1588 To 1598 was a decade of crisis for Spain. Philip's overseas adventures and foreign policy were crippling Spain's economy. The disastrous Spanish Armada had cost 10 million ducats but was only meant to have cost 3.5 million. By 1595, Philip was spending 12 million ducats a year - he spent money as if he had a never ending supply.
Irma Grese, a notorious SS guard at Auschwitz-Birkenau and Belsen, was probably Nazi Germany's most infamous female war criminal of World War Two. In all the death/concentration camps in which she worked, Grese gained a reputation for brutality against those held in any of the camps she worked in. At Auschwitz-Birkenau, she held the rank of Senior SS-Supervisor (Oberraufseherin) and was in charge of the 30,000 female prisoners held there.
Franz Stangl was the commandant at Treblinka when the camp was turned from a place where incompetence abounded to where efficiency was the key - all turned around by Franz Stangl. Treblinka was to be a camp where murder took place on a vast scale - and Stangl oversaw this. At the end of the war, Stangl was arrested but he managed to conceal his true identity and he was released from custody in 1947.
Felix Dzerzhinsky Felix Dzerzhinsky was the first head of the feared Cheka, the first name given to post-revolutionary Russia's secret police force. Dzerzhinsky was born on September 11 th 1877 and died on July 20 th 1926. For all the power Dzerzhinsky wielded in the Cheka, he actually joined the Bolshevik Party quite late in his life.
Bolshevik Land Reforms Land reform was very important to the Bolsheviks. Support from the peasants was needed if the fragile Bolshevik government was going to survive - hence why they agreed that they would hand over control of the land to the peasants in the form of state collective farms. The Provisional Government had failed to do address the land issue and what the Bolsheviks offered to the peasants, while not completely acceptable, was better than having no input on what land could be used for.
The Second Duma After the First Duma was dissolved, the leading party in it, the Kadets, retreated to Finland, as they had been the party most vocal in their criticism of the government. In Finland, they issued the Vyborg Manifesto. This called on Russians to: 1) Refuse to pay taxes 2) Refuse to join the army 3) Support civil disobedience However, the Kadets had done nothing to organise the workers so that these could be fulfilled.
Ghettoes were places in Poland and other areas of Nazi-occupied Europe where Jews and other 'untermenschen' were forced into by the Nazis during World War Two. Found in major cities or large towns the most infamous ghettoes in Poland were found in Warsaw, Lodz and Bialystok. Life in ghettoes was very hard and difficult and few survived by the end of the war.
The Russo Japanese War The Russo-Japanese War was a disaster for Russia in many senses - not just military. The Russo-Japanese War showed up Russia as it was - as a nation living on past glories and blind to the chronic problems that were developing in agriculture and industry. The concept of diverting your people's attention away from difficult domestic issues with a successful war is nothing new.
Russia and Agriculture Agriculture was a major component of Russia's economy for many decades leading up to 1917. Even with industrialisation, the majority of Russians were peasants working the land. To remain in power, the Romanovs had to keep the peasants on their side. In 1861, Alexander II had emancipated the serfs.
In September 1942 Chaim Rumkowski, the head of the Jewish Council of the Lodz Ghetto, was ordered by the Nazis to round up the children of the ghetto in preparation for their deportation. The children were all aged 10 years or under. Some believed that his compliance of this order was proof of his status as a Nazi collaborator.
The profiles of people in prison and the crimes they have committed have long fascinated sociologists. Many people have their own assumptions of what a criminal looks like, how he/she behaves, what background they have etc. This belief that you can 'tell' a criminal just by looking at him/her goes back to the work of Lombroso who studied criminals in the C19th.
Colditz achieved fame after World War Two as the prisoner of war camp that no-one could escape from. Colditz was an isolated castle built on top of a cliff and overlooking the River Mude in central Germany. To all intents it was seemingly impossible to escape from - so the Germans believed. However, this did not mean that men did not try to do so and by putting together the best escapees from POW camps, the Germans effectively made a problem for themselves.
Questions of ethnicity and gender were barely looked at by sociologists of crime and deviance until the 1970's. Prior to this, the primary focus was on class. Since the 1970's, sociologists have recognised the need to examine ethnicity and gender. In the early phase of post-war immigration, there was an assumption that members of ethnic minority groups were no more likely to be offenders or victims than the majority white population.
Is one social group more involved in crime than other social groups? If so, what predisposes one social group to be more criminal than another? Many theories of crime are based on partly on official statistics provided by the police, courts and the government. In countries like Britain and the USA these show that some groups are more involved in crime than others.
Changi was one of the more notorious Japanese prisoner of war camps. Changi was used to imprison Malayan civilians and Allied soldiers. The treatment of POW's at Changi was harsh but fitted in with the belief held by the Japanese Imperial Army that those who had surrendered to it were guilty of dishonouring their country and family and, as such, deserved to be treated in no other way.
German POW's captured in campaigns in Western Europe, were held in Allied POW camps. These came under the inspection of the Red Cross and all the evidence suggests that German POW's held in Western Europe were well treated - accommodation was adequate as was food. The Red Cross took care of communicating with families.
Green crime is defined as crime against the environment. Green crime is linked to globalisation and the idea of transnational boundaries. Regardless of the division of nation states, the planet is one unified eco-system which is global rather than local. Therefore, green crime goes beyond political borders.
The Long Range Desert Group was formed by Ralph Bagnold in 1940 and played a major part in the Allies victory in North Africa in World War Two. The Long Range Desert Group (LRDG) became the forward eyes and ears of the Allies and together with the Special Air Service played a secretive but vital role for the Allies.
Michel Foucault was born in Poitiers, France, on October 15, 1926. From the 1970's on, Foucault was very active politically. He was a founder of the ' Groupe d'information sur les prisons' and often protested on behalf of homosexuals and other marginalized groups. An early victim of AIDS, Foucault died in Paris on June 25, 1984.
Extraordinary rendition is the kidnapping of an individual wanted for questioning and the transporting of that individual to a country that uses torture - be it physical, mental or emotional - to gain information. Extraordinary rendition was used by US agents after 9/11 and the 'War on Terror' declared by President G W Bush.
The Criminal Justice System (CJS) cannot work without the support of the community. In particular, victims and witnesses play a vital part in the justice process. If crimes aren't reported, offenders can't be brought to justice. Support and advice is available to victims and witnesses whether or not they report crime, but if they do come forward their information could make a big difference in bringing a criminal to justice.