History Podcasts

A timeline of events in 1963 - History

A timeline of events in 1963 - History

World History 1964ָ

China Explodes A Bomb, Tanzania, Tonkin Gulf Resolution, The Beatles, Civil Right Act, Warren Report, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., President Election, Reports on Smoking, IBM- System 360, Verrazano Bridge

1964 China Explodes A Bomb On October 16, the Chinese exploded their first atomic weapon. The Chinese thereby became the fifth nation to produce the bomb. The US, U.S.S.R., Great Britain and France were the other nuclear powers. China pledged that it would not be the first to use nuclear weapons.
1964 Tanganyika and Zanzibar merge to become Tanzania Zanzibar had become independent in 1963. In January 1964, the predominately Arab government was overthrown by Black nationalists. President Nyerere of Tanganyika suggested that the two countries merge. The suggestion was accepted by Zanzibar, and a new country by the name of Tanzania was born.
1964 Tonkin Gulf Resolution The US Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, which gave the President the authorization to "take all necessary steps and measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States and to prevent further aggression." Following the resolution, American involvement in the war grew rapidly.
1964 The Beatles In America On February 9, 1964, the British rock group the Beatles appeared on the Ed Sullivan Show, introducing their unique sound and stylish appearance to millions of American teenagers. By the week of April 4, the Beatles held the top five slots on the American pop charts.
1964 Civil Right Act of 1964 After a long fight, the Civil Rights legislation of 1964 was passed. It gave the federal government broad powers to fight discrimination of all kinds.
1964 Warren Commission Report The Warren Commission delivered its final report on September 27, 1964. The Commission concluded that President Kennedy's assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, had acted alone. The commission reports were critized by many and are not fully accepted to this day.
1964 Dr. King Receives Nobel Prize Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. became the second African-American to win the Nobel Peace Prize, the first having been Ralph Bunche. King, who was 35 years of age when he received the prize in Oslo, Norway, was the youngest recepient of the prize in history
1964 President Election President Johnson won a handy victory over Senator Goldwater. Senator Johnson came into the election with all the advantages of the incumbency together with latent sympathy from the assasination of JFK. Senator Goldwater's extreme postion on Vietnam, advocating the use of tactical nuclear weapons, and his opposition to Civil Rigths legislation sealed his defeat.
1964 Surgeon General Reports on Smoking The United States Surgeon General issued a report in which it was reported that cigarrette smoking posed a clear health danger to smokers. Thus began a concerted effort to reduce smoking in the United States.
1964 IBM Introduced System 360 International Business Machines (IBM) introduced the system 360 Comptuter. The computer, which was a second generation computer based on transistors, was a huge success, and became the mainstay computer of many businesses for many years.
1964 Verrazano Bridge Opened The Verrazano Bridge, linking Brooklyn and Staten Island, was completed. It was the longest suspension bridge in the world when it was opened.

Timeline: 1964

Jan 9 US high school students in the Panama Canal Zone violate an order banning the flying of any flag. A scuffle between US and Panamanian students ensues and escalates. Anti-US rioting erupts in the zone. Twenty-one Panamanians and four US soldiers are killed.

Jan 10 Panama severs relations with the US and demands revision of the Canal Treaty.

Jan 17 A loose confederation of fourteen Arab countries &ndash the Arab League &ndash meets in Egypt and creates the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). Its charter claims that Israel is an illegal state and pledges "the elimination of Zionism in Palestine."

Jan 30 In a bloodless coup, General Nguyen Khanh takes over as Saigon's ruler. He had been a military officer with the French, fighting for French colonialism against his countrymen's desire for independence.

Feb 1 President Johnson says that he sees no chance of negotiating peace for Southeast Asia as proposed by President de Gaulle.

Feb 7 The Beatles land in New York, making their debut in the United States. Their record, I Want to Hold Your Hand" is a best seller.

Feb 10 The US House of Representatives votes on and passes the Civil Rights Act that had been sent to Congress by President Kennedy in June 1963.

Feb 26 Saigon's forces (ARVN) surround the Viet Cong and keep their distance, hitting the Viet Cong instead with air strikes and artillery. The Viet Cong slips away. General Khanh is displeased and sacks five of his division commanders.

Mar 8 Malcolm X has broken with Elijah Mohammad's Nation of Islam. He believes in the separation of races and announces that he is forming a Black Nationalist Party.

Mar 13 In Queens, New York, residents fail to respond to the cries of Kitty Genovese, 28, as she is being stabbed to death.

Mar -- This month's issue of Playboy publishes an interview with Ayn Rand, who says, "I consider the Birch Society futile, because they are not for capitalism but merely against communism . I gather they believe that the disastrous state of today's world is caused by a communist conspiracy. This is childishly naive and superficial. No country can be destroyed by a mere conspiracy, it can be destroyed only by ideas."

Apr 3 The US and Panama agree to resume diplomatic relations

Apr 4 In Brazil, landowners and industrialists have been unhappy with reformist President Joao Goulart. He is driven from power in a bloodless military coup, ending reforms called for by the Alliance for Progress and starting 21 years of dictatorship. US. Ambassador Lincoln Gordon will admit US encouragement to the plotters and that during the coup the US Navy stood off the coast. Aid will flow to the new government of Brazil that was denied to Goulart's government.

Apr 19 Malcolm X is in Mecca meeting devout Muslims of different races. He has softened, believing that racial barriers can be overcome and that Islam is the religion that can do it.

May 2 Four hundred to 1,000 students march through Times Square, New York, and another 700 in San Francisco, in the first major student demonstration against the Vietnam War. Smaller marches also occur in Boston, Seattle, and in Madison, Wisconsin.

May 14 In Egypt, Nikita Khrushchev joins President Nasser in setting off charges, diverting the Nile River from the site of the Aswan High Dam project.

May 22 President Johnson speaks to a graduating class and presents his idea for a "Great Society."

May 25 The Supreme Court rules that closing schools to avoid desegregation is unconstitutional.

May 27 The US has 16,000 military people in Vietnam, and so far 266 of its forces there have been killed. In a taped conversation, President Lyndon Johnson says to his national security advisor, McGeorge Bundy: "I don't think it's worth fighting for, and I don't think we can get out . What in the hell is Vietnam worth to me? What is Laos worth to me? What is it worth to this country?"

Jun 2 Governor Nelson Rockefeller has been considered the front runner among Republicans for the presidency. In the California primary he has been attacking Goldwater as too dangerous, and Goldwater has attacked Rockefeller's morality. Social conservatives have been offended by Rockefeller's divorce and remarriage in 1963. Republican voters choose Goldwater by a margin of less than 3 percent, ensuring Goldwater's nomination at the upcoming Republican convention.

Jun 3 In Seoul, Korea, an estimated 10,000 student demonstrators over-power the police. President Park Chung Hee declares martial law.

Jun 5 In Seoul, student demonstrations continue, and demonstrations erupt in eleven other cities. The students, it is said, are impatient and frustrated concerning the country's economic misery. President Chung Hee Park accepts the resignation of his right-hand man, Kim Chong Pil, to placate student opinion.

Jun 12 President Chung Hee Park's ruling Democratic Republican party and opposition politicians agree to form a 24-man committee to solve problems resulting from student demonstrations.

Jun 12 In South Africa, Nelson Mandela and seven others are sentenced to life imprisonment and sent to Robben Island prison.

Jun 15 The last of France's military leaves Algeria.

Jun 19 The Senate votes on and passes the Civil Rights Act. Senator Goldwater is one of only six Republican senators who votes against the bill.

Jun 20 General Westmoreland succeeds General Paul Harkins as head of the US forces in Vietnam.

Jun 21 A summer of civil rights activities are underway in the South. Three civil rights workers, Michael Schwerner, Andrew Goodman and James Chaney are murdered near Philadelphia, Mississippi, by law enforcement officials. The governor of Mississippi, Paul Johnson, offers little help and dismisses fears that the three have been murdered. He says, "Maybe they went to Cuba," suggesting the Communist tie that was commonly used to discredit the civil rights movement in the South. Johnson is moderate for a white Mississippian regarding race, but conformism involved in appealing to voters led him in a 1963 to criticize advocacy of civil rights for blacks and to indentify the NAACP as standing for: "Niggers, alligators, apes, coons, and possums." ( Time, August 16, 1963 )

Jun 25 The Vatican condemns use of the contraceptive pill for females.

Jul 2 President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act into Law.

Jul 6 Malawi declares its independence from Britain.

Jul 13 In San Francisco, the Republican Convention's party platform reads: "Humanity is tormented once again by an age-old issue &ndash is man to live in dignity and freedom under God or be enslaved -- are men in government to serve, or are they to master their fellow men?" The platform accuses the Johnson Administration of seeking "accommodation with Communism without adequate safeguards and compensating gains for freedom." It describes the Democrats of having "collaborated with Indonesian imperialism by helping it to acquire territory belonging to the Netherlands and control over the Papuan people." And it states that "This Administration has refused to take practical free enterprise measures to help the poor."

Jul 14 At the podium at the Republican convention, Governor Nelson Rockefeller of New York is booed extensively when he denounces extremism.

Jul 16 Senator Barry Goldwater wins the nomination for president on the first ballot.

Jul 18 In Harlem, New York, six days of rioting begins. According to the New York Times, thousands of blacks "race through the center of Harlem shouting at policemen and white people, pulling fire alarms, breaking windows and looting stores." Whites had moved out of Harlem by 1950 and by 1960 middle class blacks had followed.

Jul 19 In Harlem, Jesse Gray, leader of a rent strike, calls for "100 skilled black revolutionaries who are ready to die" to correct "the police brutality situation in Harlem."

Jul 21 Five days of race riots erupt in Singapore. It begins with Malays commemorating the Prophet Mohammad's birthday with a march. A few marchers respond in anger to a policeman ordering some to return to the ranks of the marchers. Marchers attack Chinese passersby and spectators. Retaliations against Muslims follow.

Jul 27 From the US, 5,000 more military "advisers" are sent to South Vietnam, bringing their total in Vietnam to 21,000.

Aug 1 The Republic of the Congo, formerly the Belgian Congo, changes its name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Aug 2 North Vietnamese torpedo boats retaliate against ships involved in attacks on a radio transmitter on the island of Hon Ngu off the coast of North Vietnam, in the Tonkin Gulf. The torpedo boats approach the US destroyer Maddox, which sinks two of the torpedo boats and damages a third.

Aug 4 On the USS Maddox, in the dark of night, an "overeager sonar man," to be described as such by the ship's captain, mistakenly believes that his ship is under attack again. For two hours the Maddox and another destroyer, the USS Turner Joy, fire at imaginary targets. Air support from two US aircraft carriers are sent on a retaliatory mission against targets on Vietnam's coast. President Johnson speaks to the American public about "deliberate attacks on US naval vessels" and his retaliation and adds that "we must and shall honor our commitments."

Aug 6 In a meeting with US legislators, Defense Secretary McNamara gives a distorted description of US naval activities in the Tonkin Gulf.

Aug 7 US congressmen and senators vote in favor of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution, giving President Johnson powers in lieu of a declaration of war. The vote in the House of Representatives is 416 to 0, in the Senate 88 to 2.

Aug 11 Since the rioting in Harlem, trouble has been expected in Paterson, New Jersey. According to one report "carousing teenagers in the slum Fourth Ward began pelting passing police cars with bottles and rocks. Soon hundreds of Negroes were racing through the streets, smashing windows and hurling debris at police."

Aug 12 Twenty miles south of Paterson, in Elizabeth, New Jersey, rioting erupts. People pitch Molotov cocktails into three taverns, and soon, a report says, "hundreds of Negroes were flinging bottles and bricks from rooftops and street corners."

Aug 21 In Saigon, students and Buddhist militants begin a series of escalating protests against the General Khanh's regime. General Khan brings in others to share power. People unhappy with the US backed regime are encouraged, and mob violence erupts.

Aug 22 At the Democratic Party's convention, Fannie Lou Hammer, representing the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, challenges the all-white Mississippi delegation. Johnson hurridly calls a press conference to tell reporters things they already know, to get the television cameras off Ms Hamer, and this succeeds, but the networks will rebroadcast her speech repeatedly, with Hamer in an electrifying speech, asking that her delegation be seated to represent MIssissippi. Johnson calls Hamer an "ignorant woman." He needs to compromise with southern whites in order to get civil rights and other legislation passed. Humphrey and labor leader Walther Reuther help sway the Democrats to side with Johnson. There will be no seating of the Mississippi Freedom delegation.

Aug 28-30 In predominately black neighborhoods on the north side of Philadelphia, well-publicized allegations of police brutality have created unrest. Two policemen, one white, one black, try to remove a black woman from her car after she refuses to cooperate with them. Rumors spread that a pregnant black woman has been beaten to death by white cops. Three days of rioting follow, with mobs looting and burning mostly white-owned stores. 341 are injured and 774 arrested.

Sep 1 "Freedom Summer" in Mississippi is drawing to a close. White Mississippians fear what will happen if civil rights including the right to vote are extended to blacks. They remain opposed to the freedom schools that have advanced literacy and delighted blacks. There have been 35 shootings incidents, 6 murders of activists, 80 beatings and 65 houses and chuches burned.

Sep 4 At the University of California at Berkeley, students have returned from summer vacation, some of them from civil rights activities in the South. US Senator William Knowland's newspaper, the Oakland Tribune, is picketed by a civil rights group that organizes on campus.

Sep 14 On the Berkeley campus, Dean Katherine Towle bans posters, easels and tables on campus and reminds student groups of prohibitions against collecting funds or using university facilities in planning or implementing off-campus political and social action.

Sep 17 Some twenty student activist organizations form a coalition to oppose the regulations announced by Dean Towle. The "Free Speech Movement" is born.

Sep 21 Malta becomes independent from Britain.

Sep 27 The Warren Commission Report is released. It concludes that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in the assassination of President Kennedy.

Oct 1 Campaigning for the presidency in Hammond, Indiana, Senator Goldwater promises his audience that he will liberate Eastern Europe, and he tells them that only victory can end Communism.

Oct 1 A Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) volunteer, Jack Weinberg, sitting at a table on the Berkeley campus, is put into a police car by campus police. A crowd growing to about 3,000 surround the police car. Mario Savio, fresh from civil rights activities in the South, climbs on top the police car after respectfully removing his shoes, and he makes a speech.

Oct 2 Approximately 450 policemen rescue the police car, book and then release Jack Weinberg. Student activists take up a collection to repair the police car's dented roof.

Oct 13 Nikita Khrushchev returns from a vacation and finds that members of the Presidium (formerly the Politburo) have called a special meeting. Its members vote to send him into retirement. Khrushchev will be given a pension and watched closely by the KGB. His successor as Premier will be Alexei Kosygin and as Communist Party First Secretary will be Leonid Brezhnev.

Oct 13 The Soviet Union has spectacular success launching a three-man spacecraft that returns after 24 hours. N

Oct 15 President Johnson says if he is elected he will take important new steps to reduce world tensions.

Oct 16 China explodes an atomic bomb in Sinkiang province.

Oct 16 In his first major campaign speech on civil rights, Goldwater declares that "forced integration is just as wrong as forced segregation."

Oct 16 Former Vice President Richard M. Nixon says that a Johnson administration would be "a sitting duck" for the ruthless and tough-minded leaders who have replaced Nikita Khrushchev.

Oct. 20 Goldwater describes Johnson's foreign policy as a "policy of drift, deception and defeat."

Oct 21 Campaigning for re-election in Akron, Ohio, President Johnson says "[We] are not about to send American boys nine to ten thousand miles away from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves."

Oct 22 Jean Paul Sartre, French philosopher and novelist, declines the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Oct 23 The Republic National Chairman, Dean Burch, says that a private Republican poll shows that Senator Goldwater leads President Johnson in electoral votes, 261 to 258.

Oct 24 Goldwater repudiates his campaign film, "Choice," which contends that social "rot" is undermining American society.

Oct 27 A speech by Ronald Reagan is broadcast on television for the Goldwater campaign. Reagan tells of switching from Democrat to "another course." He complains about tax burdens and he asks whether a "little intellectual elite in a far-distant capital can plan our lives for us better than we can plan them ourselves." The speech enhances his standing in the Republican Party.

Nov 1 A pre-dawn mortar assault by the Viet Cong at the Vien Hoa air base, 12 miles north of Saigon, kills five Americans, two South Vietnamese and wounds nearly one hundred others. President Johnson dismisses recommendations for a retaliatory air strike against North Vietnam.

Nov. 1 Senator Barry Goldwater says that the attack on Bienhoa airbase shows that the United States is involved in an undeclared war. He adds that it is "high time" for the president to speak frankly about it to the people.

Nov 2 A radio program titled "Goldwater's New World," creates a minor panic among listeners in the Netherlands.

Nov 3 It is election day. Goldwater carries only Arizona and five segregated states of the deep South, from Louisiana east to South Carolina, excluding Florida. Johnson is re-elected with 61 percent of the vote. The Democrats win both the Senate and the House of Representatives. Robert Kennedy wins the race for US Senator from New York.

Nov 4 Lenny Bruce, stand up comic, is arrested in New York City for using "bad language" in one of his routines.

Nov 9 In Britain, the House Commons abolishes the death penalty for murder.

Nov 18 Martin Luther King has accused FBI agents in Georgia of failing to act on complaints filed by blacks. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover retaliates, describing King as "the most notorious liar in the country."

Nov 24 In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Belgian paratroopers liberate around 1,600 Europeans who had been taken hostage by a rebel army in early August.

Nov 29 In the US, the Catholic Church changes its liturgy, including the use of English rather than Latin.

Dec 2-3 The chancellor at U.C. Berkeley has refused to drop plans to discipline "Free Speech Movement" leaders. More than 500 students stage an overnight sit-in takeover of the campus administration building. California's governor, Pat Brown, a liberal Democrat, gives a deputy Alameda district attorney permission to bring in off-campus police: sheriff's deputies and officers from the Highway Patrol. Removing the students is a job made harder by the students refusing to cooperate and made easier by dragging them down flights of stairs, bumpety bumpety bump, to waiting police vans. Students on their way to class that next morning are appalled by the site of fellow students being manhandled, and liberal faculty members are also appalled.

Dec 18 The University of California Regents affirm that university rules should follow the US Supreme Court decisions on free speech.

Dec 20-21 Another military coup occurs in Saigon, led by Nguyen Cao Ky and Nguyen Van Thieu, which keeps General Khanh as part of the new government. US Ambassador Taylor reacts with anger, summons the young officers to the US embassy and tells them he is "tired of coups." General Khanh retaliates, saying that the US is reverting to "colonialism" in its treatment of South Vietnam.


Timeline – 1963 – Economic History

As a field of academic inquiry in the U.S., economic history was the interdisciplinary child of the Great Merger movement (1895-1904). Economic historians—at the UW and elsewhere—were found in both economics and history departments. Encompassing an array of now separate fields (business, technology, labor, agriculture, economic history), economic history was integral to the larger discipline of history.

UW-Madison emerged as a prominent center for economic history, nationally and internationally. By 1964, a Graduate Program in Economic History had been established, and the History Department’s course listings in 1964-1966 Course Catalog included a new category, Economic History, with eighteen courses.

Austerity in the 1970s and the growing inaccessibility of the field to historians (as economic historians increasingly employed the tools of economists) saw the UW’s stature in the field decline.

Sources: Jeffrey G. Williamson, “The Rise and Fall of Economic History at Wisconsin,” in Economists at Wisconsin: 1892-1992, ed. Robert J. Lampman (1993), 205-209 UW Course Catalog, 1964-1966 (pdf), 188-189.


Idi Amin years

1971 - Milton Obote toppled in coup led by Army chief Idi Amin.

1972 - Amin orders Asians who were not Ugandan citizens - around 60,000 people - to leave the country.

1972-73 - Uganda engages in border clashes with Tanzania.

1976 - Idi Amin declares himself president for life and claims parts of Kenya.

1978 - Uganda invades Tanzania with a view to annexing Kagera region.

1979 - Tanzania invades Uganda, unifying the various anti-Amin forces under the Uganda National Liberation Front and forcing Amin to flee the country Yusufu Lule installed as president, but is quickly replaced by Godfrey Binaisa.

1980 - Binaisa overthrown by the army.

Milton Obote becomes president after elections.

1985 - Obote deposed in military coup and is replaced by Tito Okello.

1986 - National Resistance Army rebels take Kampala and install Yoweri Museveni as president.


December 1943: Parks joins the Montgomery branch of the NAACP

As the only woman at her first meeting, she is named secretary of the group. Parks&apos work for the NAACP will also include investigating crimes against Black people such as murder, assaults and police brutality.  

Parks attempts to register to vote but is told she failed the literacy test required of Black voters.

September 1944: Recy Taylor, a Black woman, is gang-raped by six white men. The Montgomery NAACP dispatches Parks to investigate the case.  

Parks helps establish the Committee for Equal Justice for the Rights of Mrs. Recy Taylor to advocate for legal action against Taylor&aposs assailants. The case becomes national news but the rapists are never convicted.

Photo: ©HBO Documentary Films/Courtesy Everett Collection

1945: After taking the required literacy test for a third time, Parks becomes a registered voter. Yet before she can cast a ballot, she must pay a retroactive poll tax of $1.50 for every year since she reached the voting age of 21.

1948: Parks becomes the Alabama state secretary for the NAACP.

1949: Parks steps back as NAACP secretary to take care of her mother.

1952: Parks returns to the Montgomery NAACP and once more becomes a branch secretary.

August 1955: Parks attends a two-week training session at the Highlander Folk School in Tennessee. Alongside other civil rights activists, both Black and white, she discusses how to integrate schools following the Supreme Court&aposs Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954.


The Life of Whitney Houston: A Timeline (Aug. 9, 1963-Feb. 11, 2012)

Michael Caulfield/WireImage.com

Pop-music icon Whitney Houston shockingly and tragically passed away Saturday at the Beverly Hilton hotel, on the eve of the 54th annual Grammy Awards. While fans and artists alike pay tribute to the singer via Twitter and Facebook, E! takes a look back at the ups and downs of the legendary singer's life.

Aug. 9, 1963: Whitney Elizabeth Houston is born in Newark, New Jersey to mother Cissy Houston, a noted gospel singer, and Army serviceman and entertainment exec John Russell Houston Jr.

1977: At the tender age of 14 Whitney becomes a backup singer on the Michael Zager Band's single "Life's a Party." Zager offers her a recording contact, but her mother Cissy rejects the offer, wanting Whitney to finish school first.

1979: At 15, Whitney Houston sings background vocals on Chaka Khan's smash "I'm Every Woman"—the jam she would later turn into a monster hit for herself on the acclaimed soundtrack album to The Bodyguard.

1980: Whitney's not only an in-demand singer, she's a looker as well. The singer begins modeling after being spotted by a photographer at Carnegie Hall. Whitney is featured in Seventeen magazine, becoming one of the first women of color to grace the mag's cover.

1983: After being spotted by Gerry Griffith, an A&R rep from Arista Records, the label's head Clive Davis offers Houston a worldwide recording contract. The rest, as they say, is history.

Feb. 14, 1985: Whitney's self-titled debut album drops. Her single "How Will I Know" hits number one and its video introduces Houston to the MTV generation—making her the first African-American female artist to receive consistent heavy rotation on MTV.

1986: Whitney's album hits No. 1 on Billboard's year-end charts, making her the first female artist to earn that distinction. Oh, and her debut disc also wins her a Grammy and is dubbed Best Album of 1986 by Rolling Stone.


The Night Gwen Stacy Died

When: 9 to 13 years ago (published 1971-1973)
Peter’s Age: about 19 years old.

After Gwen returns from London following the death of her father, she and Peter begin to get serious (when not interrupted by growing four extra arms!). MJ and Harry, however, don’t gel, which leads to his drug problem and then the return of his father as the Green Goblin.

A battle between Green Goblin and Spider-Man results in the death of a kidnapped Gwen Stacy, who Spider-Man just fails to catch in time from her plummet for the George Washington Bridge. Norman Osborn, the Green Goblin, meets his demise soon after.

Amazing Spider-Man #96 BUY Return of the Green Goblin, MJ flirts with Peter
Amazing Spider-Man #97 BUY Return of the Green Goblin, MJ dumps Harry, Harry overdoses
Amazing Spider-Man #98 BUY Return of the Green Goblin, Gwen returns from London
Amazing Spider-Man #100 BUY Six Arm Saga
Amazing Spider-Man #101 BUY Six Arm Saga, 1st Morbius, Lizard
Amazing Spider-Man #102 BUY Six Arm Saga
Amazing Spider-Man #121 BUY Green Goblin, Death of Gwen Stacy
Amazing Spider-Man #122 BUY Green Goblin, Death of Gwen Stacy
Amazing Spider-Man #123 BUY Gwen’s Funeral


DECtape

DECtape is introduced. It was a modification of DEC’s earlier LINCtape, and as a reliable and inexpensive storage medium was used in several generations of DEC minicomputers. The ¾-inch tape was widely thought to be an improvement over paper tape and part of its reliability stemmed from the fact that it was laminated and the magnetic part of the tape was sandwiched between two layers of mylar. DECtape was often used as a form of personal data storage, as the small reels could be easily hand-carried.

Ivan Sutherland using Sketchpad


Lincoln Memorial

“With malice toward none, with charity for all we dedicate ourselves and our posterity, with you and yours, to finish the work which he so nobly began, to make America an example for all the world of equal justice and equal opportunity for all.”

Robert Russo Moton,
Address at the Lincoln Memorial dedication, May 30, 1922

A National Stage for Civil Rights
The Lincoln Memorial was built in 1922 to heal national divisions caused by the Civil War. Yet for many, Lincoln’s promise of freedom remained incomplete. Over the next half century, the looming figure of Abraham Lincoln witnessed a number of events and demonstrations that reinforced the memorial’s importance as a symbolic space for civil rights movements.

Dedication of the Lincoln Memorial
On May 30, 1922, a large crowd gathered for the dedication of the Lincoln Memorial. The seating, like much of Washington, was segregated by race, yet the organizers chose Dr. Robert Russo Moton, President of Tuskegee Institute, as the keynote speaker. Addressing the mostly white crowd, Moton delivered the first of what would be many civil rights speeches at the memorial. He challenged the audience to consider Lincoln’s call for a “new birth of freedom.” From that day forward, the Lincoln Memorial became a national gathering place for groups demanding racial and social justice.

Dedication Ceremony Programs

National Museum of American History

Marian Anderson Concert
In a direct challenge to segregation, Marian Anderson performed at the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday in 1939. The Daughters of the American Revolution had barred her from singing in Washington’s Constitution Hall. In response, a broad coalition of civil rights advocates, with support from Eleanor Roosevelt and Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, organized a concert on the steps of the memorial. More than 75,000 people attended the performance, and millions more listened to the live radio broadcast. Anderson opened by pointedly singing “My Country Tis of Thee, Sweet Land of Liberty.” The concert lasted less than an hour, but it honored Anderson’s talents as a black artist and forever fixed the Lincoln Memorial as a symbolic shrine to civil rights.

Marian Anderson Concert at the Lincoln Memorial

National Museum of American History, photographs by Robert Scurlock

"Nobody expects ten thousand Negroes to get together and march anywhere for anything at any time. In common parlance, they are supposed ot be just scared and unorganizable. Is this true? I contend it is not."

A. Philip Randolph
February 6, 1941

1941 March on Washington
As the nation prepared for World War II, A. Philip Randolph, President of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, called for a mass protest on July 1, 1941, to end discrimination in government defense industries. Randolph worked with local organizers to mobilize African American communities and estimated that as many as 100,000 participants had committed themselves to march down Pennsylvania Avenue to the Lincoln Memorial.

Just six days before the demonstration, President Franklin Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802, establishing the Fair Employment Practice Committee and prohibiting discrimination in defense industries. Randolph canceled the protest, and Roosevelt’s concessions established the precedent that the federal government had a responsibility to address racial discrimination among government contractors.

Button for the 1941 March

National Museum of American History, gift of Rita Jaros

1957 Prayer Pilgrimage
In 1957, civil rights leaders called for a demonstration at the Lincoln Memorial to coincide with the third anniversary of the Supreme Court decision in Brown v Board of Education. Organizers were determined to protest the lack of progress in desegregating schools, draw attention to the deteriorating economic conditions of blacks in the South, and push for new civil rights legislation. More than 25,000 people attended the rally on May 17, making it the largest civil rights demonstration in the nation’s capital. It also served as a training ground for the organizers of the 1963 march, including A. Philip Randolph, Bayard Rustin, Martin Luther King Jr., and Roy Wilkins.


Taliban offensives

2015 May - Taliban representatives and Afghan officials hold informal peace talks in Qatar. Both sides agree to continue the talks at a later date, though the Taliban insist they will not stop fighting until all foreign troops leave the country.

2015 July - Taliban admits that reclusive founder, Mullah Omar, died a few years ago, and appoints Mullah Akhter Mansour as his replacement.

2015 September - Taliban briefly capture major northern city of Kunduz in their most significant advance since being forced from power in 2001.

2015 October - Powerful earthquake kills more than 80 people in northeast of country.

2015 October - US President Barack Obama announces that 9,800 US troops will remain in Afghanistan until the end of 2016, backtracking on an earlier pledge to pull all but 1,000 troops from the country.

2015 November - A new Taliban splinter group, headed by Mullah Rasool, announces its presence in southern Afghanistan. However, the group is totally crushed by the mainstream Taliban by spring 2016.

2015 December - Taliban make bid to capture Sangin, a town and district in Helmand Province. US warplanes deploy in support of Afghan security forces' attempt to repel insurgents.

2015 December - NATO extends its "Resolute Support" follow-on mission by 12 months to the end of 2016.

2016 - Over one million Afghans are on the go during the year, either due to internal displacement because of the war, or are forced to repatriate by Pakistan, Iran and the European Union, according to the United Nations.

Heavy US air strikes reverse Islamic State's gains in the east, and the group is cornered in a few districts in Nangarhar.

2016 May - New Taliban leader Mullah Mansour is killed in a US drone attack in Pakistan's Baluchestan province.

2016 July - US President Barack Obama says 8,400 US troops will remain in Afghanistan into 2017 in light of the "precarious security situation". NATO also agrees to maintain troop numbers and reiterates a funding pledge for local security forces until 2020.

2016 August to October - Taliban advance to the outskirts of Lashkar Gah, the capital of Helmand, and to the northern city of Kunduz. The group has brought much of the two provinces under its control since the bulk of NATO forces withdrew by end of 2014.

2016 September - The Afghan government signs a peace agreement with the militant group Hezb-e-Islami and grants immunity to the group's leader, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.

2017 January - A bomb attack in Kandahar kills six UAE diplomats.

2017 February - Rise in Islamic State activities reported in a number of northern and southern provinces.

2017 March - Thirty people are killed and more than 50 wounded in an attack by so-called Islamic State on a military hospital in Kabul.

2017 June - Islamic State militants capture the mountainous region of Tora Bora in Nangarhar province, which was formerly used as a base by the late al-Qaeda leader Osama Bin Laden.

2017 August - US President Donald Trump says he's sending more troops to fight a resurgent Taliban.

2018 January - Bomb-laden ambulance explodes in Kabul, killing more than 100 people. It is one of ongoing attacks attributed to the Taliban.

2019 September - Protracted peace talks between the Taliban and the United States break down.