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War Debt Commission [February 9, 1922] - History

War Debt Commission [February 9, 1922] - History

An Act To create a commission authorized under certain conditions to refund or convert obligations of foreign Governments held by the United States of America, and for other purposes.

Be it enacted ...., That a World War Foreign Debt Commission is hereby created consisting of five members, one of whom shall be the Secretary of the Treasury, who shall serve as chairman, and four of whom shall be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate.

SEC. 2. That, subject to the approval of the President, the commission created by section I is hereby authorized to refund or convert, and to extend the time of payment of the principal or the interest, or both, of any obligation of any foreign Government now held by the United States of America, or any obligation of any foreign Government hereafter received by the United States of America (including obligations held by the United States Grain Corporation, the War Department, the Navy Department, or the American Relief Administration), arising out of the World War, into bonds or other obligations of such foreign Government in substitution for the bonds or other obligations of such Government now or hereafter held by the United States of America, in such form and of such terms, conditions, date or dates of maturity, and rate or rates of interest, and with such security, if any, as shall be deemed for the best interests of the United States of America: Provided, That nothing contained in this Act shall be construed to authorize or empower the commission to extend the time of maturity of any such bonds or other obligations due the United States of America by any foreign Government beyond June 15, 1947, or to fix the rate of interest at less than 4.5 per centum per annum: Provided further, That when the bond or other obligation of any such Government has been refunded or converted as herein provided, the authority of the commission over such refunded or converted bond or other obligation shall cease.

SEC. 3. That this Act shall not be construed to authorize the exchange of bonds or other obligations of any foreign Government for those of any other foreign Government, or cancellation of any part of such indebtedness except through payment thereof

SEC. 4. That the authority granted by this Act shall cease and determine at the end of three years from the date of the passage of this Act.

SEC. 5. That the annual report of this commission shall be included in the Annual Report of the Secretary of the Treasury on the state of the finances, but said commission shall immediately transmit to the Congress copies of any refunding agreements entered into, with the approval of the President, by each foreign Government upon the completion of the authority granted under this act. Approved, February 9,1922


Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs

Established: General Staff, in the War Department, effective August 15, 1903, by an act of February 14, 1903 (32 Stat. 830), replacing the Provisional General Staff and the Headquarters of the Army. Special Staff, in the War Department, effective March 9, 1942, by Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942.

Predecessor Agencies:

Abolished: By the National Security Act of 1947 (61 Stat. 495), July 26, 1947, which abolished the War Department and replaced it with a Department of the Army in the National Military Establishment, later the Department of Defense.

Successor Agencies: General and Special Staffs, United States Army (1947-50) Army Staff (1950- ).

Finding Aids: Harry W. John and Olive K. Liebman, comps., "Preliminary Inventory of the Textual Records of the War Department General and Special Staffs," NM 84 (June 1967) supplement in National Archives microfiche edition of preliminary inventories.

Security-Classified Records: This record group may include material that is security-classified.

Related Records:
Records of the Office of the Secretary of War, RG 107.
Records of the Headquarters of the Army, RG 108.
Records of the Army Staff, RG 319.

165.2 Records of the Office of the Chief of Staff (OCS)
1903-47

History: Headquarters of the Army, constituting the centralized staff functions vested in the personal staff of the Commanding General of the Army, established by an act of March 2, 1821 (3 Stat. 615). War Department General Staff, headed by a Chief of Staff, to supersede the Headquarters of the Army, established, effective August 15, 1903, by General Order 15, Headquarters of the Army, February 18, 1903, confirming provisions of an act reorganizing the army (32 Stat. 830), February 14, 1903. An interim Provisional General Staff developed a permanent organization for, and assigned duties to, the WDGS and its divisions. Statement of permanent organization and functions promulgated as General Order 120, Headquarters of the Army, August 14, 1903.

Services of Supply (SOS) established in the War Department, effective March 9, 1942, by Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942, implementing the reorganization of the army mandated by EO 9082, February 28, 1942, with responsibility for administering the War Department Special Staff, a collective designation initially applied by Circular 59 to disparate organizations performing specialized functions for the Chief of Staff. SOS redesignated Army Service Forces (ASF) by General Order 14, War Department, March 12, 1943. ASF abolished, effective June 11, 1946, by Circular 138, War Department, May 14, 1946, pursuant to EO 9722, May 13, 1946.

In implementation of the provisions of the National Security Act of 1947 abolishing the War Department and establishing the Department of the Army (see 165.1), WDGS and WDSS redesignated General Staff, United States Army, and Special Staff, United States Army, by Circular 225, War Department, August 16, 1947. Confirmed and made immediately effective by Circular 1, Department of the Army, September 18, 1947. Term "Army Staff" adopted as the collective name for all organizations responsible to the Chief of Staff, United States Army, by the Army Organization Act of 1950 (64 Stat. 263), June 28, 1950, as confirmed by General Order 97, Department of the Army, November 13, 1951.

Textual Records: Reports of the Provisional General Staff, with indexes, June-August 1903. General correspondence, 1903-47, with indexes, 1906-47. Security-classified general correspondence, 1942-47. Records of conferences of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combined Chiefs of Staff, 1939-47. Correspondence with the White House, including cables, 1939-46. Office files of Gens. J. Lawton Collins, 1942-46, and O.L. Nelson, 1938-46. Radiograms, 1942. Records relating to the proposed Department of National Defense, 1943-46. Reports containing personnel and materiel statistics, 1917-45. Records relating to the return of U.S. prisoners of war (Project Eversharp), 1945-46.

Microfilm Publications: M995.

Related Records: Records of the immediate Office of the Chief of Staff in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.3 Records of the Personnel Division (G-1)
1919-49

History: First and Third Divisions, Provisional General Staff, established by memorandum of Maj. Gen. Samuel H.M. Young, President of the War College Board and Chief of Staff-designate, May 28, 1903, with First Division responsible for the appointment, assignment, promotion, decoration, and training of officers of all arms except the technical and special arms, which were assigned to Third Division. Became First and Third Divisions, WDGS, August 15, 1903. First and Third Divisions abolished in WDGS reorganization pursuant to memorandum of the Chief of Staff, June 27, 1908, confirmed by General Order 128, War Department, August 12, 1908, with personnel functions to newly established First Section. In subsequent WDGS reorganization pursuant to memorandum of the Chief of Staff, September 26, 1910, First Section abolished, with training functions to newly established War College Division (see 165.7), and all other personnel functions to immediate Office of the Chief of Staff. Promotion and assignment functions transferred to newly established Executive Division, with all other personnel functions to newly established Operations Division, WDGS, by General Order 14, War Department, February 9, 1918. Executive Division personnel functions transferred to Operations Division by General Order 80, War Department, August 26, 1918. Operations Division personnel functions transferred to newly established Personnel Division (G-1), in WDGS reorganization pursuant to General Order 41, War Department, August 16, 1921. Personnel Division (G-1) redesignated Personnel and Administration Division, effective June 11, 1946, by Circular 138, War Department, May 14, 1946. Further redesignated Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1, Personnel, effective March 1, 1950, by Circular 12, Department of the Army, February 28, 1950, as confirmed by Special Regulation 10-5-1, Department of the Army, April 11, 1950. Abolished, with functions transferred to newly established Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel, effective January 3, 1956, by General Order 70, Department of the Army, December 27, 1955, as confirmed by Change 13 to Special Regulation 10-5-1 (April 11, 1950), Department of the Army, December 27, 1955.

Related Records: Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1, Personnel Records of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel and Records of the Office of the Director of the Women's Army Corps, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.3.1 General records

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1921-48. Correspondence and reports relating to the selective service program (Project Induction) and to Women's Army Corps activities (Project WAC), 1942-46. Mobilization action file, 1942-46. Top secret general correspondence, 1943-47. Statistical studies, reports, and correspondence of the office of the division executive, 1943-47.

Maps (35 items): Collected and compiled by the Central Statistical Branch (G-1), showing administrative boundaries of the U.S. Army and the location and strength of regular army units, 1919-47.

165.3.2 Records of subordinate units

Textual Records: General correspondence of the Career Management Group, 1946-47. Security-classified general correspondence, 1942- 46, and historical and background files, 1942-49, of the Director of the Women's Army Corps.

165.4 Records of the Military Intelligence Division (MID, G-2)
1900-50

History: Military Information Division established in Miscellaneous Branch of the Adjutant General's Office, 1886, with responsibility for collecting information on U.S. and foreign armies. Separated from Miscellaneous Branch, with retained division status, by order of the Secretary of War, April 12, 1889. Acquired responsibility for supervising army military attaches by a War Department circular of April 19, 1889. Responsibilities expanded by General Order 23, War Department, March 18, 1892, to include issuing military maps and other informational publications and acting as liaison between the Office of the Secretary of War and state militias.

Transferred to WDGS, effective August 15, 1903, by an order of the Secretary of War, August 8, 1903. Designated WDGS Second Division by a memorandum of the Chief of Staff, August 15, 1903, with responsibility for collecting, arranging, and publishing military information, including that on foreign armies administering the army military attache system maintaining the War Department Library preparing war maps and preparing campaign histories. Second Division abolished in WDGS reorganization pursuant to memorandum of the Chief of Staff, June 27, 1908, confirmed by General Order 128, War Department, August 12, 1908, with military information functions to Military Information Committee in newly established Second Section. In subsequent WDGS reorganization pursuant to memorandum of the Chief of Staff, September 26, 1910, Second Section abolished, with functions of Military Information Committee to newly established War College Division (see 165.7), where they were vested in Committee on Military Information, which continued also to be known as the Military Information Committee, and for appropriation purposes was designated the Military Information Section.

Redesignated Military Intelligence Section by a memorandum of the Chief of Staff, April 28, 1917, confirmed by Change 7 to Manual of the War College Division, May 3, 1917. Further redesignated Military Intelligence Branch and assigned to newly established Executive Division, WDGS, by General Order 14, War Department, February 9, 1918. Executive Division abolished and Military Intelligence Branch redesignated Military Intelligence Division, by General Order 80, War Department, August 26, 1918. G-2 designator assigned to MID in WDGS reorganization pursuant to General Order 41, War Department, August 16, 1921. War map function, exercised by Geographic Section of MID Operations Branch, transferred to Office of the Chief of Engineers, 1939. Military Intelligence Service established as MID operating arm, effective March 9, 1942, by Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942. G-2 designator deleted from MID name, effective June 11, 1946, by Circular 138, War Department, May 14, 1946.

Intelligence Division established by consolidation of MID and Military Intelligence Service, by WDGS Circular 5-2, War Department, April 19, 1947. Redesignated Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, Intelligence, effective March 1, 1950, by Circular 12, Department of the Army, February 28, 1950, confirmed by Special Regulation 10-5-1, Department of the Army, April 11, 1950. Redesignated Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence, by General Order 70, Department of the Army, December 27, 1955. Redesignated Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence by Change 3 to Army Regulation 10-5 (May 22, 1957), Department of the Army, July 10, 1958. Elevated to deputy chief of staff level by Army Regulation 10-5, Department of the Army, May 5, 1961. Redesignated Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence, May 1, 1987.

165.4.1 General records

Textual Records: General correspondence ("MID Files"), 1917-41 (1,810 ft.), with name, subject, organization, and geographical indexes. Registers of communications received from military attaches ("Dispatch Lists"), 1900-44. General correspondence, 1941-48. English-language translations of foreign intelligence documents, 1919-47, with indexes. Correspondence relating to personnel investigations ("PF" file), 1917-41, with name index. "Regional file" of intelligence reports, 1933-44. Intelligence Library publications ("P" file), 1940-45. Records of the Office of the U.S. Military Attache, London, relating to the transmission of messages between Prime Minister Winston Churchill and the President of the United States (PRIME-POTUS), 1942-47. Issuances of the Military Intelligence Research Service, Pacific, 1943-44.

Microfilm Publications: M1194, M1216, M1271, M1440, M1443, M1445, M1446, M1488, M1497.

Maps: Compiled by the Military Intelligence Division (G-2) and its predecessors, including maps of Africa, Mexico, Burma, Central America, Japan, Korea, and the United States, 1914-46 (240 items) World War II annotated situation maps showing U.S. Army operations in Central Europe, North Africa, and Italy, and air operations in Europe, 1942-44 (544 items) and strategic maps of South Central Europe, Southwestern Europe, China, the Soviet Union, and Southeast Asia, 1943-44 (144 items).

Related Records: Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff. Record copies of publications of the Military Intelligence Division in RG 287, Publications of the U.S. Government.

165.4.2 Records of the Plant Protection Section

Textual Records: Records of the headquarters office, consisting of general correspondence, 1918-19 correspondence relating to defense plants, 1917-19, and security investigations, 1917-18 and correspondence of the section chief, 1917-18. Correspondence, most with name and subject indexes, of the following district offices: District Office No. 2 (Boston, MA), 1918 (in Boston) District Office No. 3 (New Haven, CT), 1918-19 (in Boston) District Office No. 4 (New York, NY), 1917-19 (in New York) District Office No. 6 (Philadelphia, PA), 1917-19 (in Philadelphia) District Office No. 7 (Pittsburgh, PA), 1918-19 (in Philadelphia) District Office No. 9 (Cincinnati, OH), 1918- 19 (in Philadelphia) District Office No. 10 (Atlanta, GA), 1918- 19 (in Atlanta) District Office No. 11 (Chicago, IL), 1918-19 (in Chicago) District Office No. 13 (Portland, OR), 1918-19 (in Seattle) District Office No. 14 (Los Angeles, CA), 1917-19 (in Los Angeles) and District Office No. 15 (Baltimore, MD), 1918-19 (in Philadelphia).

165.4.3 Records of the Office of the Chief Military Censor

Textual Records: Records relating to press censorship, 1917-19. Records relating to postal censorship at Key West, FL, and other cities in the Southern Department, 1918-19 postal censorship at San Francisco, CA, 1917-19 and postal and press censorship in Seattle, WA, 1918-19. General correspondence and other records of the Chief Military Censor as Chief, Division of Pictures, Committee on Public Information, 1917-18.

165.4.4 Records of the Propaganda Branch

Textual Records: Reports and other records relating to psychological warfare and propaganda, 1939-46.

165.4.5 Records of the Training Branch

Textual Records: Correspondence of the Language Section relative to the compilation of a Russian-English dictionary, 1941-45. Training records of the Far East Intelligence School, 1944-45.

Related Records: Records of the Defense Language Institute in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.4.6 General records of the Military Intelligence Service
(MIS)

Textual Records: Security-classified correspondence of the Joint Intelligence Collection Agency, 1943-45. Records of the Miami, FL, Branch Office, n.d. and the New York, NY, Branch Office, n.d.

165.4.7 Records of the Captured Personnel and Materiel Branch,
MIS

Textual Records: Interrogation reports, directives, and other records relating to captured personnel and materiel, 1940-46. Interrogation reports and correspondence on prisoners of war ("MIS-Y"), 1943-45, with card index.

165.4.8 Records of the Foreign Liaison Branch, MIS

Textual Records: Subject correspondence, 1943-45. Alsos Mission reports and correspondence, 1944-45, relating to the progress of German scientists in nuclear physics.

Related Records: Motion picture relating to the Alsos Mission in Records of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.4.9 Records of other MIS branches

Textual Records: Data cards maintained by the Who's Who Branch on German army, air force, and SS officers, 1939-45. Geographical and subject correspondence and other records of the Central European Branch, 1919-44 Eastern European Branch, 1935-44 Far East Branch, 1926-46 Latin American Branch, 1940-46 North American Branch, 1940-46 United States Branch, 1941-45 and Political Branch, 1941-44. Subject correspondence of the Visa and Passport Control Branch, 1941-46. General correspondence of the Washington Liaison Branch, 1941-46.

165.4.10 Records of MIS field offices

Textual Records: Security-classified correspondence of the San Francisco Branch Office, 1941-45. Records, 1942-44, of the Miami Beach Branch Office, consisting of correspondence counterintelligence files files of various Women's Army Corps (WAC) detachments reports of the War Department Intelligence Collection Committee, and the Combined Intelligence Objectives Subcommittee of the Combined Intelligence Committee of the Combined Chiefs of Staff administrative files and a publications file. Correspondence and other records of the New York Branch Office, 1942-44.

165.4.11 Records of the Army Security Agency--War Department
Traffic Security Board

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1941-45. Correspondence, minutes, and reports of the War Department Traffic Security Board, 1942-44. Daily activity reports, 1943-44.

165.4.12 Records of the Office of the Executive for Personnel and
Administration--Personnel Branch

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1941-45. Subject correspondence, minutes, and reports, 1942-44. Daily activity reports, 1943-44.

165.4.13 Records of the Intelligence Group

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1943-47. Requests for intelligence information received, 1943-49.

165.4.14 Records of the Training Group

Textual Records: Records of the Military Intelligence Training Center, Camp Ritchie, MD, consisting of issuances, 1942-46 and records relating to training, 1942-46, with an index. Records relating to the operation of language schools, 1943-49.

Related Records: Records of the U.S. Army Intelligence School and Records of the Defense Language Institute, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.4.15 Records of the Security Group

Textual Records: Correspondence relating to regrading and security-classification, 1942-50.

165.5 Records of the Organization and Training Division (G-3)
1902-47

History: First and Third Divisions, Provisional General Staff, established by a memorandum of Maj. Gen. Samuel H.M. Young, President of the War College Board and Chief of Staff-designate, May 28, 1903, with First Division responsible for organization and training matters affecting all arms except the technical and special arms, which were assigned to Third Division. Became First and Third Divisions, WDGS, August 15, 1903.

First and Third Divisions abolished in WDGS reorganization pursuant to memorandum of the Chief of Staff, June 27, 1908, confirmed by General Order 128, War Department, August 12, 1908, with organization and training functions transferred to newly established First Section. In subsequent WDGS reorganization pursuant to memorandum of the Chief of Staff, September 26, 1910, First Section abolished, with organization and training functions transferred to newly established War College Division (WCD, see 165.7), where by a memorandum of the Chief of the WCD, September 26, 1910, organization functions were assigned to the War Plans Committee. WCD organization functions assigned to Organization and Equipment Committee, War Policy Section, and training functions to Training and Instruction Section by January 1918. WCD abolished by General Order 14, War Department, February 9, 1918, with organization and training functions to newly established War Plans Division (WPD, see 165.8). WPD organization functions assigned to War Plans Branch and training functions to Training and Instruction Branch by General Order 80, War Department, August 26, 1918.

Operations and Training Division (G-3) established in WDGS reorganization pursuant to General Order 41, War Department, August 16, 1921, as confirmed by Office Memorandum 1, Office of the Chief of Staff, September 21, 1921. New division assumed WPD War Plans Branch organization functions, WPD Training and Instruction Branch training functions, and functions of abolished Operations Division relating to setting of personnel and equipment priorities. Redesignated Organization and Training Division (G-3), effective March 9, 1942, by Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942, with operations functions transferred to WPD. Abolished by Circular 12, Department of the Army, February 28, 1950, with functions to newly established Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, Operations. (For a history of successor organizations, see Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, Operations and Records of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.)

165.5.1 General records

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1939-47. Mobilization plans correspondence, 1942-47. Organization records, 1920-30. Annual reports, G-3, 1920-38. Histories of the general staff, 1902-19, 1929.

Maps (1,374 items): Organization and Training Division (G-3) maps collected and compiled by the Army War College, the U.S. Military Academy, and the Command and General Staff School and its predecessors, 1910-45. See also 165.19.

Related Records: Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, Operations and Records of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.5.2 Records of subordinate units

Textual Records: General correspondence of the Commissioned Personnel Branch, 1918-20 and correspondence with departments, posts, and other organizations, 1918-21. General correspondence of the Inventions Section, 1918-21, with record cards and index and correspondence relating to inventions, 1918-21. Correspondence of the Civil Defense Branch relating to the State Guard, 1940-42 and correspondence and reports of the War Department Civil Defense Mission to England, 1941. General correspondence, 1919-24, and educational bulletins and publications, 1922-24, of the Advisory Board and records of the Conference on Training Youth, November 1923.

165.6 Records of the Supply Division (G-4)
1914-47

History: Storage and Traffic Service, WDGS, established by General Order 167, War Department, December 28, 1917, to supervise transport of troops and supplies and storage of supplies. Purchasing Service, WDGS, established by General Order 5, War Department, January 11, 1918, to supervise procurement of supplies. Redesignated respectively Storage and Traffic Division and Purchase and Supply Division by General Order 14, War Department, February 9, 1918. Consolidated to form Purchase, Storage, and Traffic Division (PS&TD) by General Order 36, War Department, April 16, 1918. Transportation Service established in PS&TD, March 11, 1919. Made a separate WDGS organization by General Order 54, War Department, April 21, 1919.

PS&TD and Traffic Service abolished in the army reorganization pursuant to General Order 42, War Department, July 14, 1920, confirming the National Defense Act of 1920 (41 Stat. 766), June 4, 1920, with most operational responsibilities to Office of the Quartermaster General. Supply and transport planning functions and certain operational functions retained by WDGS, and subsequently assigned to newly established Supply Division (G-4) by General Order 41, War Department, August 16, 1921. Operational functions of Supply Division (G-4) to newly established Services of Supply, effective March 9, 1942, by Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942. Supply Division (G-4) redesignated Service, Supply, and Procurement Division, effective June 11, 1946, by Circular 138, War Department, May 14, 1946. (For a history of predecessor organizations, see Records of the Supply Division and its predecessors and Records of the Transportation Division, in RG 92, Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General. For a history of successor organizations, see Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4, Logistics, and Records of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.)

165.6.1 General records

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1921-46 (336 ft.), with indexes. Office files of Lt. Gen. Leroy Lutes, G-4, 1944-47. Transcripts of bilateral military staff conversations, 1944-45.

Related Records: Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4, Logistics and Records of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.6.2 Records of the Purchase, Storage, and Traffic Division

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1918-20 (213 ft.), with indexes. Correspondence of Gen. Hugh S. Johnson, Director of Purchases and Supplies, 1918, and other officials, 1918-20. Issuances, 1918-19. Records relating to War Department sales organizations and offices, 1919. News clippings relating to salvage sales, accumulated by the Military Intelligence Division, 1921.

Related Records: Records of the Supply Division and its predecessors and Records of the Transportation Division, in RG 92, Records of the Office of the Quartermaster General.

165.6.3 Records of the Current Supply Branch--External Relations
Section

Textual Records: Records relating to post-World War I surplus equipment claims and sales, 1917-20. Correspondence and other records of the Special Representative of the Secretary of War, 1917-19. Reports of the Renting, Requisitions, and Claims Service in France and Germany, December 1918.

165.6.4 Records of the Plans and Policy Office

Textual Records: Records of the Management Branch relating to War Department reorganization and armed services unification, 1939- 47. Records of the Planning Branch relating to disposition and utilization of military supplies and equipment in overseas theaters of operations, 1942-47. Records of the Programs Branch relating to the postwar army supply program, 1944-47.

165.6.5 Records of the Service Group--Installations Branch

Textual Records: Correspondence relating to harbor and coastal defense, 1914-46. Reports and correspondence relating to construction, utilization, and disposal of army installations, 1944-47.

165.6.6 Records of the Supply Group

Textual Records: Minutes of G-4 staff meetings, 1943-46. Reports of G-4 branch conferences, 1944-46. General correspondence of the Supply Control Branch, 1946 and minutes of its Surplus Property Clearance Committee, 1945-46. Security-classified correspondence and reports of the Storage Branch relating to storage facilities of the Caribbean Defense Command, 1946-47. Security-classified correspondence and reports of the International Branch relating to Chinese officer training, 1946 and formerly security- classified correspondence relating to lend-lease materiel, 1944-46.

165.6.7 Records of the Procurement Group

Textual Records: Correspondence and reports of the Procurement Planning Branch relating to the production of aircraft supplies, 1940-47. Reports and correspondence of the Standards Branch relating to specifications for military equipment and supplies, 1927-47, including joint army-navy and army-air force specifications.

165.7 Records of the Army War College (AWC) and the War College
Division (WCD)
1900-48

History: Army War College (AWC) established at Washington Barracks, DC, under jurisdiction of War College Board, by General Order 155, Headquarters of the Army, November 27, 1901, to study general staff functions and to serve as a temporary general staff. Placed under jurisdiction of Chief of Staff upon establishment of WDGS, August 15, 1903. Incorporated into newly established War College Division (WCD), WDGS, with WCD Chief as AWC President, by two memorandums of the Chief of Staff, September 26, 1910, confirmed by General Order 68, War Department, May 26, 1911. WCD abolished and AWC transferred to newly established War Plans Division (WPD, see 165.8), with WPD Chief as AWC President, by General Order 14, War Department, February 9, 1918. AWC separated from WPD, redesignated General Staff College, and placed immediately under Chief of Staff, by General Order 99, War Department, August 7, 1919. AWC designation restored by General Order 40, War Department, August 15, 1921. Classes suspended, 1940-50. Reactivated at Fort Leavenworth, KS, effective January 25, 1950, by General Order 4, Department of the Army, February 1, 1950. Transferred to Carlisle Barracks, PA, effective April 15, 1951, by General Order 41, Department of the Army, June 6, 1951. Redesignated U.S. Army War College, and placed under jurisdiction of Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, effective July 1, 1960, by General Order 19, Department of the Army, June 16, 1960.

165.7.1 General records

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1903-20, with indexes and record cards. Correspondence and reports of the War College Board, 1902-3, with indexes. Minutes of the War College Board, 1902-3. Intelligence journals, 1903-10. Monographs and problem reports, 1906-9. Instructional material, 1912-40. Issuances, 1917-45. Record cards to Department of Justice ("DJ") reports, July-November 1917.

Microfilm Publications: M912, M1023.

Related Records: Records of the U.S. Army War College in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

Maps: Enclosures to general correspondence, 1903-20 (303 items).

Architectural Drawings: Enclosures to general correspondence, 1903-20 (925 items).

165.7.2 Records of the Historical Section

History: Historical Branch organized in War College Division, WDGS, subsequent to WCD establishment, September 26, 1910. Transferred from abolished WCD to newly established War Plans Division (see 165.8), in WDGS reorganization pursuant to General Order 14, War Department, February 9, 1918. Transferred to Army War College and redesignated Historical Section by General Order 41, War Department, August 16, 1921. Incorporated into Historical Division, a WDSS organization, May 1947. (For a history of the Historical Division and successor organizations, see Records of the United States Army Center of Military History, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.)

Textual Records: Records relating to the history of the War Department, 1900-41 (237 ft.). British, French, German, and Italian records relating to World War I, 1917-19, with indexes. Microfilm copy of calendar cards of documents selected from the records of the American Expeditionary Forces, World War I, 1917- 19 (36 rolls). Records relating to wartime government economic programs, 1918-19. Reference information file ("Thomas File"), 1918-48, with card indexes.

Related Records: Records of the United States Army Center of Military History in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.8 Records of the War Plans Division
1910-42

History: Established in WDGS by General Order 14, War Department, February 9, 1918, assuming responsibility for war plans, organization, training, and historical records management formerly assigned to abolished War College Division (see 165.7). Organization and training functions transferred to Operations and Training Division (G-3), by General Order 41, War Department, August 16, 1921 (see 165.5). Acquired operational responsibilities from abolished Operations and Training Division (G-3) in army reorganization of March 9, 1942, pursuant to Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942. Redesignated Operations Division by a letter of the Secretary of War to major army staffs and commands (AG 020, 3-20-42, MB-F-M), March 23, 1942, confirmed by Circular 107, War Department, April 11, 1942. See 165.9.

165.8.1 General records

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1920-42, with indexes. Formerly top secret correspondence relating to mobilization plans ("Color & Quickfire"), 1922-42. Correspondence of general headquarters, 1941-42. Correspondence of the Joint Army-Navy Board, 1910-42.

Microfilm Publications: M1080.

Related Records: Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, Operations and Records of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.8.2 Records of the Service and Information Branch

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1919-20. Correspondence relating to employment of veterans, 1919-20. Progress reports, 1919. Field reports, 1919-20. General and employment correspondence of the Eastern, Central, and Western Districts of the Employment Section, 1919-20. Records of the Field Service Section, 1919-20. Correspondence and completed questionnaires of the Federal Works and Aid Section and its predecessor, the Public Works Branch, 1919.

165.8.3 Records of the Morale Branch

Textual Records: General subject correspondence, 1918-21. Correspondence relating to morale at army installations, 1917-20. Organizational correspondence, 1918-21. Reports received from morale offices, 1918-21. Corps area morale reports, 1920-21. Completed questionnaires on conditions at posts, 1918-21.

165.8.4 Records of the Education and Recreation Branch

Textual Records: Correspondence, 1918-20. Records of the Commission on Training Camp Activities, including general correspondence, 1917-20, with indexes correspondence of its Athletic Division, 1917-19 and correspondence, weekly reports, and bulletins of its Department of Dramatic Activities, 1918-19. Records of the Committee on Education and Special Training, including correspondence, 1918-19 and records of Students' Army Training Corps units, 1918-19 (250 ft.).

165.9 Records of the Operations Division (OPD)
1923-48

History: Established as successor to War Plans Division (see 165.8), 1942. Redesignated Plans and Operations Division by Circular 138, War Department, May 14, 1946, with responsibility for developing all strategic and operational plans for the army, and making recommendations on joint service planning. Redesignated Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, Operations, by Circular 12, Department of the Army, February 28, 1950, acquiring organization and training policy development functions formerly exercised by abolished Organization and Training Division, G-3 (see 165.5). Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, Operations, abolished, effective January 3, 1956, by General Order 70, Department of the Army, December 27, 1955, with functions transferred to Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations. (For a history of successor organizations, see Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, Operations and Records of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.)

165.9.1 General records

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1942-45 (596 ft.), with an index. Correspondence, with indexes, relating to American- British-Canadian organizational planning and general combat operations ("ABC" file), 1940-48. Declassified correspondence relating to operations and mobilization planning, 1941-46. Pearl Harbor investigation records, 1941-46. Security-classified microfilm copy of OPD secret message file, 1941-47 (451 rolls). Formerly top secret incoming and outgoing messages, 1942-46. Organizational data and minutes of meetings of the Aeronautical Board, 1923-48. Completed cases of the Joint Communication Board and the Combined Communication Board, 1942-47.

Maps: Bound daily order of battle maps for Sicily and Italy, 1943-45 (660 items).

Related Records: Records of the Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-3, Operations and Records of the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.9.2 Records of the Pan-American Group

Textual Records: Records, 1941-47, including reports and correspondence relating to the Central and South American airport development program, 1940-45. Transcripts of staff conversations relating to the defense of the Western Hemisphere, 1945.

165.10 Records of the Budget Division
1941-49

History: Budget and Legislative Planning Branch established in Office of the Chief of Staff by a memorandum of the Secretary of War (AG 321.19, 2-3-31, Misc. F-M), February 4, 1931, assuming budgetary functions formerly performed by Supply Division (G-4, see 165.6) and legislative functions formerly performed by Legislation Branch, OCS. Made responsible chiefly for preparing and defending War Department budget. Abolished, effective March 9, 1942, by Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942, with legislative functions to Legislative and Liaison Division (see 165.12), and budgetary functions to Services of Supply, where they were assigned to Budget and Financial Administration Division, established by General Order 2, SOS, March 17, 1942, and redesignated Fiscal Division by General Order 4, SOS, April 9, 1942, with War Department budget preparation functions assigned to Budget Branch. Fiscal Division consolidated with Office of the Chief of Finance, Army Service Forces, by Circular 30, ASF, May 15, 1943, to form Office of the Fiscal Director, with Budget Branch redesignated Budget Division. Budget preparation functions transferred to Office of the Chief of Staff by General Order 37, War Department, July 7, 1943, and assigned to newly established Budget Division, designated a WDSS organization, effective June 11, 1946, by Circular 138, War Department, May 14, 1946. Consolidated with WDSS Manpower Board (formerly War Department Manpower Board, see 165.17), OCS Central Statistical Office, and OCS Management Office to form Office of the Army Comptroller, under Deputy Chief of Staff, by Circular 2, Department of the Army, January 2, 1948. (For a history of successor organizations, see Records of the Office of the Comptroller of the Army, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.)

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1942-47. Budget legislation records, 1942-45. Records of the Budget Estimates Group, fiscal years 1942-49 (121 ft.). Records of the Financial Administrative Policy Group, including correspondence and reports relating to apportionment of War Department funds, 1942-44, and correspondence and accounting reports relating to foreign and defense aid, fiscal years 1941-49. Records of the Funds Allocation Group, 1942-49.

Related Records: Records of the Office of the Comptroller of the Army in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.11 Records of the Civil Affairs Division (CAD)
1942-52

History: Established as a WDSS organization by a memorandum (AG 014.1, 2-27-43, OB-S-E) of the Secretary of War to Col. John H.F. Haskell, March 1, 1943, naming him Acting Chief of CAD. Confirmed by Memorandum No. W10-1-43 (AG 020, 4-29-43, OB-C-F-MP-H), War Department, May 4, 1943. CAD responsible for developing and coordinating U.S. military policy regarding the administration of captured and liberated countries.

Personnel and functions of CAD transferred to Army Staff (Plans and Operations Division, Intelligence Division, and Historical Section), to Adjutant General's Office, and to Budget Group and Office of the Food Administrator for Occupied Countries in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (OASA), by Staff Administrative Circulars 5-9.1 through 5-9.4, Office of the Chief of Staff, March 28-April 19, 1949, and memorandums of the Deputy Chief, CAD, to CAD Staff Administrative Office, July 11 and 14, 1949. CAD formally abolished, effective July 15, 1949, by a memorandum of the Vice Chief of Staff to the Chief of CAD, the Army Comptroller, and the Adjutant General, July 8, 1949, with remaining functions transferred to Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army.

OASA functions relating to occupied areas transferred to Office of the Under Secretary of the Army (OUSA), by General Order 43, Department of the Army, August 29, 1949. OUSA redesignated Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army by General Order 17, Department of the Army, with occupied areas functions consolidated to form OASA Office for Occupied Areas.

Office for Occupied Areas abolished, with functions transferred to Army Staff and assigned to newly established Office of the Chief of Civil Affairs and Military Government (OCCAMG), effective April 13, 1952, by General Order 37, Department of the Army, April 14, 1952. OCCAMG made responsible to Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Military Operations (ODCSMO) by General Order 70, Department of the Army, December 27, 1955.

OCCAMG redesignated Office of the Chief of Civil Affairs, effective May 15, 1959, by General Order 19, Department of the Army, May 25, 1959. Abolished, effective May 1, 1962, by General Order 20, Department of the Army, April 26, 1962, with functions transferred to immediate ODCSMO, where they were consolidated with civil defense functions of General Operations Division of General Operations Directorate to form Civil Affairs and Civil Defense Directorate, May 1, 1962.

165.11.1 General records

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1943-49 (199 ft.), with indexes (204 ft.). Incoming and outgoing messages, 1942-49. Transcripts of teletype conversations, 1946-49. Records of the U.S. Army member of the Combined Civil Affairs Committee, 1942-49.

Related Records: Records of the Office of the Chief of Civil Affairs in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.11.2 Records of the Personnel and Training Branch

Textual Records: Records accumulated by Overseas Consultants, Inc., in connection with an industrial reparations survey of Japan, 1947.

165.11.3 Records of the Policy and Government Branch

Textual Records: Policy and planning correspondence, 1943-47.

165.11.4 Records of the Information Branch

Textual Records: Reports, 1943-47. Geographical surveys of Germany prepared by the University of Michigan, 1944. Messages, 1944-48, and correspondence, 1944-52, relating to the International Refugee Organization (IRO), and its Preparatory Commission, and to refugees.

165.11.5 Records of the Civil Affairs Holding and Staging Area
(Presidio of Monterey, CA)

Textual Records: Organizational history, 1944-45. Policy file, 1944-45. Training Section exhibits, 1945.

165.12 Records of the Legislative and Liaison Division
1936-48

History: Legislation Branch established in Office of the Chief of Staff (OCS), ca. September 1921. Branch functions consolidated with budget functions of Supply Division (G-4, see 165.10), to form Budget and Legislative Planning Branch (BLPB), OCS, by a memorandum of the Secretary of War (AG 321.19, 2-3-31, Misc. F- M), February 4, 1931. BLPB abolished, effective March 9, 1942, by Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942, with budgetary functions to Services of Supply (see 165.10), and legislative functions to newly established Legislative and Liaison Division (LLD), designated a WDSS organization, with responsibility, as defined by letter of the Adjutant General (AG 321.11, 6-8-42, MB- F-PS-M), July 10, 1942, for preparing and reviewing legislation, and maintaining liaison with Congress and with the Work Projects Administration and the Federal Works Agency regarding defense- related projects. Acquired Legislative Branch, WDGS Personnel and Administration Division (see 165.3), by memorandum, Personnel and Administration Division to Deputy Chief of Staff, August 25, 1946.

LLD removed from Special Staff, U.S. Army, and transferred to Office of the Chief of Information, OCS, by Circular 342, Department of the Army, November 1, 1948. Separated from Office of the Chief of Information and redesignated Office of the Chief of Legislative Liaison, effective March 1, 1950, by Circular 12, Department of the Army, February 28, 1950. Transferred to Office of the Secretary of the Army by General Order 15, Department of the Army, February 17, 1955.

165.12.1 General records

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1944-48. Records relating to universal military training, 1944-48 the national defense program, 1946-47 Congressional investigations of War Department activities, 1942-48, with indexes and legislation affecting the War Department, 1943-46.

Related Records: Records of the Office of the Chief of Legislative Liaison in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.12.2 Records of the Federal Agencies Branch

Textual Records: Project files of the Works Progress Administration and its successor (1939), the Work Projects Administration, 1936-42. Federal Works Agency project files, 1940-46. Airport development project files, 1940-42.

165.13 Records of the Research and Development Division
1940-47

History: New Developments Division established as a WDSS organization by Circular 267, War Department, October 25, 1943, with responsibility for coordinating weapons and equipment research and development activities. Redesignated Research and Development Division, effective June 11, 1946, by Circular 138, War Department, May 14, 1946. Abolished by Circular 73, Department of the Army, December 19, 1947, with functions transferred to Service, Supply, and Procurement Division (SSPD), and assigned to newly established Research and Development Group (RDG).

RDG redesignated Research and Development Division pursuant to redesignation of Logistics Division (formerly SSPD) as Office of the Assistant Chief of Staff, G-4, effective March 1, 1950, by Circular 12, Department of the Army, February 28, 1950. (For a history of successor organizations, see Records of the Research and Development Division in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.)

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1943-47, with indexes. Office files and correspondence of divisional officials, 1942-46. Office file of the army representative on the National Inventors Council, 1940-45.

Related Records: Records of the Research and Development Division in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.14 Records of the Information and Education Division
1941-45

History: Morale Division established in the Adjutant General's Office by an internal memorandum, July 22, 1940. Transferred to Office of the Chief of Staff (OCS) and redesignated Morale Branch by General Order 2, War Department, April 14, 1941. Redesignated Special Services Branch by General Order 5, War Department, January 20, 1942, and transferred to Services of Supply (SOS), effective March 9, 1942, pursuant to Circular 59, War Department, March 2, 1942. Redesignated Special Service Division by General Order 24, SOS, July 20, 1942. Assigned to Office of the Director of Personnel by Circular 30, Army Service Forces (ASF), May 15, 1943. Information and Education Branches transferred to Office of the Director of Military Training by Administrative Memorandum S- 65, ASF, October 14, 1943, with Special Service Division (redesignated Special Services Division, November 8, 1943) retaining responsibility for army exchange, athletic and recreational, and motion picture services. Information and Education Branches consolidated in Office of the Director of Military Training to form Army Information and Education Division, headed by a Director for Morale Services, October 1943. Transferred to Office of the Director of Personnel and redesignated Morale Services Division by Administrative Memorandum S-86, ASF, November 10, 1943. Further redesignated Information and Education Division by Circular 256, ASF, August 9, 1945. Transferred to OCS, designated a WDSS organization, and assigned to newly established Office of the Director of Information, by a memorandum of the Deputy Chief of Staff, September 26, 1945. (For a history of successor organizations, see Records of the Office of the Chief of Information, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.)

Textual Records: Microfilm copy of completed questionnaires relating to the morale of military personnel, 1941-45 (44 rolls).

Related Records: Records of the Special Services Division in RG 160, Records of Headquarters Army Service Forces. Records of the Troop Information Division in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.15 Records of the Public Information Division
1921-51

History: Press relations unit organized in Military Intelligence Division (MID), G-2, subsequent to MID establishment in WDGS reorganization under General Order 80, War Department, August 26, 1918. Consolidated with News Clipping Bureau, MI/3, by Memorandum 12, MID, February 16, 1922, to form MI/3 (Press Relations), redesignated Press Branch by Memorandum 21, MID, August 21, 1926. Press Branch incorporated into newly established Public Relations Branch (PRB) by Memorandum 4, MID, April 4, 1929. PRB transferred to Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff by Circular 81, War Department, July 30, 1940. Transferred to Office of the Secretary of War and redesignated War Department Bureau of Public Relations, by General Order 2, War Department, February 2, 1941. Returned to WDGS by a memorandum of the Deputy Chief of Staff, September 26, 1945. Redesignated Public Relations Division and made a WDSS organization as part of the War Department reorganization, effective June 11, 1946, under Circular 183, War Department, May 14, 1946. Redesignated Public Information Division, 1947. Incorporated into Office of the Director of Information, effective March 1, 1950, by Circular 12, Department of the Army, February 28, 1950.

Related Records: Records of the Public Information Division in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.15.1 General records

Textual Records: Formerly top secret correspondence, 1944-46. Correspondence relating to War Department organization and functions, 1947-48.

Sound Recordings: Combat operations in World War II, foreign language recordings used in Axis propaganda, and occupation activities in both Europe and the Pacific, 1942-51 (1,256 items).

165.15.2 Records of the Administrative Branch

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1939-46.

165.15.3 Records of the News Branch

Textual Records: Radio and motion picture scripts, 1942-46. Wire service bulletins, 1947-49. Press and radio news digests, 1940- 48, and releases, 1921-47. Card register of public opinion recorded in various news media, 1940-49.

165.16 Records of the Special Planning Division
1943-46

History: Project Planning Division established, April 1943, in Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Service Commands, Army Service Forces (ASF), as result of a letter of the Chief of Staff, April 14, 1943, requesting that ASF organize a unit responsible for military and industrial demobilization planning, and planning for the postwar military establishment. Transferred to Office of the Chief of Staff, redesignated Special Planning Division, and made a WDSS organization, by letter of the Secretary of War to the Director of the Special Planning Division, July 22, 1943. Industrial demobilization functions transferred, effective September 21, 1945, to Office of the Under Secretary of War, and assigned to Industrial Activities Division, established by Circular 279, War Department, September 15, 1945. Special Planning Division abolished, effective June 11, 1946, by Circular 138, War Department, May 14, 1946, with functions dispersed among WDGS organizations.

Textual Records: General correspondence, 1943-46, with indexes.

Related Records: Records of the Industrial Activities Division in RG 107, Records of the Office of the Secretary of War.

165.17 Records of the War Department Manpower Board (Gasser
Board
1943-47

History: Established by a memorandum (W600-27-43) of the Secretary of War, March 11, 1943, under the presidency of Maj. Gen. Lorenzo D. Gasser, with responsibility for ensuring adequate staffing of army organizations and installations. Assumed additional responsibility of studying use of civilian personnel in North African and European theaters of operations, 1944. Redesignated Manpower Board, Special Staff, U.S. Army, by Circular 225, War Department, August 16, 1947 made effective September 18, 1947, by Circular 1, Department of the Army, September 18, 1947. Incorporated with WDSS Budget Division and Office of the Chief of Staff Central Statistical Office and Management Office into newly established Office of the Army Controller (OAC) by Circular 2, Department of the Army, January 2, 1948. Redesignated Manpower Group and assigned to Management Division, OAC, 1948.

Textual Records: Reports of manpower surveys, 1943-45. Reports relating to civilian and military personnel ceilings, 1943-44. General correspondence, 1943-47, with indexes. Personnel allotment vouchers, 1944-47. Inventory and appraisal forms, 1944-46.

Related Records: Correspondence of the Manpower Group, 1948, in the Management Division in the Office of the Comptroller of the Army, in RG 319, Records of the Army Staff.

165.18 Records of Discontinued Boards
1888-1922

165.18.1 Records of the Board of Ordnance and Fortifications

Textual Records: Minutes, reports, and correspondence (100 ft.), with indexes, 1888-1919.

Engineering Plans : Plans and specifications of U.S. Army ordnance proposed by the Board of Ordnance and Fortification, 1888-1904 (1,200 items).

165.18.2 Records of the Board of General Officers

Textual Records: Reports, 1922, recommending officers to be retained or retired from active duty after January 1, 1923.

165.18.3 Records of the National Land Defense Board

Maps (162 items): Photoprocessed and annotated maps relating to the Panama Canal Zone and U.S. military reservations, 1907-15.

165.19 Records of the United States Army Forces in Central Canada
1943-45

History: The "Crimson Project" was established by the War Department on July 27, 1942, to construct and operate air bases and auxiliary installations in Central Canada, Baffin Island, Labrador, and the regions north of these areas. On March 9, 1943, the Crimson Project was divided. The Eastern Sector, responsible for activities in Baffin Island and Labrador, was assigned to the North Atlantic Division of the Air Transport Command. The Western Sector remained under the direct control of the War Department General Staff, and on July 1, 1943, it was renamed the United States Army Forces in Central Canada (USAFCC). USAFCC, classified by the War Department as a "theater of operations" for administrative purposes, included Army air installations in the provinces of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and Ontario, the district of Keewatin, and the areas directly north as far as the North Pole. On October 1, 1945, the command was discontinued.

Textual Records: Record set of issuances, 1943-45.

165.20 Cartographic Records (General)
1917-19, 1943-45

Maps : Color relief maps showing the order of battle in World War II theaters of operations, 1943-45 (11,300 items).

Aerial Photographs : France and Germany in World War I, 1917-19 (1,100 items).

165.21 Sound Recordings (General)
1945-47

Testimony before the Woodrum Committee on Compulsory Military Training, 1945 and addresses, press conferences, and interviews concerning the postwar defense program, 1945-47 (37 items).

165.22 Still Pictures (General)
1860-1947

Photographs: Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861- 70, by Andrew J. Russell, Alexander Gardner, and George Barnard (A, B, C, SB, SC, JT 6,804 images). Indian Wars and the western frontier, 1860-1918 (FF, P, PF, PS, AI, MH, MM, MS, WHC 1,888 images). Spanish-American War, 1898-1900, and Cuban intervention, 1908 (SW, SWS, SWR, SS, IWN, PCW, RRC 2,940 images). Philippine Insurrection and activities in the Philippines, 1899-1905, 1925 (PW, AB, UMM, MC 556 images). China's Boxer Rebellion, 1900-1 (CR, 600 images). Russo-Japanese War, 1904-5 (RJ, RJC 87 images). Mexican Punitive Expedition, 1914-17 (MP, UM, CB, CM 1,755 images). World War I and postwar occupation of Germany, 1914-21 (WW, NYT, EI, WAR, GG, BCT, AEF, K, BW, BO, WIT, RA, GB, GK, AO, BC 73,951 images). World War II and postwar period, 1942-47 (HE, BBL, JA, TX, WA, WS 196 images).

U.S. and foreign artillery, 1877-95 (ORD, 190 images). U.S. Army exhibits and displays, 1876, 1893 (EP, EC 160 images). Personal collection of Brig. Gen. Frederick King Ward, 1899-1922 (FKW, 1,300 images). Forts in Hawaii, 1909, 1914-29 (HHD, 420 images). Ordnance manufacturing, 1917-19 (EO, 804 images). Aircraft, n.d. (XA, 15 images). Canada, 1889-90 (CPM, 62 images). Mexico, 1904- 11 (MR, 1,510 images). Japanese, German, and Russian military equipment, 1921-46 (MID, 2,310 images). Foreign military maneuvers, 1901, 1909, 1923 (MA, JAM, CAM, LZ, CAP 232 images).

Stereoscopic Photographs: Civil War military activities and installations, including some by Sam Cooley, 1861- 65 (S, 321 images). Foreign scenes, 1867-1900 (FS, 859 images). U.S. scenes, 1865-1905 (XS, 393 images).

Aerial Oblique Photographs: Airfields in Mexico, 1930-35 (APM, 26 images). German and Allied positions along the Belgian coast, 1917 (BEA, 8 images).

Panoramic Photographs: Camps and military units in the United States and Europe, 1917-21 (PP, PPO 174 images). Russia, Italy, Poland, and Austria, 1915-26 (ARC, 11 images). U.S. Army units, forts, and airfields, 1936-38 (PX, 140 images).

Lantern Slides: Life of Abraham Lincoln, ca. 1910 (JM, 88 images). German military activities, 1917-19, 1939-41 (GS, 101 images).

Postcards: French buildings, illustrating damage in World War I, 1918 (FC, 165 images). German naval vessels and military activities, 1914-18 (GP, GPC, GPO 95 images).

Color Lithographs: U.S. Army uniforms from 1774 to 1908, by H.A. Ogden, 1909 (HOA, HOB, HOC 195 images).

Lithographs: U.S. war industries, by Joseph Pennell, 1916-18 (LIT, LIH 56 images).

Watercolor Sketches: Civil war scenes, by Herbert E. Valentine, 1861-65 (HV, 26 images).

Microfilm Publications: T251.

Bibliographic note: Web version based on Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives of the United States. Compiled by Robert B. Matchette et al. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1995.
3 volumes, 2428 pages.

This Web version is updated from time to time to include records processed since 1995.


The Dawes Plan, the Young Plan, German Reparations, and Inter-allied War Debts

In the years following the First World War, issues of debt repayment and reparations troubled relations between the Allies and the now defeated Germany. The U.S.-sponsored Dawes and Young Plans offered a possible solution to these challenges.

At the end of the First World War, the victorious European powers demanded that Germany compensate them for the devastation wrought by the four-year conflict, for which they held Germany and its allies responsible. Unable to agree upon the amount that Germany should pay at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, and the other Allies established a Reparation Commission to settle the question. In the spring of 1921, the Commission set the final bill at 132 billion gold marks, approximately $31.5 billion. When Germany defaulted on a payment in January 1923, France and Belgium occupied the Ruhr in an effort to force payment. Instead, they met a government-backed campaign of passive resistance. Inflation in Germany, which had begun to accelerate in 1922, spiraled into hyperinflation. The value of the German currency collapsed the battle over reparations had reached an impasse.

U.S. Loans to Allied Powers

Meanwhile, a second wartime financial issue was causing tension among the former co-belligerents. While the United States had little interest in collecting reparations from Germany, it was determined to secure repayment of the more than $10 billion it had loaned to the Allies over the course of the war. Time and again, Washington rejected calls to cancel these debts in the name of the common wartime cause it also resisted efforts to link reparations to inter-allied war debts. In 1922, London made this link explicit in the Balfour Note, which stated that it would seek reparations and wartime debt repayments from its European allies equal to its debt to the United States. That same year, Congress created the United States War Debt Commission to negotiate repayment plans, on concessionary terms, with the 17 countries that had borrowed money from the United States.

In late 1923, with the European powers stalemated over German reparations, the Reparation Commission formed a committee to review the situation. Headed by Charles G. Dawes (Chicago banker, former Director of the Bureau of the Budget, and future Vice President), the committee presented its proposal in April 1924. Under the Dawes Plan, Germany’s annual reparation payments would be reduced, increasing over time as its economy improved the full amount to be paid, however, was left undetermined. Economic policy making in Berlin would be reorganized under foreign supervision and a new currency, the Reichsmark, adopted. France and Belgium would evacuate the Ruhr and foreign banks would loan the German government $200 million to help encourage economic stabilization. U.S. financier J. P. Morgan floated the loan on the U.S. market, which was quickly oversubscribed. Over the next four years, U.S. banks continued to lend Germany enough money to enable it to meet its reparation payments to countries such as France and the United Kingdom. These countries, in turn, used their reparation payments from Germany to service their war debts to the United States. In 1925, Dawes was a co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in recognition of his plan’s contribution to the resolution of the crisis over reparations.

In the autumn of 1928, another committee of experts was formed, this one to devise a final settlement of the German reparations problem. In 1929, the committee, under the chairmanship of Owen D. Young, the head of General Electric and a member of the Dawes committee, proposed a plan that reduced the total amount of reparations demanded of Germany to 121 billion gold marks, almost $29 billion, payable over 58 years. Another loan would be floated in foreign markets, this one totaling $300 million. Foreign supervision of German finances would cease and the last of the occupying troops would leave German soil. The Young Plan also called for the establishment of a Bank for International Settlements, designed to facilitate the payment of reparations.


Why Did Benedict Arnold Betray America?

Benedict Arnold was once a patriotic war hero valued by George Washington and admired by his men. But now his name is synonymous with traitor. What could have led Arnold to ruin his legacy by betraying his fellow Americans during the Revolutionary War?

Analysis of Arnold’s actions have been simplified over the years to serve a narrative of right and wrong. While Arnold’s betrayal was clear—he offered the British seizure of the military fortress at West Point, NY, in exchange for 10,000 pounds and a British military commission—what led up to that moment of betrayal is more complicated and less political than is often taught.

Arnold was the victim of a smear campaign.

Some would say the catalyst was Pennsylvania Supreme Executive Council President Joseph Reed.

He took a personal dislike to Arnold and, in 1779, attempted to prosecute him on a series of treason charges ranging from buying illegal goods to preferring the company of British loyalists. In the build-up of his case, Reed was known to spread rumors about Arnold without offering proof of his allegations.

Arnold’s wife encouraged his treason.

Arnold was also deeply in debt and newly married to an ambitious woman. His wife, Peggy, was the daughter of a prominent Philadelphia family with loyalist leanings that had fared better under the British.

Peggy was accustomed to a certain level of living and some historians believe that Peggy steered Arnold to the British in order to maintain that lifestyle. Becoming a traitor to his country could fetch him a handsome payment from the British.

Letters suggest Arnold had character issues.

But there were plenty of other reasons, too. Eric D. Lehman, author of Homegrown Terror: Benedict Arnold and the Burning of New London, notes that others at the time had similar circumstances and did not betray their country. Lehman spent time looking over Arnold’s letters and other first-hand accounts.

“Some seemed to point to him ‘lacking feeling,’ i.e. sociopathic, but others showed him having too much feeling—he couldn’t control his temper. The number one thing I found across all of them was his selfish ambition, which came from a profound lack of self-esteem as a child and young man,” Lehman says.

Benedict Arnold, seated at the table, as he hands papers to British officer John Andre during the American Revolutionary War. (Credit: Stock Montage/Getty Images)

Traditionally Arnold’s story has been taught with a good-versus-evil simplicity. More recently, Lehman points out, the tendency has been to portray Arnold as a misunderstood heroic figure.

𠇋oth simplifications are a mistake in my view,” says Lehman. “He was certainly misunderstood, and he was a hero in the early years of the war. That should always be part of the story.

𠇋ut he also betrayed his close friends, was willing to allow the death of and actually kill former comrades, and earned the name ‘traitor’ from both friend and foe. If we leave that out, we simplify the story by omission. If we can’t hold those two ideas in our head at the same time, we are in good company. People like [Marquis de] Lafayette and [George] Washington couldn’t either.”

Even the British disparaged Arnold for his turncoat ways.

Lehman thinks it’s important to remember the whole story of Arnold—his betrayal wasn’t just treason. The British, who had much to gain from Arnold switching sides, found him dishonorable and untrustworthy.

“One thing that has been left out of so many tellings of Arnold’s story is that he didn’t stop after his West Point treason was discovered,” Lehman points out. “He went on to attack Virginia𠅊lmost capturing Thomas Jefferson𠅊nd then attacking Connecticut, his home state.

“Spying was one thing, but his willingness to switch sides in the middle of an armed conflict, and fight against the men who had a year earlier been fighting by his side, was something that people of that time and maybe ours could simply not understand.”


The British crown borrowed heavily from British and Dutch bankers to bankroll the war, doubling British national debt. King George II argued that since the French and Indian War benefited the colonists by securing their borders, they should contribute to paying down the war debt.

To defend his newly won territory from future attacks, King George IIਊlso decided to install permanent British army units in the Americas, which required additional sources of revenue.

In 1765, parliament passed the Stamp Act to help pay down the war debt and finance the British army’s presence in the Americas. It was the first internal tax directly levied on American colonists by parliament and was met with strong resistance. 

It was followed by the unpopular Townshend Acts and Tea Act, which further incensed colonists who believed there should be no taxation without representation. Britain’s increasingly militaristic response to colonial unrest would ultimately lead to the American Revolution.

Fifteen years after the Treaty of Paris, French bitterness over the loss of most of their colonial empire contributed to their intervention on the side of the colonists in the Revolutionary War.


Greenwood Rising

Greenwood Rising, the new history center in the Greenwood District being built by the 1921 Tulsa Race Massacre Centennial Commission will be built on land located at the entrance of Greenwood, connected to the Pathway to Hope.


U.S. Debt and Foreign Loans, 1775–1795

During the American Revolution, a cash-strapped Continental Congress accepted loans from France. Paying off these and other debts incurred during the Revolution proved one of the major challenges of the post-independence period. The new U.S. Government attempted to pay off these debts in a timely manner, but the debts were at times a source of diplomatic tension.

In order to pay for its significant expenditures during the Revolution, Congress had two options: print more money or obtain loans to meet the budget deficit. In practice it did both, but relied more on the printing of money, which led to hyperinflation. At that time, Congress lacked the authority to levy taxes, and to do so would have risked alienating an American public that had gone to war with the British over the issue of unjust taxation.

The French Government began to secretly ship war materiel to the American revolutionaries in late 1775. This was accomplished by establishing dummy corporations to receive French funds and military supplies. It was unclear whether this aid was a loan or a gift, and disputes over the status of this early assistance caused strong disagreement between American diplomats in Europe. Arthur Lee , one of the American commissioners in France, accused another, Silas Deane , of financial misdealings, while the third member of the commission, Benjamin Franklin , remained aloof. Lee eventually succeeded in convincing Congress to recall Deane. The early French aid would later resurface as one of the disputes behind the 1797 XYZ Affair that led to the Quasi-War with France.


War reparations and Weimar Germany

The Allies’ determination to extract reparations from Germany hindered that nation’s recovery after World War I. Vast sums of money were demanded from Berlin as compensation for the Kaiserreich’s role in instigating war. The issue of reparations would provoke significant divisions in the new republic.

Determining a figure

The legal basis for reparations was provided by Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles, the infamous ‘war guilt’ clause that deemed Germany responsible for “all the loss and damage” suffered by Allied nations during the war.

Germany’s negotiators at the Paris peace conference gave an in-principle agreement to the payment of reparations. Allied negotiators were unwilling to fix a final reparations figure or determine how these reparations should be recovered. Instead, this was left to an Inter-Allied Reparations Commission, formed in 1919 by the governments of Britain, France, Belgium, Italy and Japan.

The commission met over 1920 and again in Paris in January 1921. It eventually proposed a final figure of 269 billion gold marks, or £UK11.3 billion.

A remarkable amount

This was a remarkable amount by any measure. It was the equivalent of 96,000 tons of gold – or around half the known gold reserves of the entire world. Today, it would equate to almost $US500,000,000,000 (half a trillion American dollars).

Understandably, German delegates refused to accept this figure. This forced the commission to reconvene in London in March.

By then, Berlin was under considerable pressure to accept a final reparations figure. The Weimar government had already failed to pay a £1 billion interim instalment, leading to the occupation of three industrial cities along the Rhine.

The total revised

In April 1920, a London meeting of the Commission fixed a final reparations figure of £6.6 billion. The reparations instalments were to be paid quarterly in gold or foreign currency backed by gold, along with tradable commodities such as steel, raw iron or coal.

Berlin was informed that any defaults on these payments would lead to the occupation of the industrial Ruhr region and the confiscation of raw materials and industrial equipment there.

While this revised amount was less than two-thirds the initial figure, it remained well beyond the capacity of the war-ravaged German economy.

Worldwide debate

The reparations figure generated worldwide debate for a decade. In England, the noted economist John Maynard Keynes criticised the agreed figure. Keynes suggested the true amount of war damages had been exaggerated by the Allies, particularly France and Belgium.

Forcing Germany to pay the full amount, Keynes argued, would not only devastate the German economy but would have a detrimental impact on European trade and probably generate considerable political instability.

Germany made an initial reparations payment of $250 million – or about 0.8 per cent of the total – in August 1921. Even this small instalment placed enormous strains on the German economy, which suffered from dwindling gold reserves, a post-war drop in foreign trade and a reliance on imported raw materials for its industries.

Germany struggles to pay

In late 1921, the Weimar government asked the Reparations Commission for a moratorium on payments. This was granted in May 1922 over the opposition of the French government.

In 1922, the value of the German Reichsmark collapsed. By late in the year, almost 3,500 Reichsmarks were needed to purchase one US dollar.

Unable to import or buy foreign exchange, the German government found itself unable to meet its reparations obligations. The French government, claiming the German government was ‘crying poor’ and acting purposefully and dishonestly, began to agitate for punitive action.

Post-war debt struggles

It should be noted that Germany was not the only European nation struggling to account for its wartime debts. France was itself defaulting on scheduled instalments on its wartime loans, particularly those to its largest creditor, the United States.

One German cartoon of the early 1920s showed the French prime minister threatening war against Germany but being obstructed by ‘Uncle Sam’, who suggested: “Why don’t you pay for your last war before starting another?”

The issues of war debts and reparations remained divisive issues for much of the 1920s. The reparations figures would be constantly challenged and revised, most notably by the Dawes Plan (1924) and the Young Plan (1929).

A historian’s view:
“Inflation started before reparations became an issue the connection with reparations cannot therefore be considered the entire problem. Yet reparations were more than merely a contributory factor to the acceleration of inflation. The earlier stage ‘creeping inflation’ was the result of long-term structural problems within the economy and the pressures exerted by war, and the later-stage hyperinflation was directly related to the obligation after 1921 to pay reparations. The connection between the reparations saga and the collapse of the mark is too strong to be coincidental.”
Stephen Lee

1. After its defeat in World War I, Germany was required to pay war reparations, a measure determined at the Paris peace conferences.

2. The French advocated a massive figure. They hoped to place a massive burden on the German economy to prevent its recovery.

3. The final reparations figure proved too much for Germany’s struggling economy to pay, though she met her first instalment.

4. The German economy slumped in 1922-23, marred by its massive obligations, currency inflation, strikes and falling production.

5. Unable to make further reparations payments, the Germans saw French troops occupy the Ruhr industrial region.

Citation information
Title: “War reparations and Weimar Germany”
Authors: Jennifer Llewellyn, Steve Thompson
Publisher: Alpha History
URL: https://alphahistory.com/weimarrepublic/reparations/
Date published: September 24, 2019
Date accessed: Today’s date
Copyright: The content on this page may not be republished without our express permission. For more information on usage, please refer to our Terms of Use.


Echoes of the past: Greek debt and the International Finance Commission

We are frequently told that history does not repeat itself, but for the historically minded it is surprising how often you find echoes of the past in current events. Nowhere has this been more apparent to me than the recent Greek finance crisis. Unsustainable long term loans a troika of foreign creditors, disagreements between the other European powers and bitter internal politics: all of this sounded awfully familiar.

To find out more I ordered up some records relating to the Greek debt crisis of 1898 and the International Finance Commission (IFC), which was formed to manage the new loans which propped the country up.

Report on the Greek Default of 1860 (catalogue reference: FO 32/314)

Greece in the 19th century had a rather unhappy time with regard to its fiscal situation. The country emerged from its war of independence in 1832 with large debts to British and French banks, which were consolidated in 1833 into loans guaranteed by the British, French and Russian governments.

Due to economic difficulties, Greece defaulted on these loans in 1843 and 1860, and each time came to an agreement with its creditors about how to restructure the debt.

In 1893, following a period of relative stability, a collapse in the price of currants – Greece’s largest export – put the economy in a tail spin once again. At the end of the year the Greek government was forced to tell its creditors that they was unable to make payments on the plethora of loans. In December the British Minister at Athens reported on a conversation with the Greek Prime Minister in which he was told that ‘as Greece was now bankrupt, she must negotiate directly and honourably with her creditors’. 1

Despite this honest statement, Greece was unable to come to an agreement with foreign creditors. The situation got worse in 1897 when war broke out between Greece and the Ottoman Empire. The war proved disastrous: Ottoman forces were better trained and equipped than their Greek opponents. Greece was forced to accept a humiliating peace in which it was supposed to pay out a large amount of money in an indemnity. Given the state of Greek finances this was impossible and no one was willing to lend money given the recent default.

Not willing to let Greece fall apart, the European powers began to discuss how best to support the country and provide the funds required. This was by no means a selfless move. Greece still owed huge amounts of money to both foreign governments and foreign banks, and they wanted to make sure they would still get this back. Initial discussions on providing a general European guarantee of Greek debts in return for certain controls ran into difficulties. As Sir Frank Lascelles, the British Ambassador in Berlin, pointed out:

‘that such an European guarantee should be given, however, is out of the question because even in the improbable event that several European Powers would be prepared to agree to it, Germany would certainly refuse under any circumstances to undertake a financial guarantee for Greece.’ 2

The Law establishing the IFC (catalogue reference: FO 32/709)

Eventually the Germans accepted the need for a unified approach and a group of delegates from the six major European powers – Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany, Italy and Russia – met in Athens to study the Greek financial situation. They recommended that a body be formed to monitor the situation and protect the interests of Greece’s international creditors. This body, called the International Finance Commission (IFC) was to have the power to administer Greek finances and overrule the Greek government where necessary in order to protect the interests of the other European powers. This was to be written into Greek law. The British delegate, Major Law, noted that the:

‘necessity of great delicacy of treatment in order to obtain a maximum of security with a minimum of apparent interference with the ordinary administration of the country rendered the task of drafting the law a very difficult one.’ 3

The precise terms of the new loans to Greece and agreements made with previous bondholders proved equally difficult, with Germany once again holding out for the most stringent of terms. Bernhard von Bülow told a Budgetary Committee in Berlin that:

‘the German government was fighting not only for the interests of its own nationals but for all foreign creditors and of the great principles of good faith and honesty in public life. He cherished the hope that the Greek Government would realise the great benefits that would accrue to the country from financial control.’ 4

The terms were eventually agreed and the IFC was established in spring of 1898. At the same time, the Greeks raised a new loan to pay off their indemnity to the Ottomans.

Agreement to guarantee the Greek debt signed by representatives from Britain France, Greece and Russia (catalogue reference: FO 93/38/18)

The IFC proved very effective in ensuring Greece’s creditors were paid in accordance with the agreements drawn up in 1898. German and Austrian membership of the Commission lapsed following their defeat in the First World War, while the Greek government refused to let a Soviet delegate replace the old Tsarist official in 1920, so membership was reduced to three. 5 The interwar years were ones of extraordinary political instability in Greece, but the IFC remained successful in ensuring that Greece paid its debts throughout the turbulent 1920s and helped build a modern tax structure. Despite this the IFC was unable to prevent a new default in 1932 when the global economic depression struck the country.

Although the IFC had become effectively redundant by the end of the 1930s, abolishing it proved even more difficult than establishing it. The British Foreign Office began to take the matter seriously in the 1960s, but administrative irregularities continued to create problems. 6 By 1972 a Treasury official minuted that:

‘For some time, the IFC prevented excessive expenditure by the Greeks, and supervised the servicing of their debts. But it has not performed these functions since 1937 indeed all it has done since then is pay its own staff! The politest thing that can be said of the efforts of most of the other parties concerned in the meantime is that they have considered the matter at a correspondingly leisurely pace: I cannot exempt myself from this.’ 7

The British government asked their French colleagues for their views on the matter and failed to receive a response for over a year. As one British official noted this was ‘fully in keeping with the leisurely fashion in which this appalling and obscure subject has been handled’. 8 This procrastination continued for some time, and an agreement to abolish the IFC was only reached in 1975.

The history of the IFC has, unsurprisingly, been almost entirely forgotten, but the remarkable echoes of the past which can be seen in the events in Greece this year suggest that we should look more closely in the obscure corners of our past.


War Debt Commission [February 9, 1922] - History

The purpose of this FAQ is to answer some of the questions which are asked by people visiting the U.S. National Debt Clock. If you have a question about the Debt Clock which isn't addressed here, please send me an e-mail and I'll do my best to answer it on this page.

Of course, your suggestions are always welcome too!

Ed Hall
[email protected]

A: Here is a pie chart showing the makeup, or ownership, of the National Debt as of December 1998.

As you can see, the largest slice of the pie, over 40%, is owed to the Federal Reserve, the central bank of the United States, and to other government accounts. BTW, The Fed is actually quasi-public (part private, part government) so calling it "part of the government" is not strictly true. You can find out more about The Fed by reading Wikipedia's excellent article.

The remaining 60% of the Debt is privately held by individuals, corporations, states, and foreign governments. As of November 2007, Japan ($580 billion), China ($390 billon) and the United Kingdom ($320 bilion) are the biggest foreign holders of our Debt.

The above chart information is from the June 1999 issue of the "Treasury Bulletin", a quarterly publication of the U.S. Treasury department's Financial Management Service. The Treasury Bulletin is the best place to find the latest information on this subject.

A: The National Debt is the total amount of money owed by the government the federal budget deficit is the yearly amount by which spending exceeds revenue. Add up all the deficits (and subtract those few budget surpluses we've had) for the past 200+ years and you'll get the current National Debt.

Politicians love to crow "The deficit is down! The deficit is down!" like it's a great accomplishment. Don't be fooled. Reducing the deficit just means we're adding less to the Debt this year than we did last year. Big deal -- we're still adding to the Debt. When are we going to start seeing the Debt actually go down?

A: The National Debt on January 1st 1791 was just $75 million dollars. Today, it rises by that amount every hour or so.

The following graph shows how the National Debt has grown year by year since 1940 in actual dollar amounts, uncorrected for inflation:

This data was gathered from the U.S. Treasury department's web site.

From time to time, I've gotten e-mail saying that the above graph is flawed -- it's just showing normal inflation. Well, I took the Debt numbers from the above graph and converted them all to 2000 dollars. Picking a different year would not have changed the shape of the graph below, just its height:

As you can see, except for a rise at the end of World War II, the Debt remained remarkably constant for nearly forty years when inflationary forces are taken into account. After 1983 however, with the notable exception of the Fiscal Years ending in September of 2000 and 2001, the trend has been upward even when inflation is taken into account.

A: On January 15th 2004, the Outstanding Public Debt jumped $13 billion to $7,001,852,607,623.35. This was the first time in history the U.S. National Debt surpassed the $7 trillion mark and came less than two years after the Debt first passed $6 trillion.

As a comparison, the National Debt took over six years to rise from $5 trillion to $6 trillion.

A: As accurate as I can make it! Every business day, the U.S. Treasury department releases new Debt figures for the previous day. I periodically get these figures and use them to adjust the Debt Clock's value so it remains accurate.

I, or rather the CGI code I wrote for the Debt Clock, then calculate the current value of the Debt by a simple linear extrapolation between the recent date's value and the value for the debt about a year previously.

I also get up to date population figures from the Census Department's Population Clock and use this to calculate each person's share of the total debt.

A: Of course! Please do! Just put the following snippet of HTML code of your page and you're all set:

<center>
Visit the <a href="http://www.brillig.com/debt_clock/"><b>U.S. National Debt Clock</b></a><p>
</center>

Thanks for your understanding and your cooperation. Q: What can we do about the Debt?