

Carson, Fiddlin John

Carter, Jimmy

Carter, Sara Flanigan

Cash, Oliver Perry and Amanda Jane

Cash, R.W. (maps and deeds, 1897)

Casteel, Ruby Brinsfield

Cauble, Thomas Vickers

Cavan, David

Center (James) Family

Chandler, Jean

Chapman- Benjamin Franklin Nathan, William H.

Chapman, A.B., Jr.

Chapman, E.T. (Civil War)

Chappell, Cornelia

Cheek- J.H. Cheek, Will Cheek, Joberry Cheek (Dunwoody)

Chesnut, David and Linda

Chesnut, Walt

Chewning, Ambrose

Chewning, Ebb. A.

Chewning, Thomas E./John C. (deeds/mortgage 1881-1890)

Childs, Grady L.

Childress (or Childers), Jesse also John, Duglis

Chivers, Dr. Thomas H. and family

Chupp, Jacob and Elizabeth Marbut

Chupp, James Benjamin

Clack, Oscar Dean

Clack, Tommy

Clark, A.J./Turner P. (brothers)

Clark, Gen. Jonathan

Clark, Mayo Bradstreet

Clark, Noel Bromley

Clarke, Caroline M.

Clarke, William Henry/Elijah Henry


Clayton, Mary C.

Cleckley, Mary

Cleveland, Belva

Cleveland, Jesse Franklin

Clinkscales, Martha

Clopton (Tom Clopton, Clopton Family Association)

Clopton (Lucas, Ivey, Gaines families & Thomas D Clopton, Sr)

Close, Anna Belle

Clotfelter, David H.

Cobb, Lovick

Cole, Marvin

Coleman, Bob

Collier, Mayson Smith

Collins, Annie

Compton, Martha Lumpkin

Conway, H. McKinley, Jr.

Cook, Clarence

Cooper, Clarence

Copelan, Stella

Coppedge, Llewellyn J.

Cordes, Marian Marsh (Mrs. William J.)

Cottrell, Stan

Couch, Aubrey C.

Council, S. Anthony

Coursey, Jeff

Coursey, Tony

Cousins, Tom

Covalt, Fred

Covington, Alma Glenn

Cowan, Mr. & Mrs. Jack B.

Cowan, Mrs. Jessie

Cowan, Steve

Cown, Mrs. Emory S.

Cox, Jerome W.

Coyne, James Prince

Craig, Mildred Houston

Crane, Grandpa Charlie

Crane, Gerald W.

Crane, Mary L.K.

Crane, William C. “Bud”

Crawford, George

Crawford, William

Cridland, Robert

Crockett, James P. (deeds 1879)

Crockett, James W.

Cronin, Stephen

Crouse, Johnnie Marion W.

Crowley, Benjamin

Crown, John Oliver- “A Chapter on Prison Life” (Federal war prison) booklet

Culbreath, Harold

Cunningham, R.A.

Cunningham, Recia

Cunningham, Robert

Cunyas, John (or Conyers?)

Curry, Doris (also Arnold, Haynes, Shaw)

Dabs/Dabbs/Dobbs- John, James

Dabbs, Nathaniel

Dahlberg, A.W.

Dahlberg, Bill

Daniel, Edwin C., Jr.

Daniel, Eliner Perkins

Daniel, Troy Emory

Daniel, T Emory, Jr.

Daniel, Mrs. T. Emory Jr.

Daniels, Littleton (deed 1827)

Davenport, John H.

Daves, Francis

Davidson, Charles L Sr and family, Lithonia

Davidson, Julia

Davies, Geneva- “Songs of Valor”, Civil War poems

Davis (Hotel Hampton)

Davis, Agnes Rebecca

Davis, Anne E.

Davis, Edith

Davis, Gladys

Davis, James C

Davis, James Curran (Judge)

Davis, Mrs. Jefferson

Davis, Mrs. Pauline Hudgins

Day, Irene Kendrick

de la Cruz, Juliet

Deagen, Jerry

Deal, John Marshall

Dean, James Edward

Decatur, Stephen- 2 folders

Deer, Sandra

DeKalb, Baron Johann- 2 folders

DeLoach, Leon E.

DeLong, Horance Richard


Dempsey/Demsey, Alvin

Dendy, William Clay



De Soto, Hernando

Dewald, Gretta


Dickson, William

Dieckmann, Christian W.

Dillard, George

Dillard, Mary

Dinapoli, Gerry

Dixon, George


Doherty, James

Dohn, Philip

Dorminy, Ora McCowen


Dowhy, Metro

Driskell, Bill

Drozak, Pat Wade

Duarte, Julio

Dubner, Frances S. (Dr.)

DuBose, LaTrelle

Duffee, Lt. Roy K.

Dull, Mrs. S.R.

Dunaway, Sarah Owen

Dunstan, Edgar M. (Dr.)

Dunwoody, Olga

Durand, Samuel A.

Durham, Georgia

Durham, William H., M.D.

DuVall, Rev. Wallace

Dyer, Edwin M. and Jeffie Preston and Family

Dziewierski-Pajonk, Rosa

Easley – Thompson

Eberbaugh, Ben

Ector, Moses

Edge, Lt. David B.

Edmondson, Jerome

Edwards, Harry Stillwell

Edwards, Lonnie J., Sr.

Edwards, William Augustus (architect)

Eickhoff, Jerry

Eidson, Mary

Eison/Eisom, Andrew

Elam, Ralph C.

Elbert, Samuel (Maj. Gen.)

Eldridge, Leila Elizabeth

Ellis, Burrell

Ellis, Connie


Emerson, Patricia

Emmett, Daniel Decatur

Erdican, Achilla Imlong

Estes, William Paul

Evans, Frances Porter

Evans, John (see also Oral History)

Evans, Josephine

Evans, J. Rufus, M.D.

Evans, Nancy Hull

Evans, Sarah Avary

Evans, William “Bill” M, Sr.

Evans, William H. (see also Oral History section)

Fain, James C. (Jimmy)

Farris, Ezekiel

Fayssoux, Britt

Fellows, Major Willis S.

Fellows, Velma

Felton, Rebecca Latimer- 2 folders

Ferrell, Joseph

Fewell, Richard B., Sr.

Fields, Edwin Smith, Sr.

Fischer, Donald

Fite, William Andrew

Fitzgerald, Wilbur


Flanigan, Sara

Fleming, Gwen Keyes

Fletcher, Jessie

Fletcher, Joel

Flewellen Letters (1837)

Flowers, John Ebenezer

Flowers, John Yancey

Floyd (see Bond-Braswell Family)

Foderingham, Noel

Fones, Daniel

Forbes, John Ripley

Ford, Rev. Austin

Foster, Eula/Elsie

Fountain, Sara

Fountain, T.J., Jr.

Fowler, A.C., John Luther (1861 – deed of land purchase, original documents)

Fowler-Brogden families (1840 original documents)

Fowler family- general files

Fowler (Anna) family- letters

Fowler family- wills

Fowler, Joel

Fowler, John W. (Civil War letters)

Fowler, Minty

Fowler, Mr. & Mrs. Robert B. (Lithonia)

Fowler, William

Franklin, Anne

Fraser, Donald and Mrs.


Frederick, Faye

Freeman, Mary J. (1881 original documents)

Fuller, William Allen

Fulton, Sarah

Furse, Col. F.

Furse, Sarah B.

Furse, Stephen, 2 folders

Gabhart, Diana Ruth

Gaines, Frank Henry, Dr.

Gainey, Ryan

Galifianakis, Frances

Gardner, G. Holman

Gardner, Susan

Garrett, Franklin M.

Garrison, Webb


Gaudier, Dale & Deborah

Gay, Evelyn Ward

Gay, Mary Harris

Gentry, William T.

George, Catherine Coates

George, Homer F.

George, Mercer M.

George, Tunstell B.

Gerberding, Julie, Dr.- CDC

Gerwig, Robert (Bob)

Gibbs, James M.

Gibbs, Jeanne Osborne

Gibson, Bill & Eloise

Gibson, William Bayne (see also Special Collections section)

Gilbert, Dan

Gilbert, Isaac

Gilleland, Ona Lee

Gillespie, Richard Thomas, DD, LLD

Gilliland, Delia S. and Roy J.

Gilliland, Ely and E.W.

Gilliland, Hugh, John, James R. (of Alabama)

Gilliland/Gilleland Families of Kentucky

Glascock, Thomas

Glen, John (clerk of Superior Court, DeKalb, 1834-1844)

Glenn, Col. Joshua N. (Jack)

Glenn, Miss Layona

Glenn, Wadley R.

Glover, John

Godsey, Hiram

Goff, John H., Ph.D (two articles relating to the economic history of Georgia, 1950)

Goldman, Moe

Goldsmith – Bryant

Goldsmith, James H.

Goldsmith, James W. (deed 1890)

Goodwin Family, see also Special Collections

Googer, M.D. (former chief of police of Decatur – see The Police Review in subject files)

Gordon, John B.- 2 folders

Gore, Betty Lou- “Many Dreams Ago”, a collection of poems

Gorman, Leah

Gott, Walter

Grabowski, Jane Harpole

Grady, Henry W.

Grant, Ellen P.

Grant, Henry

Grant, Lemuel P.

Grant, Tobie

Graves, John W.

Green, John Howell Jr.

Green, Joseph

Green, Juanita Connell

Green, Ruth (original document 1910, Decatur Public Grammar school diploma)

Green, T. Grady

Green, William Hudson

Greenberg, Al

Greene, Clement Comer Clay

Greene, Eva Jewell

Griffith, Dr. Don

Grigsby, Paul

Grizzle, Rena

Grizzle, Roy Ames Charles- President, DeKalb Historical Society, 1961- 3 folders

Grogan, Pvt. Dawlman C.

Grogan, Thomas

Groomes, Ruby

Guess Family (see also Goodwin)

Guess, Carl Newton

Guess, Edwin Harrison

Guess, Frank L.

Guess, Marion

Guess, William

Guhl, A.C. (Bob)

Gunn, Heather (formerly of Lakeside H.S.)

Gutzke, Dr. Manford G.

Gwaltney, Clinton B.

Hall, Ernest Roy

Hall, Theresa

Hallford, J. Reynolds

Hambrick, Johnnie

Hamilton, Ida

Hamilton, Joan L. (1884 original documents regarding estate)

Hamilton, Lois

Hamilton, William (Jack) Jr.

Hanie, Robert E.

Hanson, Grace Robinson Wynn

Harber, Mary P.


Hardemann, Mrs. Annie

Harper, Mrs. J.A.

Harris, Mrs. Charles Leon

Harris, Corra

Harris, Joel Chandler

Harris, Julian

Harris, Narvie Jordan and Harris, Joseph Leonard- 2 folders

Harris, Robin

Harris, Thomas (Deed 1848, original documents)

Harrison, Donald Lee

Harrison, Emily

Hartley, Evelyn

Hartry, James

Harvey, Chris

Harville, Ron

Harwell, Frank

Hawkins, Benjamin

Hawkins, John

Haynie, Delvous

Head, L. Johnson

Heard, Dr. John P.

Heinrich, Oscar

Heinz Family (murder case)

Helton, Tom H.

Hemphill, Oliver Willis M.

Henderson, Charles Burkett

Henderson, Greenville (War of 1812)

Henderson, J.M. (plot of estate, 1928)

Henderson, Major A. (son of Greenville)

Henderson, William Greenville

Henderson, William Griffin

Henderson, William Riley

Hendricks, J.W. (1868 original document U.S. Patent Office)

Henry, Capt. Dickson

Henry, Franklin Berry (fought in Battle of Atlanta)

Herring, Kay

Herronton, William S.

Hertzler, Claire Underwood

Hester, Fred L.

Hester, Mrs. H.G. (original documents: 1857 deed indentured, government document 1862 $50 script note, original Planters Bank of States)

Hiatt, Samuel and Jewell Varner Hiatt

Hicks, Hix Family

Hicks, Julian

Hicks, W. Emerson Sr.

Higginbotham, Joe

Hightower (of Virginia)


Hill- Redmond Thomas Hill Jr. and Sr., Forrest M Hill, T.P. Hill

Hill, Joseph Edwards

Hill, Vera Rush

Hisan, James

Hodges, Terry

Hodgson, Newt

Holbrook, Rev. Tim W.

Holcombe, Jack H.

Holleyman, W.F., Cora, and Dr. T.S.

Holston, Isabelle Daniels

Honiker, Armand, Elizabeth, and Family

Hooper, Judge John Word (1797-1868)

Hooper, Todd

Hopkins- William Henry Hopkins, Rachel Garmon Hopkins, Mildred Hopkins Mainor

Hopkins, Mr. and Mrs. O.C. (letter, 1928)

Hopkins, Nanette

Hopkins, Dr. R. Stan

Hopkins, Virgil G.

Hosch, J. Alton

Hosch, William H. Jr.

Hosford, William D

Houston – Bond

Houston, Washington J

Howard, Catherine Ridley

Howard, David T.

Howard, Fred (Maj.)

Howard, Homer

Howard, Pierre

Howard, William Schley

Howell (from Early Georgia Marriages)

Howell, Evan P.

Howell, Hugh Jr.

Howell, James T.

Howell, Luther

Howell, Martin Samuel

Howell, Randolph

Hoyt, Lucy Maria Bogle

Hubert, Arthur Daverson Jr.

Hudgins, Carl T. (essay on Indian Trails)

Huie, Dr. Ward P.

Hull, Dr. James L.

Hulsey, Jennings

Hulsey, Marion

Hunstein, Carol W.

Hunt, Frank G. (patrolman Decatur police – see New Police Review in subject files)

Hunt, Robert T. (original documents re: 1858 GA Military Institute)

Hunter, Benjamin T.

Hutchens, Roy E.

Hutcheson, Arthur (original documents: 1889 estate voucher, cash book, expense account)

Hutchins, Arthur L.

Indigo Girls

Ingram, John Frank (Don)

Jackson, Albert Sidney

Jackson, Daniel E.

Jackson, Edward

Jackson, Henry R.

Jackson, John F.

Jackson, Ralph Tellis

Jackson, William Arthur, Jr.

James, Curtis

James, J.L. (Deed Notice 1896)

Jarrott, Ginny

Jarvis, Robert P. (Pat)

Jasiewicky, Henry J.

Jeffares, Bennett Rainey

Jenkins, Gordon Alexander

Jenkins, Lewis

Jett, Fannie Mae (see Fannie Mae Jett in Special Collections)

Jett, Fred E.

Jett, Rebecca

Jewell, Richard

Johns, John B.

Johnson, Andrew

Johnson, Aycock

Johnson, B. Aton, Mrs.

Johnson, Bettye June

Johnson, Claire

Johnson, Daniel William

Johnson, Elsie W.

Johnson, George W.

Johnson, Isaac W.

Johnson, John Gerdine

Johnson, Julia Elsie

Johnson, Katherine

Johnson, Lochlin

Johnson, Mrs. Annie Billups

Johnson, Nathan

Johnson, Nelle

Johnson, Preston

Johnson, William

Johnston, Annie Billups

Johnston, Mabel Scott

Jolly, Mrs. L.D.

Jones, Abram Tillman “Tim”

Jones, Anne Register

Jones, Annie

Jones, Ashton

Jones, Bobby

Jones, Carlos

Jones, George Hamilton

Jones, Gordon

Jones, Henry Clay

Jones, James Rowland

Jones, John William

Jones, L. Bevel III

Jones, Orran Washington

Jones, Paul Griffin

Jones, Ransom & Elizabeth Wallace

Jones, Rufus C.

Jones, Seaborn

Jones, Simmons

Jones, Sorrow Garrett

Jones, Thomas N.

Jones, Timothy E.

Jones, Vernon

Jordan, Mary B.

Kaywood, E. Roy

Keating, Tom

Keenan, Vernon

Kehr, Mrs. Paul D.

Keller, John


Kelley, DeForest

Keln, Mrs. Paul D.

Kenton, Neola B.

Kerr, Rev. B.C.

Keyes, Gwendolyn R.

Khadan, Kelvin R.

Kimbrell, Jackson (1882 original document, indenture)

King, Alberta Christine Williams

King, Elizabeth

King, Hal and Family

King, Margaret

King, Martin Luther Jr.


Kitchens, Leon L.

Kitchens, Leon Jr.

Knox, Eleanor

Kootz/Kutchinsky /Schweizer

Koplan, Jeffrey (CDC)

Kurtz, Wilbur G., Sr.

Kyle, Elliott

Lambert, Ann

Landover, Samuel

Lane, Mills B.

Lanford, E.C. (Estate sales 1894 original documents)

Lanford, Jessie (original document 1870)

Langford, Frances (Mrs. William A.)

Langley, Alton W.

Lanier, Robert and Scarlet

Lanier, Sidney

Lanier, Stella (Lanier Garden)

Lankford, W.P.

Lashner, Annette

Lawrence, James Cameron

Lawrence, Roscoe

Lee, Betty English

Lee, John Taylor and Millie Frances Sewell Lee

Lee, Rebecca

Lee, Robert E. family tree

Lee, Robert J.

Leitch, Robert

LeVert, Thomas Eugene (Gene)

Levitas, Barbara

Levitas, Elliott

Lewis, Ann E.

Lewis, Crawford

Liane, Levetan

Lind, Edward (architect)

Lindsey, E. Byron

Liorens, Joseph

Litton, Dr. James H.

Litton, Mrs. J.W.

Lively, Charles

Lively, Gene

Livsey, Mrs. R.L. – (1862 correspondence, Camp Lamar, Yorktown, Virginia, between brother and sister)

Llewellyn, Jane

Llorens, Joseph V.

Loap, Barbara

Lockhart, Malcolm

Lockhart, Ralph

Loewenstein, Howard

Long, Carol Dinkler Weekes

Long, Crawford W.

Love, Dr. Ida

Lowney, J.S. (former City Manager of Decatur – see “New Police Review” in subject files)

Loyd, Joseph

Luckey, John B.

Lyle, J.H. – 1861 purchase orders

Lynch, John Henry

Lynch, William Joseph

Lyon, Ben and Bebe

Lyon, Joseph Emmanuel (see John Biffle File)

Mable, Maury F.

MacDonald, Flora

MacGill (items in Oversized Storage)

Mackay, James- 2 folders

Mackle, Barbara Jane

Maddox, Emilie P.

Maguire, Thomas

Majette, Denise

Malone, Henry Thompson

Malone, W.B. (Woody)

Maloof, Manuel (newspaper special editions as well)

Mann, Carolyn Becknell

Manners, Claire

Manners, Dr. George E.

Manning, Brince III

Manning, Brince Jr. and Family

Marbut, John K.

Marlatt, Luci B.

Martin Collection-2 folders

Martin, Estelle Mae

Martin, J. Lamar

Martin, Dr. Lewis W.

Martin, Rounelle

Mason, Herman Jr. (Skip)

Matthews, Charles A

Matthews, Doris

Matthews, G.W.

Matthews, H.J.

Matthews, Lawrence

Matthews, Mrs. Antoinette Johnson

Matthews, Warren

Maxwell, Frances

McAlister, James R.

McCain, James Ross

McCarter, Wellborn Philips

McClelland, John

McCorkle, Annis

McCranie, Maggie W.

McCullar, Bernice

McCullar, Horace Edward

McCulloch, John and Elizabeth

McCurdy-2 folders

McCurdy, Douglas

McCurdy, John C.

McCurdy, Lucile

McCurdy, Walter Jr.

McDaniel, Charles Pope

McDonald, Charles Huson

McDonald, George Glenn

McDonald, Sarah Frances

McDowell, “Mac”

McElroy, John Calvin

McElvaney letters

McEntire, J.T.

McEntire, S.C. (Seab)

McGinnis, Charles W.

McGinnis, Hiram

McGrill, Patrick (copy of 1788 will)

McKay, Ida Mae Britt

McKinney, Billy

McKinney, Charles D.

McKinney, Cynthia (newspaper special editions as well)

McLain, Warren Sr.

McLendon, Jane

McLeod, Stine

McMillan, Aurelia Roach- 3 folders

McMullan,Blanche Bagley

McMurray, Payne

McMurray, William Leroy

McNeil, Col. James

McPherson, James Birdseye

McRae, William G.

McWhorter, Hugh

McWilliams-2 folders

Meacham, Henry Sr.

Mead Family-2 folders

Means, Dr. Alexander

Mears, Mike and Sue Ellen (see also Oral History section)


Medlock, Randolph

Medlock, Wm Parks

Meek, Trevor Glenn

Mell, Mildred Rutherford

Mell, Valerie

Melton, Ira B. Sr.

Menaboni, Athos

Meredith, Robert

Merritt, Levi

Midgette, Gordon Moody (former DeKalb Historical Society director)

Mikell, Donna Beemon

Millard, Herbert J.

Millas, Rovla Speros

Miller, Belle

Miller, David G., Lillian, Anna

Miller, James B.

Miller, Virginia F.

Miller, Zell and Shirley

Minor, Roy Palmer

Mink, Lawrence

Minsk, Annie (see Rittenbaum family)

Mitchell, Eugene M.

Mitchell, Judge Oscar (see also Oral History section)

Mitchell, Lavinia Norman

Mitchell, Margaret

Mitchell, Pvt. Ray

Mitchell, Ralph

Mitchell, William

Mize, John Wesley

Moffett, Thomas

Moncrief, Adiel J.

Moncrief, Festus R.

Montgomery, Charlene

Montgomery, James McC.

Montgomery, Keith

Montgomery, Mrs. Mary P.

Moody, Eddie

Moon, Frances

Moore, Ernest

Moore, James “Red”- Negro (Baseball) League

Moore, Hill and Julia Ann Northern

Moore, Thomas Henry

Moreland, Major A.F.

Morgan, Dewit C. (correspondence with Missouri Stokes filed under Stokes, Missouri)

Morgan, Dorothy P.

Morgan, J. Tom

Morris, Aubrey

Morris, Eloise

Morris, Fred A.

Morris, George Washington “Watt” (founder of Cedar Grove Methodist Church, later called Morris Chapel)

Morris, Hattie S.

Morris, Robert J. “Bob”- District 4 Commissioner

Morrison, William M.

Morse, Gene and Chester

Moseley, Earl Thomas

Moseley, Frances P.

Moseman, Mary Pope Morris

Murphey, Charles

Murphey-Roseberry (WWII memorabilia)

Myers, Orie E. Jr.

Najour, George

Nash, John Nash, Lewis Nash, Walter

Nash, John Nesbit

Nesbit, William

NeSmith, Helen C.

Neugent, Susan E.

Newsome, Jane Owen

Newton, Dr. Louie D.

Newton, John

Nieves, Dany

Nix, Dorothy- 5 folders of articles written by Nix, 1 folder of biographical information

Noble, Rev J Phillips (Freedom Riders) see also Oral History

Noble, William

Norcross, Mr. and Mrs. Otis P.

North, James F. (Jim)

O’Doherty, Bernie

Oglethorpe, James Edward

O’Hair, Ralph

O’Kelley, Mattie Lou

Oliver, Henry

Ollis, Jane Bell

Ordner, Helen

O’Rouke, M. Juanita

Orth, Elizabeth G.

Osbourne, Kerrie

Owens, Sue Ellen

Owens, Ted R.

Oxford, John M.

Ozmer, John W.

Paden, John T. (1889 deed)

Papadopoulos, John

Parent, Elena

Paris, Joyce

Park (1895 original pamphlet, 1909 Scholar Report)

Park, Russell

Parker, Beth


Parker, Isaiah

Parks, Joseph

Parks, Raymond K.

Parris, Robert

Parson, Sara

Partridge, Sadie

Pass, Warren H.

Patillo, Dan

Patillo, Mrs. W.P.

Patterson, Charlotte Williams

Patterson, Esmond J.

Patterson, Josiah Blair

Patterson, Samuel

Pauley, Frances

Paullin, William L. Jr.

Payton, Clifford

Payton, Early S.

Pearce, Kathleen

Peavy, Harry Candler

Peavy, Virgil

Peeler, Judge Clarence (see also Oral History section)


Pendery, George Willard

Perkerson, Dempsey

Perkins, Jim

Perrin, Tom and Doris

Perry, Clayton H. and Lib

Person, Charles (Freedom Riders)

Philips, Dr. J. Davison

Philips, F. (Redan)

Phillips, Brandon

Phillips, J.M.

Phillips, Robert Johnson

Phillips, Thomas H.

Piel, Frances

Pierce, George Washington

Pitman, Elisha D.

Plant, Percy (6 folders)

Plunkett, “Sarge”

Pomeroy, Sanford

Porter, Frances

Porter, Frank

Porter, Logan

Porter, Will

Potts, Samuel

Pound, Sidney F.

Pounds, Pauline

Power, Joseph and Isabella

Preacher, G. Lloyd

Preston, Mrs. J.E.

Price, Jamie

Price, Kelly

Prickett and Parks families

Prince, Syble

Pruitt, Hoyt L.

Puckett, Harris

Puckett, John L.

Pullen, Greenville Taylor

Pyron, William

Quinones, Pedro P.

Rainey, H. Fess

Rainwater, Charles Veazey, Sr.

Ramsey, Calvin

Ramspeck, Robert

Ramspeck, Miss Lottie

Ramspeck manuscript

Rankin, Capt. John G.

Ranking, John

Redding, Ruby (Mrs. J. Frank)

Reed, Neil (architect)

Reeves, William

Reeves, Joel

Reinhardt, Marion

Remigailo, Damon

Renfroe, Carl

Reynolds, Elzey

Reynolds, Jack

Reynolds, John R.

Reynolds, J. Low

Rhyne (see Alexander, Hooper file)

Rice, Carole

Richardson, Anna P.

Richardson, Thomas

Riddle, Nell Franklin

Ridley, John Robert

Rinhard, Floyd and Marion

Ripley, Katherine

Robarts, Faye-Huntington

Roberts, Doris

Robertson, Andrew B.

Robertson, Miss Florine

Robertson, Margaret (see Ball, Peter)

Robinson, CAS

Robinson, David E. III

Robinson, Erma Johnson Whitehurst

Robinson, Kristen

Robinson, William Henry

Robinson, Dr. W.S.

Rodney, Lester

Rogers, Robert J., Jr.

Ross, Eleanor

Rothman, Richard

Royall, John Martin (Jack)

Rumsay, William

Ruskin, Gertrude McDavis

Russell, Walt

Ruthland, Calvin

Rutland, Guy W. Jr.

Rutland, Guy W. Sr.

Rutland, Theodore Robert

Safford (Original letters, c. 1849-1865)

Saggus, Samuel

Salesky, George H.

Sams, Augustine

Sams, Eileen Dodd

Sams history

Sams, Lula Duncan

Sams, Marion

Sams, Richard F. Jr.

Sanders, Anna (see also Lucious Sanders)

Sanders, Eugene H.

Sanders, John

Sanders, Lucious

Saunders, Al

Sayward, William J. (architect)

Scaglion, Jim

Scantland, Dwight

Schmidt, Ruth (Agnes Scott College President, 1986)

Schmidlin, Sara

Schmidt, Steve

Scoggins, Lillian McWilliams

Scott, Agnes Irvine

Scott, George Washington

Scott, George Washington- diary

Scott, Jacqueline

Scott, Kelsey

Scott, Tommy

Scott-Heron, Gil

Seacrest, Ryan

Seeliger, Judge Clarence (Chuck) (see also Oral History section)

Segars, Mildred B.

Sequin, Joey

Seward, Coleman

Sewell, W.H. (Shorty)

Shad, John J.

Shaffer, Ruby Nell

Shanahan, Vicki

Sharian, Bedros Sr.

Sharpe, Hiram

Shaw, Harry B.

Shelnutt, Lillian


Shepherd (Shepherd Spinal Center)

Shepherd, Helen

Shepherd, Rev. Hubert Floyd

Shepherd, William Clyde

Sheppard, Carol

Sheppard, Henry Milton

Sheppard, J.A.

Sheppard, William

Sheth, Jagdish

Shinhoster, Earl T.

Shirley- 2 folders

Short, Richard K, Jr.

Shoults, Carrie

Sibley, Celestine

Sikes, Raymond

Silvey, Marie

Simmons, Dr. Vee

Simpson, Arthur

Simpson, Guss

Simpson, Homer Andrew

Simpson, Ludie

Simpson, Ralph

Simpson, Silas Milton

Simpson, Thomas William

Singleton- 3 folders

Singleton, Franklin P. (1898 Deed)

Singleton, George W.

Singleton, James F.

Singleton, James Madison (1892 Warranty Deed)

Singleton, Jeff

Singleton, Joseph J.

Singleton, Millard

Singleton, Nolon

Singley, Tom

Sitton, Pauline

Skelton, Beverly Mason

Slack, Searcy

Slater, Barbara Jones

Slaughter, John and Gloria

Smith, Albert Cecil

Smith, B.J. (Judge)

Smith, Miss Daisy Francis

Smith, Deen Day

Smith, Enrique R

Smith family

Smith, Francis Marion

Smith, Mrs. Glynton M.

Smith, Isaac F.

Smith, Joseph Harold

Smith- Kennedy- Collins

Smith, Parker Burgess

Smith, Rankin

Smith, Robert

Smith, Robert Franklin

Smith, Robert J.

Smith, William Robert

Spalding, Hughes

Speer, Maud Roach

Speights, Russell

Sprayberry, William

Stanley, Mrs. E.A.

Staples, Henry Perry

Stapp family of Alabama

Stapp family- 2 folders

Stapp family of Kentucky

Starke, Jane Hodges

Steagall, Al

Steele, Leslie

Steinberg, Cathy

Steiner, Andre (architect)

Stephens, Alexander

Stephens, Dorothy Jewell Sawyer

Stephens, Franklin

Stephenson- bible records

Stephenson, James L., Dr.

Stephenson, John

Stephenson, Josiah

Stephenson, Thomas Randall

Steward, Absalom

Steward, Aulston

Steward, John Barnett

Steward, Joseph


Still, Benjamin

Stinson, Charles H.

Stinson, Iva Lee Stovall

Stokes, Missouri

Stokes, William

Stokes, William H.

Stone, Daniel

Stone, Joseph

Storey, Ruth

Stovall, Paul M.

Strange, Edith N.

Strickland, William J.

Stringer, Robert H., Sr.

Stringer, W. Kenneth

Stubblebine, Roberta

Stuff, Ida Wells

Suttles, William

Sutton, Sherry (newspaper special editions as well- oversized box)

Swaney, Lee (former mayor of Clarkston)

Swilling, Sam

Swindall, Pat

Swofford, Ron

Tallant, Mrs. Marge

Talley, Amanda

Talley, Farrish

Talmadge, Herman

Tarleton, Fiswoode

Tatman, Georgann

Teate, Dr. H. Luten, Jr.


Terrell, William H.

Terry, Bobby Richard

Terry, Mrs. Mary

Terry, Stephen

Terry, Thomas

Terry, William

Thibadeau, William C.

Thigpen-Milosz, Carol Marie

Thomas, George

Thomas, Greta

Thomas, Henry “Hank” James (Freedom Riders)

Thomas, John Greenberry

Thomas, Kenneth (Ken)

Thomas, Nadine

Thomas, Nesby (see also Judge Seeliger, Special Collections)

Thomas, Wales Wimberly (1922-1998)

Thompson, David


Thompson -2 folders

Thompson, Jones (Bible records)

Thompson, Dr. Joseph

Thornton, W.W.

Threadgill, Selman

Thrower, Louise Wilson

Tibbitts, Joseph C. (1845 account statement also see Tibbitts in Special Collections)

Tice, Harry E.

Tilley/Tilly, Stephen

Tillman, Judge Curtis

Tisdale, Harry

Tolbert, Chuck


Torrence, Gwen


Towers, Rev. Lewis

Towers, William Alden

Treadwell, E.E.

Trice, Mrs. Manolia C.

Tricoli, Anthony S.

Trimble, Della

Trott, Grace Evelyn Moore

Trotti, Louise Haygood

Trotti, Mary Louise

Trotti, Mrs. Hugh H.-3 folders

Tucker, Lawrence (Tuck)

Tufts, Arthur Tufts House (Emory)

Tuggle, Charles

Tumlin, Sarah Jean

Turner, Aubrey Mel

Turner, Evelyn

Turner, Fred

Turner, Jean

Turner, Judy

Turner, Mary Agnes

Vandiver, Roy W.

Van Valkenburg, Mrs. Chase

Vaughan, Virginia (Mrs. George M.)

Vaughters, Silvey Brice (see also Special Collections, Vivian Price Saffold collection)

Veale, Nathaniel

Venable, Bill and Billy

Venable, William and Samuel

Vinson, Thomas O.

Von Bolt, William

Waddell, Charles H.

Waddle, Alfred

Wade, Robert

Wade, Zachary

Wagner, Eugene R. Sr.

Wagner, James

Waits, Johnny

Waits, Sarah

Waldrop, Homer

Walker, Costelle

Walker, Eugene

Walker, Dr. Harry Chandler

Walker, Joseph

Walker, Lou and Theresa

Wallace, Ina C.

Waller, Ralph

Walsh, Helen

Warbington, Ellemander

Ward, William

Ware, William Orie

Waring, Grace


Warren, F.E. (Ferdinand) – obituary of this artist and former Agnes Scott Professor


Warwick, Andy

Wasdin, Rose

Washburn, Bill

Watkins, Beverly “Guitar”

Weaver, Benjamin

Weaver, Jackson

Weaver, G. Alvah

Weaver, J. Calvin

Weaver, Jackson

Webb, Carl O.

Webb, Elijah

Weed, William

Weekes, John W.

Weekes, Leona

Weekly, Gwen

Weeks, Bartemus (1821 land lottery, 1799 seal)

Weems, James Thomas

Welch, Jerry

Weldon, James


Wells, Bonnie and Winnie

Wells family- Emanuel Wells, Elizabeth Wells, Miles Wells, Elisha Wells, Willis Lea Wells, etc.

Wells, Cliff

Wells, George R. (original letters)

Wenger, Nanette K.

Wesson, Ashford

Westbrook, John

Westrom, Art

Whaley, Ernie

Whaley, James William

Wheeler, Jacob

Wheeler, Joseph

Wheeler, Pete

Whidby, William G.

White, Goodrich

White, Dr. William N. (1811 original letter)

Whitfield, Curtis Lee

Whitt, Charlotte Riley

Wilburn, Leila Ross (architect)

Wilkerson, Roger

Wilkie, Claire Cox

Wilkins, Commander Bennie F.

Willard, Levi (includes Beach and Brain families)

Williams, Hiram

Williams, Hosea (newspaper special editions as well)

Williams, Jesse

Williams, John

Williams, Kress R. (Bill)

Williams, Sidney Earle

Williams, Wheat, Jr. and Sr.

Williamson, Randall

Wilson, Billy

Wilson, Blondine Smith

Wilson, Carter

Wilson, Clifford F. Sr.

Wilson, Elizabeth

Wilson, Pvt. James Ollie

Wilson, John A.

Wilson, Mayme F.

Wilson, Walter L.

Wingate Family

Winningham, Oliver

Winslow, Thomas Edward (also Iola Fowler, Beatrice Winslow Flake)

Withers, Edward Arundel

Witt, Florence L.

Womack, Macie Donaldson

Wood, Martha (1895 original document)

Wood, John Y.

Wood, Thomas

Woodall, John

Woodall, Philip

Woodard, Cathy

Woods, Maggie Carolyn

Woolard, Cathy

Woolf, Sarah

Woolley, Basel

Wooten, Martha

Word, Ernest

Worrell, Patricia

Wright, Roberts

Wright, William (Civil War)

Wright, William D., Ava A.

Wyatt, Caroline

Wyatt, Eugene Cox (Wyatt Memorials)

Wyatt, Rubye

Yarbrough Family Quarterly

Youmans, Jim

Young, Emory Carl

Young, Hardaway (Buddy)

Zeller, Marie Starr

Zuber, Leo J.- “What’s a Map Worth?”, Metropolitan Planning Commission, 1950

W.F. Albright

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

W.F. Albright, in full William Foxwell Albright, (born May 24, 1891, Coquimbo, Chile—died Sept. 19, 1971, Baltimore, Md., U.S.), American biblical archaeologist and Middle Eastern scholar, noted especially for his excavations of biblical sites.

The son of American Methodist missionaries living abroad, Albright came with his family to the United States in 1903. He obtained his doctorate in Semitic languages at Johns Hopkins University. While there he studied under Paul Haupt, whom he succeeded in 1929 as W.W. Spence professor of Semitic languages, a position he held until his retirement in 1958.

Appointed fellow of the American School of Oriental Research, Jerusalem, in 1919, Albright served as the school’s director for 12 years (1920–29, 1933–36). Among his excavations were Gibeah of Saul, Tell Beit Mirsim (Kirjath-Sepher), and, in association with others, Beth-zur and Bethel in Palestine and Baluah, and Petra in Jordan. In 1950–51 he was chief archaeologist of excavations made by the American Foundation for the Study of Man at Wadi Bayhan (Beihan), Hajar Bin Humaid, and Timna in Arabia. Albright early stressed the value of archaeology and of topographical and linguistic studies for biblical history and in making pottery and potsherd identification a reliable scientific tool.

Albright’s scientific writings greatly influenced the development of biblical and related Middle Eastern scholarship and include The Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible (1932–35), The Vocalization of the Egyptian Syllabic Orthography (1934), The Excavation of Tell Beit Mirsim (1932–43), From the Stone Age to Christianity (1940–46), Archaeology and the Religion of Israel (1942–46), and The Bible and the Ancient Near East (1961).

Watch the video: Η ελληνικότητα του αλφαβήτου - Αναστάσιος Στάμου (December 2021).