History Podcasts

Pintail AMc-17 - History

Pintail AMc-17 - History

Pintail

(AMc-17: dp. 210; 1. 84'9"; b. 22'; dr. 8'6"; s. 9 k.; cpl. 17;
a. 1 mg.)

Pintail (AMc-17), built in 1937 as Three Star by the Kruse and Banks Shipbuilding Co., North Bend, Ore., was purchased by the Maritime Commission from the MacPhister

Van Camp Canning Co., San Pedro, Calif., and transferred to the Navy 19 November 1940; renamed Pintail (AMc-17), 7 December 1940; converted by the Western Boat Building Co., Tacoma, Wash.; and placed in service 18 February 1941.

As Pintail the former purse-seiner operated as a coastal minesweeper in the 13th Naval District until placed out of service and struck from the Navy List 30 March 1945. She was redelivered to the Maritime Commission 23 July 1945 and subsequently sold at auction.


یواس‌اس پینتیل (ای‌ام‌سی-۱۷)

یواس‌اس پینتیل (ای‌ام‌سی-۱۷) (به انگلیسی: USS Pintail (AMc-17) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۸۴ فوت ۹ اینچ (۲۵٫۸۳ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۳۷ ساخته شد.

یواس‌اس پینتیل (ای‌ام‌سی-۱۷)
پیشینه
مالک
آغاز کار: ۱۹۳۷
به دست آورده شده: ۱۹ نوامبر ۱۹۴۰
مشخصات اصلی
وزن: 210 tons
درازا: ۸۴ فوت ۹ اینچ (۲۵٫۸۳ متر)
پهنا: ۲۲ فوت ۰ اینچ (۶٫۷۱ متر)
آبخور: ۸ فوت ۶ اینچ (۲٫۵۹ متر)
سرعت: 9.0 knots

این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.


17 FAQs

Some of my colleagues have given me questions for me to answer, and this is the chapter where I intend to do this. Please feel free to give me questions to answer or email directly comments to me at [email protected] The following are some questions which have been specifically given me and which I am in the process of answering or have answered. Basically the questions invite me to comment on the topics in the headers below.

The methodology - or art - of setting problems

This is a very interesting question. Being a problem poser is distinctly different than being a good solver of problems, just as there is a special skill in designing chess problems, as distinct from being a good chess player.

When we committed ourselves to running a competition in Canberra in 1976 we had nothing to draw on. It was also at short notice, and the University of Waterloo gave us approval to use some of theirs. But we had to start and learned somehow. Different people do so in different ways. My main method was to keep my eyes open during the year and get an idea from a real life experience, and jot it down at the time. This also meant that my AMC questions related to real life, which is what we are trying to do.

But I think most problem creators sit down and experiment with things and discover results maybe after recognising an unexpected pattern. One of the best environments I found for creating questions was in the Challenge problems committee. As an example one year, about 1998, Mike Newman and I were working on tessellating P-tiles (pentominoes in the shape of a P) and by experimentation we discovered something which appeared to be a nice result. But we could not prove it. Eventually Andy Liu was shown the result, and Andy, one of the world's greatest problem solvers, showed us a nice proof. This problem was to make the 1999 IMO short list.

I would add that when we embarked upon this project we were worried that we might quickly run out of ideas. It is true that some of our original ideas could be used once only, in fact we found that each year we seemed to have a richer set than we had had the year before.Mathematics is a big subject.

The relevance of problem solving

In the real world, students will need to become problem solvers. In whatever undertaking they pursue they will encounter "problems". Generally, mathematical reasoning provides a model for problem solving on a wider scale. In the real world one might identify a problem, decide what are the variables which affect the outcome, identify interconnecting relations, and if solved in a mathematical sense, relate the solution back to the real world.

Whereas curricula in Australia and elsewhere will to various degrees encourage practice in problem solving, it is not usual for enough time to be spent on this in the classroom. This can be for a number of reasons, such as time (more time needed for essential skills) and the fact that this is something for which teachers are not always adequately trained. The AMC is specifically designed to provide classroom practice in problem solving by presenting problems in contexts to which students can related from their own day-to-day experience.

The relevance of competitive problem solving

I am not sure if I can give a profound answer for this. However there would be a different relevance for different stake-holders. The student is the most important stakeholder, and by going into competitive problem solving they are taking up a challenge and testing themselves against the problem, or testing themselves against others. I would be satisfied with the former. And of course there is relevance for the teacher or trainer as it gives them feedback about their work. Of course there are other stakeholders like parents, population and governments even. Governments for example should have an interest in Olympiad results because they are a measure of how far the students are achieving beyond the classroom.

Quality control, in problem setting in competitions

This is a particularly important matter for the AMC. In the 37 years in which I was involved before retirement I do not recall any typographic or mathematical error which caused us to take special assessment steps. Whereas it is certain it must happen sometime, it will not happen very often, as from the start we have adopted in my view the tightest moderation standards.

In the very first year, 1976, of the local Canberra competition which formed a predecessor to the AMC we adopted three layers of moderation. This means that in each layer there are people who are given the problems, without solutions and they are asked to provide their solutions and give any relevant comments. In the AMC now the first stage moderator from each state or territory,, or New Zealand, who discusses the problems' suitability for their state. Now that there is a national syllabus I assume there would continue to be at least one moderator from each state. In the AMC the second stage moderators are University moderators, and the third level moderators are normally people easily accessible by the Chairman.

On one occasion while I was Chairman I discovered an error after printing the paper. A third stage moderator convinced me of an error which in fact was not one. At some cost I was able to fix by reprinting before the papers went out. But the situation I found a little unsettling so I introduced a fourth stage, in which some members of the Problems Committee itself do further checking.

I guess related to this question there could have been a question on how we check the integrity of the results. We have detected cheating, sometimes by clever methods which evolved, but I am happy to say the incidence is not large, and certainly less than I might have expected. We also check every medal score with the school to determine whether the school regards that student as good and a medal would not be embarrassing. I did actually have a school which declined the student on these grounds once.

What is distinctive about the AMC, as against other competitions?

The answer to the question above should be regarded as part of this answer also.

The Australian Mathematics Competition (AMC) is not simply a stand-alone exam. It is the first step in a complete program of enrichment designed by the Australian Mathematics Trust, which enables students to explore their talents and develop them to their potential. The programs run by the Trust extend to the Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians, enrichment courses, and up to international competition.

Above all, the AMC truly meets my definition of being a Competition. It is the only broad based mathematics competition in Australia which fulfils this definition, as outlined below.

What is a Competition?

It was back in the 1970s that the first major Australia-wide school competition, the Australian Mathematics Competition (AMC), was introduced. Since then, the Australian education scene has seen a proliferation of many similar events, not only called competitions, but sometimes challenges, assessments, etc.

These events might be run by large organisations, small organisations, some from within professional societies, others clearly of a commercial nature, some for individual students, some for teams, some quite broadly pitched, others narrowly focused, and in all the major school subjects.

These events are often seen as similar in what they offer, but they can be quite different, and it really is worth asking what role they have in the school's academic program.

The word "competition"

First it should be noted that competition might not be the best word. We were hesitant about using this word, as it can be taken in a context different to intention, but in the end we settled on it because there were precedents for its use in Canada and the US.

I should also note what was our intention with the use of the word "competition". We do not mean to emphasise students competing against each other. Instead we see it as the student competing against the problems. In other words we see the AMC as a personal challenge in which the student can try to solve problems with the knowledge that if they fail, it has not counted against their personal assessment, but if they succeed there is personal satisfaction and recognition. And if one can solve one mathematics problem it is not only satisfying, it also provides the motivation for wanting to solve another.

Diagnosis and Feedback

We see a competition as not only an opportunity to assess and diagnose, but this is still a major feature of the AMC. This was the original Australian competition, which, because of the large entry numbers, and optical reading of the answers, was able to provide detailed feedback.

AMC Content

The AMC is carefully moderated by experts from each state to ensure that the mathematical content is within the scope of the regional syllabus. Most of the paper, particularly the first half, is what might be called "Curriculum bound", that is set in familiar classroom context. Towards the end of the paper questions might be set in contexts new to the student, albeit still using mathematics known to the student.

This means the AMC is really testing a little more than normal classroom mathematics, identifying students who can apply their knowledge to new situations. The AMT issues a "Mathematics and Problem Solving" Proficiency certificate to students who would otherwise not receive a credit but who have nevertheless indicated satisfactory ability in problem solving (which the AMC measures) and skill.

It has wide appeal also because there are questions of all standards, beginning with quite easy questions, which all students should be able to solve, the questions become progressively harder until the last 5 questions which are for very talented students. Students of all standards have an opportunity to achieve and be challenged during this time.

In fact the concept of challenge is of contemporary interest in the profession of mathematics education. An ICMI Study (number 16) Challenging Mathematics in and beyond the Classroom was conducted between 2002 and 2009 with final outcome reported in a book of the same name published by Springer. This international study was co-chaired by me.

Before and After

A competition is an event which is part of a much wider experience. This experience enables a student to spend time in the weeks before the event practicing problems of the type which will be encountered (and all past problems are classified and available). Afterwards there is significant benefit in discussing the solutions, particularly following up the ones they could not do on the day. Any discussion, whether among students or with the teacher, is beneficial. This is why AMT provides fully worked solutions for the problems.

A Basis for further Development

On top of this the most important thing is that a student who has experienced all of this may want to do more. The AMC is just the first in a range of activities run from within the greater mathematics profession of Australia, leading to Australian students possibly representing Australia at the International Mathematical Olympiad and students in some other countries being identified for their national Olympiad programs.

Certainly the next step after the AMC is to participate in the very popular Mathematics Challenge for Young Australians, which includes course work which substantially develops the problem solving skills of the student.

At the end of this, Australian students who participate well in the AMC and the Challenge can be invited to participate in more advanced work, which might be under the tutelage of local academics or former Olympiad team members.

Why did it happen in Canberra - the CAE, or Peter O’Halloran or something else?

Yes, the obvious answer to this question was yes, Peter O'Halloran was the reason, and he was in Canberra. But there is a subtle extension to this answer which implies it wouln't have happened today in the same way. We were in a College of Advanced Education, a new type of tertiary institute in which the emphasis was on teaching and not researched. As mentioned in my memoirs, in 1972 I submitted a research paper to a typist and five minutes later was called into the Head of School's office and told not ever to do this again or even do research. I was told this was a teaching institute only.

In those days the only promotions possible were from Lecturer to Senior Lecturer and these were normally a formality once a Lecturer had been at the top rung for a year and provided conscientious service. But while the teaching load was heavier than at a University, staff were keen to find other interests. I had found an interest in developing good resources, hence my time at the Open University in Britain, but I and others happened to be keen and available to work with Peter.

I don't think this would be possible today. All of the Colleges were converted to Universities as part of the Dawkins reforms, and today Canberra CAE, as the University of Canberra, is just as competitive as a University as the former ones. It has recently broken into world rankings at about the 650 position, comparing with the best universities in the world, and staff are required to have a regular research output. I don't think Peter would have been successful if he had been at a University in 1976, nor would he have been in 2012 at the University of Canberra.

There is another point when answering the first part of this question, why in Canberra. A prominent Victorian educator told me how difficult it was to introduce the AMC in Victoria at all, and said it would have been impossible if the competition had originated in Sydney. Canberra is often viewed elsewhere in Australia rather negatively, but it is at least neutral, so maybe Canberra was just where it all had to start.

The numbers of schools, and which schools, and why they enter

It is difficult to generalise in this answer, as there are differing entry patterns around Australia, and in fact different cross-sections of school type in different states. For example New South Wales has a large network of selective government schools, whereas Melbourne has a greater number of private schools.

While writing this I no longer have access to the statistics, however towards the end of my term the number of secondary schools participating was about 80% of the total, maybe about 2300, whereas the number of primary schools is much smaller, maybe only 20%. Almost everywhere entry is voluntary in government schools, whereas private schools have variable entry patterns. Some focus particularly on year 7, to get a measure of student ability, some focus on top form only, and there are other patterns. There would be overall a proportionately larger number of students from private schools. Interestingly, the country is well represented, and we get letters from there thanking us for providing them a rare chance to do the same things that city students take for granted.

The Challenge and Enrichment are entered by less schools. Typically there might be 650 schools enrolled in the Challenge and say 320 in the Enrichment. Of course there are more schools which sometimes enter. According to our feedback, including the PwC report mentioned below, most schools know about us, but an average school might only enter when they have a particularly talented student. On the other hand there are high achieving schools which enter regularly and use the Enrichment as their main class activity for top form, when the top form has quickly mastered the formal syllabus.

Informatics is more difficult to answer, but in recent years, the Australian Informatics Competition has grown to over 4000 entries, from I imagine over 100 schools who see this as a viable mathematics class activity.

Something about the significance of the declining status of maths, and the declining qualifications of maths teachers

Everyone knows there is a problem in Australia, but no one has the answer, partly because it is a highly complex problem and certainly can't be fixed overnight. Australia's standards are declining in the main two international tests, TIMSS and Pisa, so there is no doubt there is a problem.

The key to standards is the teacher. Every time I ask a good mathematician if they were inspired by a particular teacher they will say yes, and provide at least one name. A teacher must be in control of the subject matter, understand the subject's culture, not be intimidated by a talented student but on the contrary be modest about the treatment of that student, should have a university major in mathematics, and above else must then have an enthusiasm for the subject which passes on to the student. There are now high schools in Australia where not one teacher has a major. Many Physical education teachers have been converted to maths teachers. Whereas many of them are generally positive towards this they don't tick all the boxes above.

In my day as a student there was no problem. If you wanted to be a teacher you could be paid as a student (very attractive) but be bonded for a few years. This can't be done any more so it is necessary to make the profession more attractive. The salary is not the only issue here. In fact salaries are not necessarily that low. But there are more attractive professions in the IT and finance industries, for example, where one doesn't need to worry about discipline issues. There are other ways of making teaching more attractive, even by giving them better workplace and dignity in their schools.

There are other problems. In my day as a student we spent 320 minutes a week in high school mathematics classes. Now this figure is generally accepted to be about 200 minutes. The syllabus has been trimmed down. What is left is more what I would call calculation with interesting parts of what I would call real mathematics missing. So the teacher does have a harder job to start with.

Teacher training is another part of the problem. Primary school teachers need a lot more than year 10 mathematics. There should be real mathematics content in the training of these teachers. It is now difficult for a primary school teacher to get a subject major. My son Gregory is the only primary teacher in Canberra with a mathematics major, and is in big demand, but now, the way funding works in Universities, only a sub major is possible, because an education faculty can get more money by teaching more of its own units.

Secondary teacher training is as serious a problem. The best way to qualify would be to get a mathematics degree first (even honours, like my brother John and colleague Anna Nakos) and then do a Dip Ed. But Education Faculties get more money by training the student with a four year BEd in which they teach a lot more sociology and psychology and a lot less mathematics. The University of Canberra has just restructured to include the maths and education staff in the one faculty. This is unusual in Australia but appears to be a very promising step. It does happen in Auckland University I and I understand it works well.

Elitism vs excellence

This is a perplexing subject because the use of these words can be used, sometimes deliberately, to give a misleading impression. There is not confusion about the word Excellence, it speaks for itself. It is the word Elite which has different meanings. A lot of people use the words Elite Athlete in the sense of being a very high level athlete, in fact an excellent athlete but one who has reached a level difficult to attain. This gets me to how I wish to use the word. An elite school to me is one which might be very expensive and generally difficult to get into. In other words inaccessible for the general person. My concern is with this meaning, related to accessibility.

A few years ago I was called to a government meeting for a briefing to be given by the then chief scientist, who had been given the job of breaking the news of budget cuts. People representing what I would call scientific enrichment organisations, for example science communicators, science week people etc. It was announced that all projects would have government funding cut, except two and these would be the Prime Minister Awards and the Olympiads. There were several speeches of dissent which followed and a number of these people described us as elitist.

So this is where I often had to clarify our situation in government negotiations. Yes, we get people up to very high standards, but this is expensive, and not many have the cash to afford it. So the need for Government support has always been to enable universal access, so students of all socio-economic backgrounds, can have access to this quality program.

The PwC report

Probably the most difficult part of my job always was to negotiate for government funding. This seemed to get more difficult towards 2010, when a new round of funding was due (we had for many years negotiated and were treated equally with our sister organisation Australian Science Innovations (ASI), which administered the Olympiads in Biology, Chemistry and Physics). We were given funding, but also were subject to an external review, which would be critical in further considerations. We had until this point of time relied on big-noting ourselves, and it was fair that some sort of external review be made to independently evaluate us. We welcomed the opportunity, as we were confident we had right on our side, but were initially nervous also, as it still depended on the agenda.

As it happened the reviewer appointed was PricewaterhouseCoopers, a high profile multinational, so it was clear that the review would have clout. The review started late in 201 and took place through the first part of 2011. The review started with me and my ASI counterpart being thoroughly interviewed, and over the following weeks various key stakeholders in sessions in various cities around the country. Early in 2011 we were given a preliminary debrief and asked for response. The final report was issued in the middle of the year.

The review was very favourable to us. The Science Olympiads had less infrastructure than us and received some special comments about survival, but together we were lauded for benefiting the country, lifting Australia's standards in mathematics and science, and thereby contributing to the economy.

There were some particularly nice details. Part of this included a professional evaluation of our volunteers, something we never knew how to do ourselves, but we were interested to see the evaluation, which was approximately equal to our annual expenses. We were able to extrapolate this to our AMC approximately also. One interesting outcome was that we were better known to schools around the country than some people thought we were, and we were heavily complimented on the success of our media program (as outlined below).

The relationship to government - Government funding

Government funding is very difficult to get, and the methods kept changing over the years, even being moved between two departments, the one containing education and the one containing science. One of the issues was, which we better belonged to, and it was not uncommon to be sent from one to the other. Both would from time to time a program most suitable for us, but the problem was we were in competition with organisations we didn't regard as similar. In the last government we had extra problems with education, as all discretionary money had been ceded for use by the states.

Since retirement I later got to know one of the public servants I had often had difficult negotiations with. He was by then also retired and we were able to speak a little more freely about the massive amount of time spent going back and forth. Of course these people would have their hands tied because they were under instructions from above. I assumed these people had the same frustrations at all the time which was wasted, and he absolutely agreed. He agreed the problem was we never fitted exactly to the purpose of the general funds to which we applied. Their view, like ours, was that the government should have quarantined from above money for the Olympiads. This would not preclude accountability.

What is the role of the media?

As implied from the PwC report, AMT has a very good history when it comes to using the media. This is very important to us because mathematics and science are much more difficult to get into the Australian media than sport (although it is the lifeblood of sport also). The reasons for our success can be attributed to the energy and organisation of Janine Bavin, who was our formal media and sponsorship contractor during my term as Executive Director. It also involved the need for easy communication between Janine and the office, particularly she should be able to get on the phone directly to the Executive Director and the Manager at any time. I always enjoyed working with Janine, and spent a lot of time focused on this aspect of the Trust's activities.

PwC highlighted the excellent media exposure we had during this time. Perhaps the main achievements were getting on to ABC's 730 report and 7 o'clock television news, frequent updates and interviews from the likes of Adam Spencer on Sydney ABC breakfast and Red Symons on Melbourne ABC breakfast, but it goes much further than that. The job is not done by writing a release and sending it off on a fax machine or placing on a web site. Most of the work is follow up and Janine was always maximising this. In one year during the 24 hour period of an Australian Mathematics Competition I was interviewed no less than 12 occasions, mostly by the ABC, which was always an enjoyable occasion as the reporters asked a lot of things in depth which sometimes I had not thought of myself. Janine would have set most of these up. Another memorable one was not long before retirement by arrangement I appeared on Rod Quinn's all night show, which went all over Australia, where Rod set the ball rolling by asking why mathematics was so important and the whole hour from 4am to 5am was devoted to the subject, most of which was spent fielding calls. I didn't know so many people were awake and active at that hour of the day! I also enjoyed going into the Canberra studios of the ABC where I was sometimes interviewed, particularly by Genevieve Jacobs.

As part of the strategy it is required for Olympiad team members to agree in writing to being available to the media. Not all of them are suitable, but some are outstanding, and we have means of knowing which ones will present the best. A particular favourite of Adam Spencer was Max Menzies, and he always asked for him during that time. But there were many others. Graham White was also excellent. I remember one night while walking through the streets of Ljubljana in 2006 after the Closing Ceremony I received a call on my mobile from the ABC in Sydney (Adam Spencer) and I was able to pass the phone to Graham who was interviewed live in the streets while people were waking up in Sydney to listen to Adam's program.


Northern Pintails are elegant, long-necked ducks with a slender profile. The tail is long and pointed, but it is much longer and more prominent on breeding males than on females and nonbreeding males. In flight, the wings are long and narrow.

Relative Size

Larger than a Green-winged Teal, smaller than a Mallard.

between crow and goose

Measurements
  • Both Sexes
    • Length: 20.1-29.9 in (51-76 cm)
    • Weight: 17.6-51.1 oz (500-1450 g)
    • Wingspan: 34.0 in (86.4 cm)

    Breeding male Northern Pintails stand out with a gleaming white breast and a white line down their chocolate brown head and neck. Females and males that are molting (eclipse plumage) are mottled in browns and whites with an unmarked pale tan face and a dark bill. In flight, males flash a green speculum (the inner wing feathers or secondaries) and females flash a bronzy speculum.

    Northern Pintails dabble on the surface of the water and filter out seeds and insects with their bills. They also waddle at the edges of wetlands and through agricultural fields feeding on grain and insects. They form large groups and readily associate with other ducks during the nonbreeding season.

    Northern Pintails nest in seasonal wetlands, croplands, grasslands, wet meadows, and shortgrass prairies. They forage in nearby shallow wetlands, lakes, and ponds. They spend the nonbreeding season in wetlands, ponds, lakes, bays, tidal marshes, and flooded agricultural fields.


    Pintail AMc-17 - History

    Published by the Smithsonian Institution between the 1920s and the 1950s, the Bent life history series of monographs provide an often colorful description of the birds of North America. Arthur Cleveland Bent was the lead author for the series. The Bent series is a great resource and often includes quotes from early American Ornithologists, including Audubon, Townsend, Wilson, Sutton and many others.

    Bent Life History for the Northern Pintail - the common name and sub-species reflect the nomenclature in use at the time the description was written.

    Spring: Northward, ever northward, clearly indicated on the distant sky, points the long slim figure of the pintail, in the vanguard of the spring migration, wending its way toward remote and still frozen shores. Vying with the mallard to be the first of the surface- feeding ducks to push northward on the heels of retreating winter, this hardy pioneer extends its migration to the Arctic coast of the continent and occupies the widest breeding range of any North American duck, throughout most of which it is universally abundant and well known.

    Prof. George E. Beyer (1906) says that, in Louisiana, "winter visitant individuals, as with similar individuals of the mallard, move northward very early, probably never later than the middle of January," whereas the spring transients in that State "are the latest of all the ducks except the teals and the shoveller." This accounts for the two distinct flights of pintails with which gunners are familiar. Dr. F. Henry Yorke (1899) recognizes three distinct flights he says:

    The spring migration above the frost line commences with the first breaking up of winter the ducks follow the open pools of water to be found in sloughs, lakes, and rivers, and with the yellow-leg mallard are the first of the nondivers to start for their northern nesting grounds. They arrive in three distinct issues, the first leaving, in bulk, at least, before the second arrives these stay about a week before they proceed northward. An absence of pintails, for three or four days, generally follows before the third issue put in an appearance, which stay a week or 10 days, according to the weather, then travel northward, breeding chiefly south of the Canadian line.

    Mr. Edmonde S. Currier (1902) says of its arrival in Iowa:

    If the great break-up of the ice comes late in the season,]as the]first week in March, which often happens after a severe winter, we find the eager sprigtails (Defile aeufo), and the first flight of mallards coming up, and then there is a bird life worth seeing. Although the number of ducks that pass here is rapidly falling off, still thousands are left.

    The first flight of pintails is, with us, the greatest, and they always appear while the ice is running. Several days before the ice gives way an occasional flock will come up and circle around over the frozen river as if taking observations, and then diEappear to the south. If a rain comes before the ice goes out, and forms pools in the bottom-land corn fields, they will settle in these until the rivers open, or a cold wave strikes us.

    The pintail reaches its breeding grounds in northern Alaska early in May and sometimes before the end of April, while winter condi- tions are still prevailing. Dr. E. W. Nelson (1887) says:

    One, spring a small party was found about a small spring bole in the ice on the seashore the first of May, while a foot of snow still covered the ground and the tem- perature ranged only a few degrees above zero. As snow and ice disappear they become more and more numerous, until they are found about the border of almost every pool on the broad fiats from the mouth of the Kuskoquim River north to the coast of Kotzebue Sound.

    Courtship: The courtship display of the shy pintail is not often seen, for even on their remote northern breeding grounds the males are ever alert and are not easily approached. The performance resembles that of the teals, where several drakes may be seen crowd- ing their attention on a single duck, each standing erect on the water proudly displaying his snowy breast, with his long neck doubled in graceful curves until his bill rested upon his swelling chest and with his long tail pointed upwards thus he displays his charms and in soft mewing notes he woos his apparently indifferent lady love until she expresses her approval with an occasional low quack.

    A more striking form of courtship, and one more often seen, is the marvelous nuptial flight, which Doctor Nelson (1887) has so well described as follows:

    Once, on May 17, while sitting overlooking a series of small ponds, a pair of pin. tails arose and started off, the male in full chase after the female. Back and forth they passed at a marvelously swift rate of speed, with frequent quick turns and evolu- tions. At one moment they were almost out of view high overhead and the next saw them skimming along the ground in an involved course very difficult to follow with the eye. Ere long a second male joined in the chase, then a third, and so on until six males vied with each other in the pursuit. The original pursuer appeared to be the only one capable of keeping

    lose to the coy female, and owing to her dextrous turns and curves he was able to draw near only at intervals. Whenever he did suc- ceed he always passed under the female, and kept so close to her that their wings clattered together with a noise like a watchman's rattle, and audible a long distance. This chase lasted half an hour, and after five of the pursuers had dropped off one by one the pair remaining (and I think the male was the same that originated the pur- suit) settled in one of the ponds.

    Nesting: Mr. F. Seymour Hersey says in his notes on this species in northern Alaska:

    There is probably no place within the breeding range of this widely distributed duck where it is more abundant than on the stretch of tundra bordering the Bering Sea coast of western Alaska. Almost every little tundra pond will contain a few birds: perhaps a pair or a female and two or three males: and parties of two to five or six arc constantly flying from one pond to another.

    The pintail very often makes its nest farther from water than any other of the northern breeding ducks, although the greater number nest near the shores of ponds. Before the set is complete, the eggs are covered with down, intermingled with leaves, sticks, dead grass, and mosses, and the female spends the day at a considerable dis- tance from the nest. Incubation begins only when the set is complete. Early in June, 1914, while walking over the tundra some miles back from St. Michael I noticed a few pieces of down clinging to the base of some dwarf willow bushes. It aroused my suspicions and searching among the accumulated dead leaves and morn at the roots of the bush I soon disclosed an incomplete set of pintail's eggs. They were thoroughly concealed and had it not been for the few telltale bits of down would have remained undiscovered. The female later completed this set, and on June 10 the nest held nine eges. This nest was at least a half mile from the nearest water. At the mouth of the Yukon on June 17, 1914, two nests were found in the center of anme clomps of willows in a marsh. The bushes were growing in a few inches o

    water through which a heavy zrowth of coarse grass protruded. About the base of the willows the dead grass of pr

    vious years was matted and in this dead grass the nests were made. This was the wettest situation that I ever knew this spccics to select in the north.

    As might be expected of an early migrant, the pintail is one of the earliest breeders in North Dakota it begins to lay by the 1st of May or earlier and we found that many of the broods were hatched by the first week in June. The nest is placed almost anywhere on dry ground, sometimes near the edge of a slough or pond, sometimes on an island in a lake, but more often on the prairie and sometimes a half a mile or more from the nearest water it is generally poorly concealed and is often in plain sight. Once, while crossing a tract of burned prairie, I saw a dark object fully half a mile away, which on closer inspection proved to be a pintail sitting on a nest full of half roasted eggs this was a beautiful illustration of parental de- votion and showed that the bird was not dependent on concealment. A deep hollow is scooped out in the ground, which is sparingly lined with bits of straw and stubble, and a scanty lining of down is increased in quantity as incubation advances.

    My North Dakota notes describe four nests of this species. The first nest, found on May 31, 1901, was concealed in rather tall prai- rie grass on the highest part of a small island in one of the larger lakes. On June 15 we found another nest in an open situation among rather sparse but tall prairie grass, which was in plain sight, the eggs being beautifully concealed by a thick covering of down. Another nest was shown to us by some farmers who were plowing up an extensive tract of prairie and had flushed the bird as they passed within a few feet of the nest they left a narrow strip con- taining the nest unplowed, but something destroyed the eggs a few days afterwards this nest was fully half a mile from the nearest water. The fourth nest was on the cdge of a cultivated wheat field, near the crest of a steep embankment sloping down into a large slough the nest was a deep hollow in the bottom of a furrow, 7 inches wide by 4 deep lined with bits of straw and weed stubble, with a moderate supply of down surrounding the eggs it was very poorly concealed by the scanty growth of weeds around it the eight eggs, which it contained on June 10, proved to be heavily incubated.

    In Saskatchewan, in 1905 and 1906, we recorded 11 nests of pin- tails, 8 of which were found on one small island on one day, where this species was breeding with large numbers of gadxvalls, blue-winged and green-winged teals, shovellers, mallards, baldpates, and lesser scaup ducks. One pintail's nest was prettily located under a wild rosebush among the sand hills near Crane Lake, 1 mile from the nearest creek and 2 miles from the lake.

    Mr. Robert B. Rockwell (1911) found two nests of this species, in the Barr Lake region of Colorado, in decidedly exposed situations, which he describes as follows:

    The first nest, found May 11, 1907, was probably the most unusually located nest of the pintail on record. It was just a trifle less than 18 feet from the rails of the main line of the Burlington route, over which a dozen or more heavy trains thun- dered every day, and well within the railroad right of way, where section hands and pedestrians passed back and forth continually. The mother bird had found a cavity in the ground, about 8 inches in diameter and 8 inches deep, and had lined it with grass and the two fresh eggs which it contained on this date were deposited without any downy lining whatever. The female flushed as we passed along the track about 20 feet distant, thus attracting our attention. A week later (on the 18th) the nest was fairly well lined with down and contained nine eggs, one egg having apparently been deposited each day. On May 24 the nest contained 1] eggs and the parent was much tamer than on the two preceding visits, allowing us to approach to within 15 feet of her, and alighting within 20 yards of us upon being flushed.

    Another peculiar nest was found May 30, 1908, containing 11 eggs which hatched during the first week in June. This nest was a depression in a perfectly bare sandy flat without a particle of concealment of any kind. The cavity was located in the most exposed position within hundreds of yards, and was fairly well lined with weed stems, grass, etc. and well rimmed with down. The brooding female was very con- spicuous against the background of bare sand, and could be readily seen from a dis- tance of 50 feet or more. This bird was rather wild and flushed while we were yet some distance from the nest.

    Mr. Eugene S. Rolfe (1898) records, what I have never seen, a pintail's nest in a wet situation, which is very unusual he says:

    The nesting of the pintail differs little generally from other ducks that select high dry spots among the prairie grass, badger brush, or old stubble but a young farmer this year piloted me to a clump of thick green bulrushes covering a space as large as a dining table in the midst of a springy bog, and in the center of this, built up 6 inches out of water (18 inches deep) on a foundation of coarse dried rushes, ex- actly after the manner of the redhead, canvasback, or ruddy, and lined with down, was a veritable nest of the pintail. The female was at home, and permitted approach within 6 feet and I stood some moments watching her curiously and regretting the absence of my camera before I realized that this was the pintail in a very unusual situation.

    The down in the pintail's nest most closely resembles that of the shoveller, but it is larger and darker. It varies in color from "hair brown" to "fuscous" or "clove brown" with whitish centers. The breast feathers mixed with the down are either of the characteristic banded pattern or are grayish brown with a broad white tip.

    Eggs: OnJy one brood is raised in a season and the number of eggs in the set averages less than with other surface feeding ducks. The set varies from 6 to 12 eggs, but it is usually less than 10. It is unusual to find the eggs of other ducks in a pintail's nest, but as the eggs closely resemble those of some other species, it may be a commoner occurrence than it is supposed to be. Mr. Edward Arnold (1894) records the finding of a golden eye's egg in a pintail's nest in Manitoba. The eggs closely resemble, in color and general appearance, those of the mallard and the shoveller, but they average smaller than the former and slightly larger than the latter, the measurements overlapping in both cases. In shape they are usually elliptical ovate and the color varies from very pale olive green to very I)ale olive buff, which fades out to a mere tint.

    Although the eggs of the pintail can not be separated v:ith cer- tainty from those of the above two species the nests of all three can usually be identified if a clear view of t.he female is obtained as she flies from the nest the female pintail can be distinguished from female mallard by the absence of the purple speculum with its con- spicuous white borders and by its long slender form she can be dis- tinguished from the shoveller by her larger size and her small bill the female shoveller has a long neck, but a conspicuously large bill the wing pattern is different, but the difference is difficult to detect in the rapidily moving wings of a flying duck.

    The measurements of 102 eggs, in various collections, average 54.9 by 38.2 millimeters the eggs showing the four extremes measure 60 by 38.5, 58.5 by 40.5, 60.5 by 37.2 and 53 by 35 millimeters.

    Young: The period of incubation is about 22 or 23 days and the incubation is performed wholly by the female she is a very close sitter and is often nearly trodden upon before she will leave the nest I have heard of one being knocked over with a stick or a plowman's whip as she fluttered off, and it is not a difficult matter to photograph one on her nest. The male does not, I believe, wholly desert the female during the process of incubation and he assists somewhat in the care of the young, though he is not as bold in their defense. The young remain in the nest for a day or so after they are hatched or until the down is thoroughly dried. The whole brood usually hatches within a few hours, for, although only one egg is laid each day, in- cubation does not begin until the set. is complete. As soon as the young are strong enough to walk they are led by their mother to the nearest water, which is often a long distance away, and taught to feed on soft insect and aquatic animal food. I have seen some re- markable demonstrations of parental solicitude by female pintails they are certainly the most courageous of any of the ducks in die defense of their young. Once in North 1)akota as we waded out into a marsh a female pintail flew towards us, dropped into the x

    ater near its, and began splashing about in a state of great excitement. The young ducks were probably well hidden among the reeds, though we could not see or hear them. During all the time, for an hour or more, that we were wading around the little slough that l)intail watched us and followed us closely, flying about our heads and back and forth over the slough, frequently splashing down into the water near us in the most reckless manner, swimming about in small cirdes or splashing along the surface of the water, as if wounded, and often near enough for us to have hit her with a stick, quacking excitedly all the time. I never saw a finer exhibition of parental devotion than was shown by her total disregard of her own safety, which did not cease until we left the locality entirely. I have had several similar experiences elsewhere. If alarmed, when swimming in the sloughs, the young seldom attempt to dive though they can do so, if necessary they more often swim into the reeds and hide while the mother bird attracts the attention of the intruder. Doctor Cones (1874) says that during July in Montana: the young were just beginning to fly, in most instances, while the old birds were for the most part deprived of flight by molting of the quills. Many of the former were killed with sticks, or captured by hand, and afforded welcome variation of our hard fare. On invasion of the grassy or reedy pools where the ducks were, they generaliy crawled shyly out upon the prairie around, and there squatted to hide so that we procured more from the dry grass surrounding than in the pools themselves. I have sometimes stumbled thus upon several together, crouching as close as possible, and caught them all in my hands.

    Dr. Harold C. Bryant (1914) relates the following incident: On May 21 a pintail with 10 downy young was discovered on the bank of a pond. When first disturhed she was brooding her young on dry ground t.bout 10 feet from the water. The moment she flew the downy young assumed rigidly the same pose they had variously held beneath the mother. Some were standing nearly erect whereas others were crouching, but all were huddled close together. They remained perfectly motionless while, leaving Kendall to watch, I went for the camera. I hsd gone over a hundred yards before they moved. By the time I returned they had wandered off about 10 yards. They marched in single file and every now and then huddled close together posing motionless for a few moments.

    Plumages: The downy young is grayer and browner than other young surface-feeding ducks and thus easily recognized. The crown is dark, rich "clove brown" a broad superciliary stripe of grayish white extends from the lores to the occiput below this the side of the head is mainly grayish white, fading to pure white on the throat and chin, with a narrow postocular stripe of "clove brown" and a paler and broader stripe of the same below it. The back is "clove brown," darkest on the rump, with grayish or buffy tips on the down of the upper back the rump and scapular spots are white, the latter sometimes elongated into stripes. The lower parts are grayish white, palest in the center. The chest, and sometimes the sides of the head, are suffused with pinkish buff, but never with yellow. The colors become duller and paler as the bird grows older. When the young bird is about 3 weeks old the first feathers appear on the flanks and scapulars and the tail becomes noticeable about a week later feathers begin to show on the rump, breast, head, and neck, and the bird is fully grown before its contour plumage is complete the flight feathers are the last to be acquired. The length of time required to complete the first plumage varies greatly in different individuals, but the sequence in which it appears is uniform.

    Mr. J. G. Millais (1902) says of the sequence of plumages to maturity:

    When in first plumage the young male and female are exceedingly like one an- other, especially at the commencement of this period they also resemble the mother to a certain extent, but from her they can be easily distinguished by the small spots which cover the breast and belly, and the narrow brown edge of the feathers on the back and scapulars. The young male pintail, however, like the young mallard drake, almost as soon as he has assumed his first dress commences to color change in the back and scapulars. A gray tinge suffuses the brown plumage and slight reticu- lations appear on the feathers themselves, rendering it easy to notice the difference between him and the young female. He is also somewhat larger. By the middle of September the usu2.l molt and the more a(lvanced feather changes commence, and sometimes, in birds in a high state of condition, advance so rapidly, that young drakes of the year may attain the full plumage of tile adult drake by the beginning of Dec- ember. Most of them, however, retain a considerable proportion of the brown plu- mage until February, when the spring flush finishes off the dress. Even then young pintail drakes are not nearly so brilliant as 2 or 3 year old birds, and often show their youthfulness by their shorter tail, dull coloring on the head, and reticulated black bars traversing the white stripes on either side of the neck.

    There is considerable individual variation in the length of time re- quired by young birds t.o throw off the last signs of immaturity, but old and young birds become practically indistinguishable before the first eclipse plumage is assumed and entirely so after it is discarded. Some male pintails begin to show the first spotted feathers of the eclipse plumage early in Juno and during July the molt progresses rapidly and uniformly over the whole hody, head, and neck until the full eclipse is complete in August, and the males are indistinguishable from females except by the wings and the difference in size. The wings are mohed only once, of course, in August and, after the flight feathers are fully grown, early in September, the second molt into the adult winter begins this molt is usually not completed until November or December, the time varying with different individuals. I have never detected any signs of a spring mGit in male pintails, but Mr. Millais calls attention to the fact t.hat females which have pure white breasts in the winter become more or less spotted during the nesting season.

    Food: The pintail is a surface feeder, dipping below the surface only with the fore part of its body, with its tail in the air, maintain- mg its balance by paddling with its feet, while its long neck is reach- ing for its food. Here it feeds on the bulbous roots and tender shoots of a great variety of water plants, as well as their seeds it also finds some animal food such as minnows, crawfish, tadpoles, leeches, worms, snails, insects, and larvae. Dr. F. henry Yorke (1899) states that it feeds on wheat, barley, buckwheat, and Indian corn. Audubon (1840) says of its animal food:

    It feeds on tadpoles in spring and leeches in autumn, while, during winter, a dead mouse, should it come in its way, is swallowed with as much avidity as by a mallard. To these articles of food it adds insects of all kinds, and, in fact, it is by no means an inexpert flycatcher.

    Dr. P. L. Hatch (1892) says that, in Minnesota, the pintails may be found in spring "along the recently opened streams, and in the woodlands where they spend much of their time in search of acorns, insects, snails, and larvae of different kinds, which are under the wet leaves and on the old decaying logs with which the forests abound." Mr. Edward A. Preble (1908) found it feeding on small mollusks (Li,'mnaea palustris) in northern Canada, and Mr. F. C. Baker (1889) dissected 15 stomachs in Florida, all of which contained "shells of Truncatella

    ubcylindrica (Say)." Mr. Douglas C. Mabbott (1920) sums up the food of the pintail as follows:

    Vegetable matter constitutes about seven-eighths (87.15 per cent) of the total food of the pintail. This is made up of the following items: Pondweeds, 28.04 per cent sedges, 21.78 grasses, 9.64 smartweeds and docks, 4.74 arrow gram, 4.52 musk gram and other algae, 3.44 arrowhead and water plantain, 2.84 goosefoot family, 2.58 water lily family, 2.57 duckweeds, 0.8 water milfoils, 0.21 and miscellaneous vege- table food, 5.99 per cent.

    The animal portion, 12.85 per cent, of the food of the pintail was made up of mol- lusks, 5.81 per cent crustaceans, 3.79 per cent insects, 2.85 per cent and miscel- laneous, 0.4 per cent.

    Behavior: The pintail is built on graceful, clipper lines and is well fitted to cleave the air at a high rate of speed it has been credited by gunners with ability to make 90 miles an hour this may be rather a high estimate of its speed, but it is certainly very fleet of wing and surpassed by few if any of the ducks. Mr. Walter H. Rich (1907) says:

    The pintails flight will at once remind the bay gunner of that of the "old squaw," so well known along the Atlantic coast. The same chain lightning speed and darting and wheeling evolutions are common to both species.

    Dr. E. W. Nelson (1887) who had good opportunities for studying this species in Alaska, gives the following graphic account of one of its remarkable flight performances:

    During the mating season they have a habit of descending from a great altitude at an angle of about 45,0 with their wings stiffly outspread and slightly decurved down- ward. They are frequently so high that I have heard the noise produced by their passage through the air from 15 to 20 seconds before the bird came in sight. They descend with meteorlike swiftness until within a few yards of the ground, when a slight change in the position of the wings sends the birds gliding away close to the ground from 100 to 300 yards without a single wing stroke. The sound produced by this swift passage through the air can only be compared to the rushing of a gale through tree tops. At first it is like a murmur, then rising to a hiss, and then almost assuming the proportions of a roar as the bird sweeps by.

    The pintail can generally be distinguished in ffight by its long, slim neck and slender build, which is conspicuous in both sexes the tail is also more pointed than in other species, even without the long tail feathers of the full plumaged male. The pintail springs upward from the water, much like a teal, and gets under way at once a flock of pintails flushed suddenly will often bunch together so closely as to give the gunner a chance for a destructive shot.

    The pintail is a graceful swimmer, riding lightly on the surface, with its tail pointing upward, its general attitude suggestive of a swan and with its long neck stretched up, alert to every danger, the first to give the alarm and always the first of the shy waterfowl to spring into flight. The hunter must be very cautious if he would stalk this wary bird. Though not a diver from choice, the pintail can dive when necessity requires it. It often escapes by diving while in the flightless stage of eclipse plumage.

    Mr. Hersey's notes on this species in Alaska record the following interesting observation:

    While the pintail is not a diving duck it can dive readily if wounded and in other emergencies. On one occasion a female followed by two males flew past and I shot the female. She dropped into a nearby pond but when I reached the shore ha4 crawled into the grass and hidden. Circling the pond, which was but 30 or 40 feet in width by about the same number of yards in length, I soon reached my bird. Without hesitation she dove and crossed to the other side under water. The water was fairly clear and not more than 30 inches deep and the bird's movements could be plainly watched. The body was held at an angle, with the neck extended but not straight and the head slightly raised. The wings were partly opened but were not used and the feet struck out alternately as in running rather than with a swim- ming motion. The bird reminded me of a frightened chicken crossing the road in front of an automobile but the speed was much slower through the water than in the case of the chicken. The bird did not run on the bottom of the pond but was per- haps 6 or 7 inches from the bottom. On reaching the opposite shore she came up directly into the concealment of the grass. This proceeding was repeated in exactly the same manner several times before I secured the bird.

    The following incident, described by Mr. Frank T. Noble (1906) will illustrate a strange habit which this and nearly all ducks have of disappearing beneath the surface when wounded he had shot two pintails, one being: killed outright, the other, a big drake, being hard hit and with one wing broken. Before the latter could be shot over, he made a dive with considerable difficulty and disappeared from view. We waited perhaps half a minute for him to appear again, but not doing so we paddled to the spot, where we found the water there. abouts to be scarcely 3 feet deep, and the bottom to be thickly covered with various kinds of lily pads and grasses. A few moments of careful search and the duck was discovered on the bottom, grasping with its bill the tough stem of a cowslip. The body of the bird floated upward posteriorly, somewhat higher than the position of the head, and the long tail feathers were a foot or more nearer the surface than the former. The bird's feet were outstretched, but he was motionless until molested, then he kicked and fluttered vigorously, all the time retaining his hold upon the bottom, and it required considerable force to break him away from his queer anchorage.

    Mr. J. G. Millais (1902) says that:

    The nuptial call of the drake is identical with that of the teal. The female only oc- casionally utters a low quack, but she sometimes makes a call something like the growling croak of the female widgeon. The notes of both sexes are always quite distinct.

    The ordinary note of the male pintail is a low mellow whistle, and I doubt if it ever utters the quacking note which should be attributed to the female the rolling note, similar to that of the lesser scaup duck, may be common to both sexes Dr. E. W. Nelson (1887) says that this note "may be imitated by rolling the end of the tongue with the mouth ready to utter the sound of k.

    The pintail associates freely on its breeding grounds with various species of ducks, particularly with the mallard, gadwall, blue-winged teal, baldpate, shoveller, and lesser scaup duck. It usually flocks by itself, however, on migrations. Its most formidable enemy is man for with the sportsman the pintail is a favorite. Its eggs are also sought for food, in some localities quite regularly, for the nests are easily found and the eggs are very palatable. Mr. Robert B. Rock- well (1911) has published a photograph of a bull snake robbing a pintail's nest in Colorado. I have seen nests in Saskatchewan which showed signs of having been robbed by coyotes.

    Fall: Although the pintail is one of our earliest migrants in the spring, it seems much less hardy in the fall and is one of the first of the ducks to seek the sunny South as soon as the first frosty nights proclaim the approach of autumn. Doctor Yorke (1899) says of the fall migration:

    In the fall migration they differ from other cold-weather birds of the nondivers in returning south before the cold weather sets in in fact, the first frost finds those which bred in the United States rapidly wending their way toward the frost line. The first issue to come down in the fall usually leaves the northern part of Minnesota and North Dakota about the end of August. They associate a good deal with the baldpates and gadwalls, using the same feeding, roosting, and playgrounds in the fall, not associating with them in the spring owing to their having gone north several weeks before them, and feeding to a large extent upon grain and corn fields. The second fall issue generally overtakes the first before they reach the frost line. They collect in some quiet piece of water, migrate at night and never return that fall. They do not assume their full plumage north of the frost line.

    Game: As a game bird the pintail ranks about third among the surface-feeding ducks, next in importance to the mallard and black duck its wariness and its swiftness on the wing test the cunning and skill of the sportsman its wide distribution, its abundance and its excellent table qualities give it a prominent place as a food bird. Late winter and early spring shooting was popular in the Middle West before the laws prohibited it, where the birds arrived early, as soon as the ice began to break up in the marshes and slouglis here the birds were shot on their morning and evening flights to and from their feeding grounds from blinds or boats concealed in their fly ways, no decoys being necessary. Pintails will come readily to live mallard decoys during the daytime on their feeding grounds and they will respond to duck calls if skillfully handled, offering very fine sport where they are not shot at too much.

    Dr. Leonard C. Sanford (1903) says: In portions of the West where they frequent the ponds and smaller lakes they are much more easily killed than on larger bodies of water. The pintail arrives on the coast of North Carolina late in October, and are found in numbers through the brackish sounds: Decoys attract them occasionally, but never in as large numbers as the other ducks, for they are always wary and quick to suspect danger. These birds can be distin- guished afar. The white under parts of the male and their long necks mark them at once. The ifight is high in lines abreast, but almost before the flock is seen they are by and out of sight. When about to decoy no bird is more graceful they often drop from a height far out of range and circle about the stool, watching carefully for the slightest motion finally they swing within range and plunge among the wooden ducks. After realizing the mistake, they spring up all together, and are out of shot almost before you realize the chance is gone.

    Winter: Like many other fresh-water ducks of the interior the pintail winters largely on the warm seacoasts of the Southern States, though it is also abundant among the inland ponds and marshes below the frost line. It is particularly abundant in Florida, as the following account by Mr. C. J. Maynard (1896) will show:

    On one occasion, while I was making my way down Indian River, numbers of these ducks were passing over my heed southward. They flew in straggling flocks, con- sisting of from twenty to some hundreds of specimens, and one company followed another so closely that there was an almost unbroken line. They continued to move in this manner all the morning thus many thousands of individuals must have passed us. Shortly after noon they began to alight along the beaches in such numbers that they fairly covered the ground, and were so unsuspicious that my assistant, who had left the boat some time previous, walked within a few yards of them, and killed three or four with a single discharge of a light gun which was merely loaded with a small charge of dust shot. This occurred in early March and the birds were evi- dently gathering, preparatory to migrating northward, for in a few days they had all disappeared.

    While wintering on the seacoast, especially where it is much mo: lested, the pintail often spends the day well out on the ocean, flying in at night to feed in the shallow tidal estuaries on the beds of Zostera or on the mud and sand flats where it finds plenty of small mollusks.

    DISTRIBUTION
    Breeding range: The species is circumpolar. The North American form breeds east to the west coast of Hudson Bay, and James Bay (both coasts), and rarely east of Lake Michigan. It has been known to breed in New Brunswick (Tobique River, 1879) and in southern Ontario (Rondeau, Lake Erie) and southeastern Michigan (St. Clair Flats

    . South to northern Illinois (formerly, but now scarce even in Wisconsin), central Iowa (Hamilton and Sac Counties), central western Nebraska (Garden and Morrill Counties), northern Colorado (Larimer County and Barr Lake region), northern Utah (Bear River marshes), and southern California (Riverside County). West to the central valleys of California (Los Angeles, Kern, Merced, Sutter, and Butte Counties), central Oregon (Klamath and Maiheur Lakes), west- ern Washington (Pierce County), central British Columbia (Cariboo), and the Bering Sea coast of Alaska. North to the Arctic coast of Alaska (Point Barrow), northern Mackenzie (Fort Anderson), and the Arctic coast west of Hudson Bay. Replaced in northern Europe and Asia by a closely allied subspecies.

    Winter range: East to the Atlantic coast of the United States, the Bahamas, Cuba, and Porto Rico, and rarely to the Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Antigua). South to Jamaica and Pan- ama. West to the Pacific coast of Central America, Mexico, and the United States. North along the Pacific slope to southern British Columbia (Chilliwack and Okanagan Lake) in the interior north to northeastern Colorado (Barr Lake), Okiaholna, central Missouri (Mis- souri River), southern Illinois (Mount Cannel), southern Ohio (Ohio River), Maryland (Chesapeake Bay), and eastern Virginia (Cobb Is- land). Said to winter regularly in southern Wisconsin and casually as far north as southeastern Nebraska (Lincoln) and southeastern Maine (Calais). Winters jn Hawaiian Islands.

    Spring migration: Early dates of arrival: Pennsylvania, Erie, February 23 New York, northwestern, February 25 Newfoundland, Grand Lake, April 20 Illinois, Chicago, March 12 North Dakota, Larimore, March 20 Manitoba, Raeburn, April 5 Mackenzie, Fort Simpson, April 28 Alaska, Koxvak River, May 14 and Demarcation Point, May 24. Average dates of arrival: Illinois, southern, Feb- ruary 26 Missouri, central, February 26 Iowa, Keokuk, February 18 Illinois, Chicago, March 20 Minnesota, southern, March 9 Minne- sota, northern, April 8 North Dakota, Larimore, April 3 Saskat- chewan, Qu' Appelle, April 10 Manitoba, Raeburn, April 8 Mac- kenzie, Great Slave Lake, May 1: Alaska, St. Michael, about May 1.

    Fall migration: Early dates of arrival: Quebec, Montreal, Septem- ber 3 Long Island, Mastic, August 21 Massachusetts, eastern, September 11 Pennsylvania, Erie, September 6: Virginia, Alexan- dr

    a, September 13 Florida, Wakulla County, September 11 Texas, Corpus Christi, August 18 California, Santa Barbara, August 25 Lower California, southern, August 29. Late dates of departure: Alaska, Point Barrow, September 7 Kowak River, September 14 and St. Michael, October 10 Mackenzie, Fort Franklin, September 27 Long Island, East Rocka

    Casual records: Has occurred in Porto Rico (Cartagena Lagoon, April 8, 1921), Bermuda (winter 1847: 48 and October 26, 1875), Greenland (Godthaab and "northern"), and Labrador (Hopedale, Davis Inlet, etc.). Recorded from Laysan Island.

    Egg dates: Alaska and Arctic America: Fifty-five records, May 23, to July 16 twenty-eight records, June 10 t.o 24. California, Colorado, and Utah: Twenty-two records, April 30 to June 29 eleven records, May 15 to 30. Manitoba and Saskatchewan: Twenty records, May 16 to July 3: ten records, June 4 to 14. North Dakota: Twenty-three records, May 11 to June 27 twelve records, May 23 to June 10.


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    Anas acuta Linnaeus, 1758

    (Anatidae Ϯ Mallard A. platyrhynchos) L. anas, anatis duck. The Mallard is the wild ancestor of the farmyard duck and its many domesticated forms "61. ANAS. Rostrum lamelloso-dentatum, convexum, obtusum. Lingua ciliata, obtusa." (Linnaeus 1758) "Anas Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 122. Type, by subsequent designation (Lesson, 1828, Man. Ornith., 2, p. 417), Anas boschas Linnaeus = Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus." (Johnsgard in Peters, 1979, I, ed. 2, p. 460). Linnaeus's Anas comprised thirty-nine species (A. Cygnus, A. Cygnoid, A. Tadorna, A. spectabilis, A. fusca, A. nigra, A. Anser, A. erythropus, A. canadensis, A. cærulescens, A. Bernicla, A. mollissima, A. moschata, A. bahamensis, A. Albeola, A. clypeata, A. platyrhynchos, A. strepera, A. bucephala, A. Clangula, A. rustica, A. perspicillata, A. Glaucion, A. Penelope, A. acuta, A. hyemalis, A. ferina, A. Querquedula, A. Crecca, A. histrionica, A. minuta, A. Circia, A. autumnalis, A. Boschas, A. adunca, A. galericulata, A. Sponsa, A. arborea, A. Fuligula).
    Var. Annas, Anos, Anus, Asnas.
    Synon. Aethiopinetta, Afranas, Aldabranas, Archeoquerquedula, Boschas, Crecca, Dafila, Dafilonettion, Dafilula, Elasmonetta, Horizonetta, Melananas, Micronetta, Nesonetta, Nettion, Notonetta, Pachyanas, Paecilonitta, Phasianurus, Philippinetta, Polionetta, Trachelonetta, Virago, Xenonetta.

    L. acutus sharp-pointed < acuere to sharpen to a point.
    ● "61. ANAS. . acuta. 25. A. cauda acuminata elongata subtus nigra, occipite utrinque linea alba. Anas cauda cuneiformi acuta. Fn. svec. 96. Anas cauda acuta. Gesn. av. 121. Will. orn. 289. t. 73. Raj. av. 147. Alb. av. 2. p. 84. t. 94. Habitat in Europæ maritimis." (Linnaeus 1758) (Anas).
    ● ex &ldquoHirondelle noire acutipenne de la Martinique&rdquo of de Buffon 1770-1783 (syn. Chaetura martinica).


    Pintail Lake and Redhead Marsh

    The City of Show Low built its first wastewater collection and treatment system in 1958. It consisted of sewer lines, serving the original townsite and contiguously built up areas of the city, and two stabilization ponds for treatment. Effluent was discharged directly into Show Low Creek, adjacent to the treatment plant, eventually reaching Fool Hollow Lake. Nutrient loading resulted in accelerated lake eutrophication, algae blooms, and resulting fish kills.

    In 1970, with the cooperation of the U.S. Forest Service, wastewater discharge into the creek was halted. The effluent was pumped two miles north to a natural depression known as Telephone Lake where it contributed to the development of wildlife habitat. In 1977, due to increasing population and resulting effluent flows, the treatment system was expanded to include additional natural depressions to the East which became known as Pintail and South Lake Marshes. In Pintail Lake the U.S. Forest Service began to construct islands to enhance waterfowl reproduction.

    By 1982 wastewater flows exceeded the treatment plant's design capacity. Discharges directly into Show Low Creek and decreased quality of effluent delivered to the marsh treatment areas resulted in degraded habitat quality and sharply decreased waterfowl populations. In 1985 the City began to work on a long term solution to the problems of treatment plant capacity and providing high quality effluent to the created wetlands.

    The solution selected was to deepen and improve the existing treatment lagoons by adding aeration, increase pumping capacity, add stabilization ponds for secondary treatment, increase the capacity of Telephone Lake for effluent storage, and add additional marsh capacity for final treatment and reuse.

    Treatment Facility

    The City of Show Low wastewater treatment facility now consists of two aerated lagoons that may be operated in series or parallel, a lift station with two 1,150 gpm pumps, four biological stabilization ponds that may also be operated in series or parallel, a chlorination contact chamber, effluent storage and clarification in Telephone Lake, nutrient removal in constructed riparian areas, and eventual reuse in constructed waterfowl marshlands.

    For more information, please feel free to contact the USDA Forest Service, Lakeside Ranger District at 520.368.5111 or you may write us at 2022 W. White Mtn. Blvd., Pinetop-Lakeside, Arizona 85935


    Anas eatoni (Sharpe, 1875)

    (Anatidae Ϯ Mallard A. platyrhynchos) L. anas, anatis duck. The Mallard is the wild ancestor of the farmyard duck and its many domesticated forms "61. ANAS. Rostrum lamelloso-dentatum, convexum, obtusum. Lingua ciliata, obtusa." (Linnaeus 1758) "Anas Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 122. Type, by subsequent designation (Lesson, 1828, Man. Ornith., 2, p. 417), Anas boschas Linnaeus = Anas platyrhynchos Linnaeus." (Johnsgard in Peters, 1979, I, ed. 2, p. 460). Linnaeus's Anas comprised thirty-nine species (A. Cygnus, A. Cygnoid, A. Tadorna, A. spectabilis, A. fusca, A. nigra, A. Anser, A. erythropus, A. canadensis, A. cærulescens, A. Bernicla, A. mollissima, A. moschata, A. bahamensis, A. Albeola, A. clypeata, A. platyrhynchos, A. strepera, A. bucephala, A. Clangula, A. rustica, A. perspicillata, A. Glaucion, A. Penelope, A. acuta, A. hyemalis, A. ferina, A. Querquedula, A. Crecca, A. histrionica, A. minuta, A. Circia, A. autumnalis, A. Boschas, A. adunca, A. galericulata, A. Sponsa, A. arborea, A. Fuligula).
    Var. Annas, Anos, Anus, Asnas.
    Synon. Aethiopinetta, Afranas, Aldabranas, Archeoquerquedula, Boschas, Crecca, Dafila, Dafilonettion, Dafilula, Elasmonetta, Horizonetta, Melananas, Micronetta, Nesonetta, Nettion, Notonetta, Pachyanas, Paecilonitta, Phasianurus, Philippinetta, Polionetta, Trachelonetta, Virago, Xenonetta.

    ● Revd. Alfred Edmond Eaton (1845-1929) English naturalist, explorer (Anas, syn. Pachyptila turtur).
    ● Warren Francis Eaton (1900-1936) US naturalist (syn. Strix virgata centralis).
    ● Lt. Dr George Francis Eaton (1872-1949) US Navy, palaeontologist, geologist (&DaggerSturnella neglecta).


    Step 16: Coamings

    Coamings are vertical pieces that surround the cockpit. They usually stand proud of the deck, in this case by about 1 inch, to keep water out of the cockpit should it come over the deck. I used 3/8ths exterior ply wood. You want to do the long pieces first . I started with 6 inch strips. After fitting all of the pieces and holding them in place with a couple of screws, I used the T shaped part of my quick square to mark all the way around. You could also use piece of wood that is the proper dimension. What is the proper dimension? That's up to you. I really don't use a tape measure that much. I prefer to put pieces in place and mark them. I find that to be more accurate. Anyway if you are able to cut these parts in place, do so. If not, remove, cut and replace. I removed the short pieces and cut the long ones in place with the Dozuki saw. I then went around the outside of the coaming and the inside corners with 5200.

    And that about wraps up the woodworking portion of our program. Tune in next time for "Prepping and Painting".

    Thanks for checking out my 'ible on building Pintail. I hope you will vote for me in the contests I have entered and if you enjoyed this and would like to see more, don't be afraid to follow me so you can be notified of my next one.


    Watch the video: 5 Best Longboards for Cruising. How To Choose The Best Cruiser Longboard (January 2022).