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St Lois IV - History

St Lois IV - History

St Lois IV

St. Louis IV

(Cruiser No. 20: dp. 9,700; 1. 426'6"; b. 66', dr. 24'10" s. 22 k.; cpl. 673, a. 14 6", 18 3", 12 3-pdrs., 8 1-pdrs.4.30 cal. mg.; cl. St. Louis)

The fourth St. Louis, Cruiser No. 20, was launched on 6 May 1905 by Neafie & Levy Co., Philadelphia Pa.; sponsored by Miss Gladys Bryant Smith, and commissioned on 18 August 1906, Captain Nathaniel R. Usher in command.

Assigned to the Pacific Fleet, St. Louis departed Tomkinsville, N.Y., on 15 May 1907 following completion of her trials along the Virginia coast. Louis called at Port Castries, Bahia, Rio de Janeiro, Montevideo, Punta Arenas, Valparaiso, Callao, and Acapulco before arriving at San Diego on 31 August 1907. Operating off the west coast into the spring of 1908 she steamed from Puget Sound to Honolulu in June then cruised in Central American waters from July to October. On 5 November 1909, St. Louis returned to Puget Sound and was placed in reserve on 14 November.

Decommissioned on 3 May 1910, St. Louis was recommissioned, in reserve, on 7 October 1911 at the Puget Sound Navy Yard. She departed Puget Sound on 13 July 1911 for San Francisco and brief service as receiving ship there. After undergoing repairs, 22 July 1911 to 28 February 1912, she joined the Pacific Reserve Fleet again on 12 March. From 14 July 1912 until 26 April 1913, she operated in support of the Oregon Naval Militia, then returned to the Puget Sound Navy Yard to be placed in the Pacific Reserve Fleet for a year. She departed Puget Sound on 24 April 1914 and commenced her next assignment as receiving ship at San Francisco on the 27th. Returning north to Bremerton, St. Louis was again placed in the Pacific Reserve Fleet on 17 February 1916.

Detached from the Reserve Fleet on 10 July 1916 St. Louis departed Puget Sound on 21 July for Honolulu. Arriving at Pearl Harbor on 29 July, she commenced her next duty assignment as tender, Submarine Division Three, Pacific Fleet, with additional duty as station ship, Pearl Harbor. When it became evident that the crew of the interned German sloop Geier intended to scuttle their ship, an armed party from St. Louis boarded the ship on 4 February 1917 and seized her. Geier subsequently served the United States as Sehurz ( -t.v. ) .

Placed in reduced commission on 6 April 1917, as the United States entered World War I, St. Louis departed Honolulu on 9 April to join the cruiser force engaged in escorting convoys bound for Europe. Calling first at San Diego, she took on board 517 National Naval Volunteers and apprentice seamen to bring her war complement to 823 officers and men; and, on 20 April she was placed in full commission. A month later, she arrived in the Panama Canal Zone; embarked the 7th 17th, 20th, 43d, 51st, and 55th companies of Marines transported them to Santiago de Cuba; then sailed for Philadelphia, arriving on 29 May 1917.

St. Louis' first convoy duty began on 17 June 1917 when she departed New York in escort of Group 4, American Expeditionary Force. Returning to Boston for repairs on 19 July 1917, she had completed six additional voyages, escorting convoys bound from New York for ports in Britain and France by the end of the war. After the Armistice, St. Louis was immediately pressed into service returning troops to the United States. She returned 8,437 troops to Hoboken, New Jersey, from Brest, France, in seven round-trip crossings between 17 December 1918 and 17 July 1919 when she arrived at the Philadelphia Navy Yard for repairs.

Designated CA-18 on 17 July 1920 and assigned to postwar duty with the European Squadron, St. Louis departed Philadelphia on 10 September 1920 for Sheerness, Cherbourg, and Constantinople. She disembarked military passengers at Sheerness on 26 September then continued on to the Mediterranean and reported to the Commander, United States Naval Forces in Turkish Waters at Constantinople on 19 October. Standing up the Bosphorus from Constantinople on 13 November, St. Louis embarked refugees at Sevastopol and Yalta, returning them to Constantinople on 16 November. The following day, her crew formed boatlanding parties to distribute food among refugees quartered aboard naval transports anchored in the Bosphorus. Louis continued her humanitarian duties at Constantinople and at Anatolian ports during the time of unrest caused by the Russian Civil War and the Turkish Revolution.

She departed Asia Minor for Naples on 19 September 1921. She next called at Gibraltar; and, on 11 November, arrived at Philadelphia where, on completion of pre-inactivation overhaul, she was decommissioned on 3 March 1922. In reserve until struck from the Navy list on 20 March 1930, St. Louis' hulk was sold for scrapping on 13 August in accordance with the provisions of the London Treaty for the limitation and reduction of naval armament.

IV Nutrition Therapy

Have you heard about IV nutrient therapy? It has been rapidly gaining popularity in St. Louis and throughout the world and can provide enormous health benefits!! Intravenous nutrient therapy is a method of delivering vitamins, minerals, and other vital nutrients and/or therapeutic agents directly into the bloodstream. It can be used to correct deficiencies, enhance immune function, increase energy, and/or as a preventative measure for anyone who is healthy and wants to stay healthy. IV nutrients are given in therapeutic pharmacological doses greater than the minimal requirements of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), which are intended just to avoid deficiency states. Because natural nutrients are easy on the body and welcomed, IV administration has an exceedingly high safety profile. IV nutrient therapy puts nutrients back into the body and improves the ability of the cells to detoxify, repair, and regenerate.

Some of the specific benefits that patients experience include:

  • increased energy
  • an overall sense of well-being
  • improved sports performance
  • enhanced immune support
  • improved healing and recovery from sports wear and tear, cosmetic procedures, and surgery
  • stress relief

IV therapy can improve or alleviate almost any health condition or complaint because we are simply giving the body what it needs to function properly–your body’s natural ability to heal itself does the rest.

Is it possible to overdose on the vitamins?

The short answer is No. However, Vitamin B6 in excessive amounts can be problematic for some individuals. As a precaution this particular vitamin is never given in excessive amounts in any vitamin infusion offered at The Institute. The vitamins and other nutrients we use in our IVs are water-soluble and will be excreted by the body if they are not needed. When a patient requires vitamins or nutrients that are not water-soluble, more stringent testing is required and other forms of administration are used such as Intramuscular injections or oral administration. Some nutrients cannot be administered intravenously. This is yet another reason to be sure you go to a facility where the practitioners are highly trained.

However, it is extremely rare for a patient to not need the vitamins and nutrients given in an infusion. The vast majority of us are severely deficient in the vital nutrients our bodies need to function.

Can’t I just take oral vitamins?

IV therapy provides 100% absorption of the nutrients your body needs compared to only around 10% if taken by mouth. IV administration also allows the body to receive much larger doses of vital nutrients that would not be tolerated by the gastrointestinal tract if taken orally.

How is this different from an IV push?

You may have seen advertisements from alternative medicine practitioners who offer intravenous vitamins through an IV “push.” A proper IV Infusion is a large volume of nutrients mixed with a large volume of fluid (250 cc up to 1000 cc), whereas an IV push is essentially a 30-50 cc syringe of nutrients that are injected into the bloodstream. This means that an IV infusion is 4 to 20 times larger than an IV push.

Getting IV nutrition at The Institute definitely helped me regain control of my health. I feel better, look better, and have tons more energy.

After feeling run down and not getting any answers, I tried The Institute of Natural Health. They figured out what was wrong and helped me get on the path to healing. Thank you INH!

I had been to so many doctors that I had lost count. I have been dealing with chronic pain, fatigue, night sweats, thinning hair, digestive issues (mostly gas, bloating, and constipation) and I have no sex drive… After some blood work, specialty testing, and a food sensitivity test he was able to tell me exactly what was wrong. I had autoimmune thyroid disorder, a very inflamed gut with bacteria imbalance, my hormones were completely out of balance, I had several food sensitivities, and nutritionally I was pretty deficient. But the best part was that he told me that I could be helped AND he told me how to do it… I received BioTE hormone optimization, followed my food sensitivity diet, started my personalized gut repair program, and began Ozone IVs and IV vitamins and minerals. It has only been 4 weeks on my program and I am already sleeping better, my fatigue has improved, my digestive complaints are gone (no more gas, bloating, or constipation), AND my sex drive is back!!

‘Beyond The Ballot’ Explores History Of Women’s Suffrage Movement In St. Louis

This August marks 100 years since the ratification of the 19th Amendment, which granted U.S. women the right to vote. But the fight for women’s suffrage was a long one, starting many decades prior to that celebratory day in 1920. And St. Louis women were among some of the earliest suffragists around the country.

One of them was Virginia Minor, who is often a footnote in narratives that focus on more prominent figures such as Susan B. Anthony. In 1872, Minor made her way to the registrar's office in her district, intent on registering to vote.

The registrar refused her request, and like so many other suffragists of her day, Minor did not live to ever cast a vote.

But that’s hardly the substance of Minor’s story, as two contemporary St. Louis women know better than most. St. Louis University doctoral student Elizabeth Eikmann completed an internship at the Old Courthouse last year, focusing much of her research on Minor in the very same place where Minor twice sat before a judge after filing suit against the registrar.

And Katie Moon, exhibits manager at the Missouri History Museum, has been exploring Minor’s life and those of other early St. Louis women who were making big contributions to their city, long before they had any say in its political process. Two years of planning are now culminating in the unveiling of the exhibition “Beyond the Ballot: St. Louis and Suffrage” this weekend.

On Monday’s St. Louis on the Air, both Moon and Eikmann joined host Sarah Fenske to talk about the connections between the Gateway City and the long fight for women’s suffrage.

Eikmann noted that Minor is most remembered for taking her case, which began in the St. Louis Circuit Court in 1872 at the Old Courthouse downtown, all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court in 1875.

A couple of weeks after the registrar denied her attempt to register to vote, Minor and her husband, an attorney, filed a joint suit arguing for women’s suffrage based on the 14th Amendment, which was designed to grant citizenship to formerly enslaved people.

“But they argued, ‘Ah, if you’re born in the United States and you’re guaranteed citizenship, as a citizen, you have the right to vote.’ So basically their whole argument was that women already had the right to vote per the 14th Amendment,” Eikmann explained. “And they basically just said, ‘Hey, go out and take advantage of a right that you already have.’

“So they argue this all the way through the lower circuit court, Missouri Supreme Court, U.S. Supreme Court, and it was ultimately decided by the U.S. Supreme Court — a unanimous decision that women were citizens but that citizenship did not necessarily guarantee enfranchisement.”

That legal defeat hardly stopped Minor and her fellow suffragists in St. Louis and across the country, though.

Moon noted that the first half of the new exhibit at the Missouri History Museum is dedicated to 32 women who contributed to and influenced the city of St. Louis before 1920.

“There’s this misconception that women’s history doesn’t start until they got the vote, and we really wanted to kind of explode that misconception,” she said.

The curator was quick to emphasize that, as celebratory a moment as the passage and ratification of the 19th Amendment was for women in America, it was mostly white women who benefited from that milestone.

“It again goes back to the Virginia Minor case — the court saying, ‘Just because you’re a citizen doesn’t mean you have the right to vote,’" Moon explained. “And that allows for Jim Crow laws and educational requirements and land ownership requirements. And so the 19th Amendment took away the hurdle of gender from voting, but it didn’t take away the hurdles of race and other voting requirements.

“And some of the documentation from the suffrage movement is troubling, and I think as we tell history, the more complex it is, the more interesting it is. And so it wasn’t until the suffragists expanded their audience outside of people who agreed with them or who looked like them that it actually moved forward.”

Both guests noted that big challenges remain today, 100 years later.

“I don’t think we can shy away from that,” Moon said. “And so in a lot of ways it’s a celebration, but it’s also a way to reexamine where we are right now. And we really try to get visitors in the museum to do that.”

Related Exhibit
What: Beyond the Ballot: St. Louis and Suffrage
When: Now through March 1, 2022
Where: Missouri History Museum (5700 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, MO 63112)

Related Event
What: Recitation and laying of wreath at Virginia Minor's grave
When: 10 a.m. Saturday, Aug. 15
Where: Bellefontaine Cemetery (4947 W. Florissant Ave., St. Louis, MO 63115)

St. Louis on the Air” brings you the stories of St. Louis and the people who live, work and create in our region. The show is hosted by Sarah Fenske and produced by Alex Heuer, Emily Woodbury, Evie Hemphill and Lara Hamdan. The audio engineer is Aaron Doerr.

Death and canonization

Throughout the latter part of his reign, he was obsessed by the memory of the Holy Land, the territory of which was rapidly shrinking before the Muslim advance. In 1269 he decided once again to go to Africa. Perhaps encouraged by his brother Charles of Anjou, he chose Tunisia as the place from which to cut the Islamic world in half. It was a serious mistake for which he must take responsibility, and he eventually had to bear the consequences of it. Ill and weak, he knew that he risked dying there.

The expedition landed near Tunis at the beginning of July 1270 and at first won a succession of easy victories. Carthage was taken. But once again plague struck the army, and Louis IX could not withstand it. After having entrusted the future of the kingdom of France to his son Philip, to whom he gave excellent instructions (enseignements), asking him especially to protect and assist the poor, who were the humblest of his subjects, he died in August 1270.

The Crusade dissolved, and Louis’s body was brought back to France. All along the way, through Italy, the Alps, Lyon, and Cluny, crowds gathered and knelt as the procession passed. It reached Paris on the eve of Pentecost in 1271. The funeral rites were solemnly performed at Notre-Dame de Paris, and the coffin went to rest in the abbey of Saint-Denis, the tomb of the kings of France.

Without awaiting the judgment of the Roman Catholic Church, the people considered Louis IX to be a saint and prayed at his tomb. Pope Boniface VIII canonized Louis IX, the only king of France to be numbered by the Roman Catholic Church among its saints, in 1297.

St Lois IV - History

St. Louis' letter of advice to advice his eldest son, the later PhilipIII provides us with some insight into the attitudes of one of the most important French kings of the period. There has been some questions about its authorship. Even if not by the hand of Louis IX, it does reflect a mindset which, despite the pieties of the language, puts forth some real concept of kingship - with regard to justice, administration, the various classes, towns and the Church.

1. To his dear first-born son, Philip, greeting, and his father's love.

2. Dear son, since I desire with all my heart that you be well "instructed in all things, it is in my thought to give you some advice this writing. For I have heard you say, several times, that you remember my words better than those of any one else.

3. Therefore, dear son, the first thing I advise is that you fix your whole heart upon God, and love Him with all your strength, for without this no one can be saved or be of any worth.

4- You should, with all your strength, shun everything which you believe to be displeasing to Him. And you ought especially to be resolved not to commit mortal sin, no matter what may happen and should permit all your limbs to be hewn off, and suffer every manner of torment , rather than fall knowingly into mortal sin.

5. If our Lord send you any adversity, whether illness or other in good patience, and thank Him for it, thing, you should receive it in good patience and be thankful for it, for you ought to believe that He will cause everthing to turn out for your good and likewise you should think that you have well merited it, and more also, should He will it, because you have loved Him but little, and served Him but little, and have done many things contrary to His will.

6. If our Lord send you any prosperity, either health of body or other thing you ought to thank Him humbly for it, and you ought to be careful that you are not the worse for it, either through pride or anything else, for it is a very great sin to fight against our Lord with His gifts.

7. Dear son, I advise you that you accustom yourself to frequent confession, and that you choose always, as your confessors, men who are upright and sufficiently learned, and who can teach you what you should do and what you should avoid. You should so carry yourself that your confessors and other friends may dare confidently to reprove you and show you your faults.

8. Dear son, I advise you that you listen willingly and devoutly the services of Holy Church, and, when you are in church, avoid to frivolity and trifling, and do not look here and there but pray to God with lips and heart alike, while entertaining sweet thoughts about Him, and especially at the mass, when the body and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ are consecrated, and for a little time before.

9. Dear son, have a tender pitiful heart for the poor, and for all those whom you believe to be in misery of heart or body, and, according to your ability, comfort and aid them with some alms.

10. Maintain the good customs of your realm, and put down the bad ones. Do not oppress your people and do not burden them with tolls or tailles, except under very great necessity.

11. If you have any unrest of heart, of such a nature that it may be told, tell it to your confessor, or to some upright man who can keep your secret you will be able to carry more easily the thought of your heart.

12. See to it that those of your household are upright and loyal, and remember the Scripture, which says: "Elige viros timentes Deum in quibus sit justicia et qui oderint avariciam" that is to say, "Love those who serve God and who render strict justice and hate covetousness" and you will profit, and will govern your kingdom well.

13. Dear son, see to it that all your associates are upright, whether clerics or laymen, and have frequent good converse with them and flee the society of the bad. And listen willingly to the word of God, both in open and in secret and purchase freely prayers and pardons.

14. Love all good, and hate all evil, in whomsoever it may be.

15. Let no one be so bold as to say, in your presence, words which attract and lead to sin, and do not permit words of detraction to be spoken of another behind his back.

!6. Suffer it not that any ill be spoken of God or His saints in your presence, without taking prompt vengeance. But if the offender be a clerk or so great a person that you ought not to try him, report the matter to him who is entitled to judge it.

17. Dear son, give thanks to God often for all the good things He has done for you, so that you may be worthy to receive more, in such a manner that if it please the Lord that you come to the burden and honor of governing the kingdom, you may be worthy to receive the sacred unction wherewith the kings of France are consecrated.

18. Dear son, if you come to the throne, strive to have that which befits a king, that is to say, that in justice and rectitude you hold yourself steadfast and loyal toward your subjects and your vassals, without turning either to the right or to the left, but always straight, whatever may happen. And if a poor man have a quarrel with a rich man, sustain the poor rather than the rich, until the truth is made clear, and when you know the truth, do justice to them.

19. If any one have entered into a suit against you (for any injury or wrong which he may believe that you have done to him), be always for him and against yourself in the presence of your council, without showing that you think much of your case (until the truth be made known concerning it) for those of your council might be backward in speaking against you, and this you should not wish and command your judges that you be not in any way upheld more than any others, for thus will your councillors judge more boldly according to right and truth.

20. If you have anything belonging to another, either of yourself or through your predecessors, if the matter is certain, give it up without delay, however great it may be, either in land or money or otherwise. If the matter is doubtful, have it inquired into by wise men, promptly and diligently. And if the affair is so obscure that you cannot know the truth, make such a settlement, by the counsel of s of upright men, that your soul, and the soul your predecessors, may be wholly freed from the affair. And even if you hear some one say that your predecessors made restitution, make diligent inquiry to learn if anything remains to be restored and if you find that such is the case, cause it to be delivered over at once, for the liberation of your soul and the souls of your predecessors.

21. You should seek earnestly how your vassals and your subjects may live in peace and rectitude beneath your sway likewise, the good towns and the good cities of your kingdom. And preserve them in the estate and the liberty in which your predecessors kept them, redress it, and if there be anything to amend, amend and preserve their favor and their love. For it is by the strength and the riches of your good cities and your good towns that the native and the foreigner, especially your peers and your barons, are deterred from doing ill to you. I will remember that Paris and the good towns of my kingdom aided me against the barons, when I was newly crowned.

22. Honor and love all the people of Holy Church, and be careful that no violence be done to them, and that their gifts and alms, which your predecessors have bestowed upon them, be not taken away or diminished. And I wish here to tell you what is related concerning King Philip, my ancestor, as one of his council, who said he heard it, told it to me. The king, one day, was with his privy council, and he was there who told me these words. And one of the king's councillors said to him how much wrong and loss he suffered from those of Holy Church, in that they took away his rights and lessened the jurisdiction of his court and they marveled greatly how he endured it. And the good king answered: "I am quite certain that they do me much wrong, but when I consider the goodnesses and kindnesses which God has done me, I had rather that my rights should go, than have a contention or awaken a quarrel with Holy Church." And this I tell to you that you may not lightly believe anything against the people of Holy Church so love them and honor them and watch over them that they may in peace do the service of our Lord.

23. Moreover, I advise you to love dearly the clergy, and, so far as you are able, do good to them in their necessities, and likewise love those by whom God is most honored and served, and by whom the Faith is preached and exalted.

24. Dear son, I advise that you love and reverence your father and your mother, willingly remember and keep their commandments, and be inclined to believe their good counsels.

25. Love your brothers, and always wish their well-being and their good advancement, and also be to them in the place of a father, to instruct them in all good. But be watchful lest, for the love which you bear to one, you turn aside from right doing, and do to the others that which is not meet.

26. Dear son, I advise you to bestow the benefices of Holy Church which you have to give, upon good persons, of good and clean life, and that you bestow them with the high counsel of upright men. And I am of the opinion that it is preferable to give them to those who hold nothing of Holy Church, rather than to others. For, if you inquire diligently, you will find enough of those who have nothing who will use wisely that entrusted to them.

27. Dear son, I advise you that you try with all your strength to avoid warring against any Christian man, unless he have done you too much ill. And if wrong be done you, try several ways to see if you can find how you can secure your rights, before you make war and act thus in order to avoid the sins which are committed in warfare.

28. And if it fall out that it is needful that you should make war (either because some one of your vassals has failed to plead his case in your court, or because he has done wrong to some church or to some poor person, or to any other person whatsoever, and is unwilling to make amends out of regard for you, or for any other reasonable cause), whatever the reason for which it is necessary for you to make war, give diligent command that the poor folk who have done no wrong or crime be protected from damage to their vines, either through fire or otherwise, for it were more fitting that you should constrain the wrongdoer by taking his own property (either towns or castles, by force of siege), than that you should devastate the property of poor people. And be careful not to start the war before you have good counsel that the cause is most reasonable, and before you have summoned the offender to make amends, and have waited as long as you should. And if he ask mercy, you ought to pardon him, and accept his amende, so that God may be pleased with you.

29. Dear son, I advise you to appease wars and contentions, whether they be yours or those of your subjects, just as quickly as may be, for it is a thing most pleasing to our Lord. And Monsignore Martin gave us a very great example of this. For, one time, when our Lord made it known to him that he was about to die, he set out to make peace between certain clerks of his archbishopric, and he was of the opinion that in so doing he was giving a good end to life.

30. Seek diligently, most sweet son, to have good baillis and good prevots in your land, and inquire frequently concerning their doings, and how they conduct themselves, and if they administer justice well, and do no wrong to any one, nor anything which they ought not do. Inquire more often concerning those of your household if they be too covetous or too arrogant for it is natural that the members should seek to imitate their chief that is, when the master is wise and well-behaved, all those of his household follow his example and prefer it. For however much you ought to hate evil in others, you shoud have more hatred for the evil which comes from those who derive their power from you, than you bear to the evil of others and the more ought you to be on your guard and prevent this from happening.

3!. Dear son, I advise you always to be devoted to the Church of Rome, and to the sovereign pontiff, our father, and to bear him the the reverence and honor which you owe to your spiritual father.

32. Dear son, freely give power to persons of good character, who know how to use it well, and strive to have wickednesses expelled from your land, that is to say, nasty oaths, and everything said or done against God or our Lady or the saints. In a wise and proper manner put a stop, in your land, to bodily sins, dicing, taverns, and other sins. Put down heresy so far as you can, and hold in especial abhorrence Jews, and all sorts of people who are hostile to the Faith, so that your land may be well purged of them, in such manner as, by the sage counsel of good people, may appear to you advisable.

33. Further the right with all your strength. Moreover I admonish you you that you strive most earnestly to show your gratitude for the benefits which our Lord has bestowed upon you, and that you may know how to give Him thanks therefore

34. Dear son, take care that the expenses of your household are reasonable and moderate, and that its moneys are justly obtained. And there is one opinion that I deeply wish you to entertain, that is to say, that you keep yourself free from foolish expenses and evil exactions, and that your money should be well expended and well acquired. And this opinion, together with other opinions which are suitable and profitable, I pray that our Lord may teach you.

35. Finally, most sweet son, I conjure and require you that, if it please our Lord that I should die before you, you have my soul succored with masses and orisons, and that you send through the congregations of the kingdom of France, and demand their prayers for my soul, and that you grant me a special and full part in all the good deeds which you perform.

36. In conclusion, dear son, I give you all the blessings which a good and tender father can give to a son, and I pray our Lord Jesus Christ, by His mercy, by the prayers and merits of His blessed Mother, the Virgin Mary, and of angels and archangels and of all the saints, to guard and protect you from doing anything contrary to His will, and to give you grace to do it always, so that He may be honored and served by you. And this may He do to me as to you, by His great bounty, so that after this mortal life we may be able to be together with Him in the eternal life, and see Him, love Him, and praise Him without end. Amen. And glory, honor, and praise be to Him who is one God with the Father and the Holy Spirit without beginning and without end. Amen.

From Saint Louis' Advice to His Son, in Medieval Civilization , trans. and eds. Dana Munro and George Clarke Sellery (New York: The Century Company, 1910), pp. 366 -75.

This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history.

Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.

(c)Paul Halsall Jan 1996
[email protected]

The Internet History Sourcebooks Project is located at the History Department of Fordham University, New York. The Internet Medieval Sourcebook, and other medieval components of the project, are located at the Fordham University Center for Medieval Studies.The IHSP recognizes the contribution of Fordham University, the Fordham University History Department, and the Fordham Center for Medieval Studies in providing web space and server support for the project. The IHSP is a project independent of Fordham University. Although the IHSP seeks to follow all applicable copyright law, Fordham University is not the institutional owner, and is not liable as the result of any legal action.

© Site Concept and Design: Paul Halsall created 26 Jan 1996: latest revision 20 January 2021 [CV]

The history of Carondelet's heavy industry

At one point, the southern end of St. Louis was a thriving and bustling industrial center, with huge factories, mills, foundries, and shipyards that employed thousands. Today, almost all of it is gone.

William Swekosky, Carondelet, from Daqurrotype of a Painting

Carondelet deserves more attention. Before being annexed by St. Louis, it was a separate community for much of the 19th century. That history has allowed Carondelet to develop its own special personality. I’ve written about its stone houses before. But what I find so fascinating about Carondelet—which was actually a city in its own right, with its own mayor and city council—is that it possesses a rich industrial heritage that has largely been lost to demolition and deindustrialization. However, at one point, the southern end of St. Louis was a thriving and bustling industrial center, with huge factories, mills, foundries, and shipyards that employed thousands. Today, almost all of it is gone.

Industrial map of the southern part of St. Louis (Carondelet)

Carondelet was laid out close to the river, at the confluence of the Mississippi and River des Peres. Like St. Louis upriver, there is a gradual rise to the hills to the north, and there are even bluffs that rise dramatically to the north of the downtown of Carondelet. But down by the river, where the land flattens out, are streets of workers’ houses within a short walk of the industries that took advantage of transportation networks. The Iron Mountain Railroad passed through Carondelet on its way south, providing easy access from St. Louis, as well as providing iron ore from the Ozarks. There was a spirit of optimism in the mid-19th century, as geologists mistakenly believed that the Iron Mountain was actually made entirely out of iron ore. While not true, the mountain and other mines nearby provided a steady supply of iron to the smelters in St. Louis and Carondelet via the railroad. Other raw materials, such as the pink granite from around what is now Elephant Rocks State Park, also flowed northward.

U.S.S. Lafayette, 1861-65, Missouri History Museum

One of the most notable industries in Carondelet when it was still an independent city came during the Civil War, when James B. Eads built ironclads at his shipyards at the foot of Davis Street. Formerly the Carondelet Marine Railway Company, the yards were refitted for Eads’ new designs for the Union to retake the Mississippi River, which was controlled by the Confederacy in the south. The 14 ironclads that were built in the newly christened Union Shipyards would go on to aid Ulysses S. Grant’s victory at Vicksburg, which cut the Confederacy in two in 1863. After the war, Eads would go on to build the bridge over the Mississippi River at St. Louis, which would later bear his name. Today, the site is now largely vacant, though barges still dock in the area.

William Swekosky, Jupiter Iron Works, Davis and Iron Mountain Railroad Tracks, Southwest Corner, c. 1908

The Vulcan Iron Works, founded in 1858, was another of the industries that took advantage of Carondelet’s location on the Mississippi River and railroad connections. Located in the far southeast corner of Carondelet by the River des Peres in an area called the Patch, it was a dirty, dangerous place to work, and its furnaces were temperamental, posing a daily risk of explosion. One such explosion of a furnace in October 1874 caused a portion of the building to collapse, sending bricks and wood timbers falling down on workers, many of whom had also been badly scalded by the intense heat and steam that had escaped. When the plant was torn down in 1898, a Post-Dispatch article related some of the astonishing statistics of the size of the operations. At its height, upward of 2,000–3,000 men worked in the foundry, and the monthly payroll was $200,000. The primary product was railroad rails, and the plant finally closed due to the obsolescence of its machinery. What’s interesting is how difficult it is to find photographs of what had been such a massive presence in St. Louis. Another foundry in Carondelet, the Jupiter Iron Works, which was also demolished in the early 20th century, gives us an idea of what these foundries looked like.

Dorrill Studio, Great Lakes Carbon Company, 526 East Catalan, July 5, 1952

In the general area, and on a portion of the same land as the shipyards and Vulcan Iron Works, next rose the Great Lakes Carbon Company. More well-known by its last name, Carondelet Coke, the huge complex was demolished and cleaned up by the EPA as a Superfund site due to extensive pollution. For almost a century, the plant converted coal into gas as well as the production of coke. Through a process of heating coal in the absence of air, coke is created in giant furnaces or ovens. The result is a fuel with high carbon content and fewer impurities—but it also gives off large amounts of pollution. The buildings that made up Carondelet Coke were fascinating to look at, including the furnaces that were still standing until a decade ago, but they were all demolished as part of the environmental cleanup. The giant crane that stretched out over the river near the site was a famous location for urban explorers in St. Louis.

View looking northeast across River des Peres at Klausman's Brewery and Sauter's Amusement Park, April 18, 1931

Meanwhile, to sate the thirst of all the working men in the area, the Klausmann Brewery opened in 1888 along the River des Peres at Lorentz and South Broadway. Its president, John Kraus, ran the brewery during its golden days in Carondelet, dying in 1897 with an estate of $500,000. It closed at the beginning of Prohibition, but it was one of a select few that reopened, with the investment of $2,000,000. In 1934, backers from Oklahoma and Chicago purchased the old plant from the St. Louis Brewing Association, the second of two local conglomerates that had combined smaller breweries to compete against Anheuser-Busch and Lemp. The investors picked up the old buildings for only $100,000. The enterprise failed, and the buildings are now demolished.

William Swekosky, Baur Flour Mill, Broadway and Blow

One industry that still remains in Carondelet is milling. One early flour mill was founded in 1870 by the German immigrant Friedrich Gottfried Hermann Baur, who came to America from Stuttgart. He was born in 1848, and came to St. Louis in 1868, and died here in 1934. In 1927, his son, Andrew Baur, purchased the oldest flour mill in St. Louis, the Ziebold Flour Mill, originally known as the Carondelet Milling Company, which was already 100 years old at the time. The sale was valued at $150,000. The Baurs sold out in 1945, and the buildings are now demolished. But milling still continues on a massive scale in Carondelet. Italgrani USA maintains the largest semolina and durum mill in North America along with a grain elevator on the river. Riviana Foods also produces a range of rice and pasta products nearby.

Emil Boehl, Interior of St. Columbkilles Catholic Church at 8202 Michigan Avenue, 1890s

But perhaps the best way to end is to look at the lost Irish parish of St. Columbkille Roman Catholic Church, which was located up the hill from the foundries and mills. For a century, the workers and their families would head to St. Columbkille and other churches nearby, on the one day of the week when they had a little time off. They were escaping untold poverty and oppression in Ireland, only to be faced with extremely hard and dangerous work in Carondelet. Those old factories and shipyards are gone, but many of their houses still stand, some still owned by their descendants. Perhaps that is the greatest legacy of the industrial past of Carondelet.

APA citation. Tannrath, J. (1912). St. Louis (Missouri). In The Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13357a.htm

MLA citation. Tannrath, John. "St. Louis (Missouri)." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 13. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. <http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13357a.htm>.

Transcription. This article was transcribed for New Advent by Jeffrey L. Anderson.


Busch perfected how to sell alcoholic beverages to a mass market while discovering a way to pasteurize beer so it could withstand temperature fluctuations, which enabled his company to distribute beer nationwide. It didn’t take long before A-B surpassed their chief brewing rival, Pabst Brewing, to become the largest brewer in the United States.

Adolphus, his wife, and thirteen children lived like royalty, with a palatial mansion in downtown St. Louis, a country estate called “Grant’s Farm,” two homes in Pasadena, California, a hops farm in Cooperstown, New York, two villas in Germany, and a private railroad car called “Adolphus.” He passed away in 1913, leaving quite a legacy for his St. Louis–based family to build upon.

St. Louis Offers The Long View

For a glimpse of what life without D.C. General Hospital may be like, walk with Rosetta Keeton down the deserted corridors of the former St. Louis Regional Medical Center. A once-bustling hospital renowned for its black physicians and trauma care, the 350-bed building is a shell of its former self. Several of the nine floors are boarded up a lone nurse minds the empty 23-bed inpatient wing.

The inner-city public medical center shut down most of its operations in 1997 in a move prompted by many of the same problems that plagued D.C. General -- chronic money woes and abysmal health among the largely minority populations it served. In its place is ConnectCare, a private, nonprofit network of primary and specialty clinics akin to the system that will take over in the District.

For the first year after Regional's closing, the health of the city's African Americans got worse, not better. But if the numbers looked bad, the anecdotes were even more alarming. A gunshot victim bled to death in what remained of the ER. Desperate teenage girls called asking where to go to deliver their babies. And the very clinics intended to serve the poor sparred over paying customers and shunned the neediest.

"It was hell, sheer hell," said Keeton, who worked in the old hospital and initially opposed its closure but now serves as ConnectCare's ombudsman. "People were panicking people were angry. The patients were angry they didn't know where to go staff at other hospitals were very angry at the fact they had to take care of poor folk they hadn't bargained for."

Four years later, Keeton still feels the sting, but she and many officials are guardedly optimistic about ConnectCare's prognosis. They don't know yet whether residents' health is improving, but they are convinced that in the long run, the new approach of shifting from hospital-based urgent care to community-based preventive care will improve health in the most economical way. Clearly, observers say, the lesson of St. Louis is that the path of change is long and treacherous, fraught with possible racial strife, money woes and missed medical opportunities.

"Every time you tear the system down, you lose some people and some people get hurt," Keeton said.

No two cities are exactly alike, but the parallels between St. Louis and the District offer some insights. As of Monday, both will be without a public hospital, both trying to serve about 65,000 uninsured or underinsured predominantly black residents.

The two communities are hardly alone. Across America, cities are getting out of the hospital business. From 1980 to 1999, the number of public hospitals declined from 1,778 to 1,197.

Some cities, such as Tampa, have relied on a direct tax to pay for a new, private health network. By steering low-income residents to outpatient clinics, officials say, they have drastically reduced costly emergency room visits in the last 10 years. In smaller communities such as Asheville, N.C., a volunteer collection of doctors, hospitals and pharmacies provides a cost-effective safety net for the poor.

But the obstacles for the District -- like those in St. Louis -- are far more complex. Racial divisions, turf battles, transportation difficulties and the sheer size of those urban centers make Tampa and Asheville seem quaint.

"Indigent care gets pitted against a lot of other urban priorities," said James Kimmey, ConnectCare chairman. "There is no evidence in our case that privatization provided better services, and it allows the public sector a lot of opportunities to back out."

In the early going, patients in St. Louis struggled with the notion that instead of one-stop care at the familiar hospital, they would be forced to navigate a maze known as ConnectCare.

One of the five ConnectCare clinics is housed in the old hospital, a red-brick building on a dilapidated stretch north of downtown. Others are scattered across the city, in bare-bones spaces, often with linoleum floors, overstressed air conditioners and no cafeteria.

Clinic physicians average 30 patients a day, allowing them about 16 minutes per person. That's similar to the 15-minute slots given at private doctors' offices. But with a clientele that is often less educated and in poorer health, that is rarely enough time, said Barbara Bailey, administrator for two of the clinics.

Despite a new computer system and an aggressive outreach program, Bailey said the most difficult aspect of her job is keeping track of such a transient population. "Every single time they step into my clinic, we require them to sign a piece of paper saying, 'My information has not changed,' " she said.

Another problem is that the clinics are open only on weekdays. So when Rogers Beamon had an allergic reaction to a new medication one recent Saturday, he boarded a bus for St. Louis University Hospital. With his Medicare card in hand, the former radiology technician said, he was treated well.

"They took my vitals, gave me an IV for fluids everyone was very pleasant," he recalled. But Beamon didn't have the $170 Walgreens wanted for his new prescription. "I had to wait until Monday, get my primary-care doctor to write me a prescription so I was able to get it for $7.50" with ConnectCare's discount. He wonders what will happen if he has to wait for a lifesaving drug.

In addition, ConnectCare requires referrals for specialty services, much the way private insurers manage their systems. Hospitals receive a voucher from ConnectCare for treating the poor.

"The health care community is treating the indigent as footballs," said Democrat William L. Clay Jr., the local congressman. "Nobody really wants to take responsibility."

Many in the African American community resent the fact that while the city's black areas are now without a single hospital, the white sections have several.

"First they closed Homer G. Phillips, then City [Hospital] and now Regional," said Yvonne Haynes, who works at the Stella Maris Child Care Center, across the street from Regional. "Those were the hospitals we were using."

Haynes has insurance but knows that many in her community relied on Regional's emergency room, especially for treating injuries such as gunshot wounds. "Now they have to go all the way to" Barnes-Jewish Hospital, several miles away, she lamented. "It's just unfair to us. We need every health facility we can get."

The cases at Regional didn't fit neatly on a standard medical form, said Keeton, and the patients don't always fit comfortably in their new surroundings. "We had patients who think nothing of wheeling their IV out into the parking lot so they can have a smoke," she said. "Or there's the patient who just needs routine care but isn't the ideal patient -- maybe he stinks or he's drunk."

Many ConnectCare patients say they feel unwelcome at private hospitals. Pam Willingham, 48, used to visit the public hospital for annual checkups and shots in 1996, she had a gallbladder operation there. She didn't like the long lines at the Max C. Starkloff clinic near her home in south St. Louis, and when she was referred to Barnes-Jewish Hospital, employees there lost her paperwork three times. "I felt like, 'I guess they really don't want to help me,' " she said.

James Buford, president of the Urban League, said the city has "a bastardized system dependent on the goodwill of all people involved. . . . White folk don't want to be around black folk in the hospital. Then the word spreads and people refuse to go to any hospital. People are falling through the cracks."

After the first year though, Willingham said, the system has run much more smoothly. ConnectCare vans shuttle patients to appointments, a new $3 million computer system has sped up service at clinic pharmacies, and Willingham is impressed that doctors have taken the time to recommend physical therapy for her bursitis.

But for the former patients and employees of Regional, it is difficult to separate cold facts from raw emotion -- even four years after the closing.

Kimmey, ConnectCare's chairman and a professor of public health at St. Louis University, labels ConnectCare "a medical success and a financial failure." Last year, ConnectCare pleaded for a $10 million bailout to meet its $42 million in expenses. Each year, the network cobbles together payments from the city, St. Louis County, the federal government and charities to cover costs, although the city has yet to deliver on its promised $5 million payment for this year. It is a pittance compared with the $33 million the city funneled to Regional.

And ConnectCare must compete for paying customers with four clinics that qualify for higher federal reimbursement rates. Those clinics are quietly opposing efforts by ConnectCare to receive similar rates, a potential boost of several million dollars.

In some respects, the situation in Washington may be more hospitable to privatizing indigent care than the one in the St. Louis area was, said experts in both cities.

As part of the District's privatization plan, all city-funded clinics will become part of the network, which means that rather than compete for the higher reimbursement rates, they will share that lucrative status.

Most significant, "the District is much more involved in paying for health care than St. Louis has been," said Larry Lewin, a private consultant who studied both systems. Although the systems see comparable numbers of patients, the District has budgeted $90 million for the first year, compared with $42 million for ConnectCare last year.

"On paper, the response looks better," said Boston University public health professor Alan Sager, who opposed the closing of D.C. General. "In reality, hospitals are not interchangeable parts in some health care machine. They have a more ecological role."

Even if closing D.C. General does achieve Mayor Anthony A. Williams's financial and medical goals, no one predicts the effort will be trouble-free.

"It makes sense to close down the hospital and use the money to give people access to health care elsewhere," said Gregg Bloche, a professor of law and health care at Georgetown and Johns Hopkins universities. "But the community-corroding impacts of shutting down are powerfully countervailing factors."

Keeton predicted that Washington has at least two difficult years of transition ahead. "It's not a pretty thing in the beginning."

Rogers Beamon, 63, in the old St. Louis Regional, where he was a radiology technician. Today, it is a ConnectCare clinic and Beamon is a system patient.

Watch the video: The Rise of An All American city, E St Louis PART 1 (January 2022).